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1.  Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination 
Advances in Virology  2014;2014:720585.
In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV). Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations.
doi:10.1155/2014/720585
PMCID: PMC3980782  PMID: 24778651
2.  Ancient pathogen DNA in archaeological samples detected with a Microbial Detection Array 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4245.
Ancient human remains of paleopathological interest typically contain highly degraded DNA in which pathogenic taxa are often minority components, making sequence-based metagenomic characterization costly. Microarrays may hold a potential solution to these challenges, offering a rapid, affordable, and highly informative snapshot of microbial diversity in complex samples without the lengthy analysis and/or high cost associated with high-throughput sequencing. Their versatility is well established for modern clinical specimens, but they have yet to be applied to ancient remains. Here we report bacterial profiles of archaeological and historical human remains using the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA). The array successfully identified previously-verified bacterial human pathogens, including Vibrio cholerae (cholera) in a 19th century intestinal specimen and Yersinia pestis (“Black Death” plague) in a medieval tooth, which represented only minute fractions (0.03% and 0.08% alignable high-throughput shotgun sequencing reads) of their respective DNA content. This demonstrates that the LLMDA can identify primary and/or co-infecting bacterial pathogens in ancient samples, thereby serving as a rapid and inexpensive paleopathological screening tool to study health across both space and time.
doi:10.1038/srep04245
PMCID: PMC3945050  PMID: 24603850
3.  Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in Complex Soil and Air Samples Using Next-Generation Sequencing 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73455.
Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073455
PMCID: PMC3767809  PMID: 24039948
4.  Microarrays for Pathogen Detection and Analysis 
Briefings in Functional Genomics  2011;10(6):342-353.
DNA microarrays have emerged as a viable platform for detection of pathogenic organisms in clinical and environmental samples. These microbial detection arrays occupy a middle ground between low cost, narrowly focused assays such as multiplex PCR and more expensive, broad-spectrum technologies like high-throughput sequencing. While pathogen detection arrays have been used primarily in a research context, several groups are aggressively working to develop arrays for clinical diagnostics, food safety testing, environmental monitoring and biodefense. Statistical algorithms that can analyze data from microbial detection arrays and provide easily interpretable results are absolutely required in order for these efforts to succeed. In this article, we will review the most promising array designs and analysis algorithms that have been developed to date, comparing their strengths and weaknesses for pathogen detection and discovery.
doi:10.1093/bfgp/elr027
PMCID: PMC3245552  PMID: 21930658
microarrays; pathogens; genomics
5.  The Microbial Detection Array Combined with Random Phi29-Amplification Used as a Diagnostic Tool for Virus Detection in Clinical Samples 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e22631.
A common technique used for sensitive and specific diagnostic virus detection in clinical samples is PCR that can identify one or several viruses in one assay. However, a diagnostic microarray containing probes for all human pathogens could replace hundreds of individual PCR-reactions and remove the need for a clear clinical hypothesis regarding a suspected pathogen. We have established such a diagnostic platform for random amplification and subsequent microarray identification of viral pathogens in clinical samples. We show that Phi29 polymerase-amplification of a diverse set of clinical samples generates enough viral material for successful identification by the Microbial Detection Array, demonstrating the potential of the microarray technique for broad-spectrum pathogen detection. We conclude that this method detects both DNA and RNA virus, present in the same sample, as well as differentiates between different virus subtypes. We propose this assay for diagnostic analysis of viruses in clinical samples.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022631
PMCID: PMC3154197  PMID: 21853040
6.  A microbial detection array (MDA) for viral and bacterial detection 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:668.
Background
Identifying the bacteria and viruses present in a complex sample is useful in disease diagnostics, product safety, environmental characterization, and research. Array-based methods have proven utility to detect in a single assay at a reasonable cost any microbe from the thousands that have been sequenced.
Methods
We designed a pan-Microbial Detection Array (MDA) to detect all known viruses (including phages), bacteria and plasmids and developed a novel statistical analysis method to identify mixtures of organisms from complex samples hybridized to the array. The array has broader coverage of bacterial and viral targets and is based on more recent sequence data and more probes per target than other microbial detection/discovery arrays in the literature. Family-specific probes were selected for all sequenced viral and bacterial complete genomes, segments, and plasmids. Probes were designed to tolerate some sequence variation to enable detection of divergent species with homology to sequenced organisms, and to have no significant matches to the human genome sequence.
Results
In blinded testing on spiked samples with single or multiple viruses, the MDA was able to correctly identify species or strains. In clinical fecal, serum, and respiratory samples, the MDA was able to detect and characterize multiple viruses, phage, and bacteria in a sample to the family and species level, as confirmed by PCR.
Conclusions
The MDA can be used to identify the suite of viruses and bacteria present in complex samples.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-668
PMCID: PMC3017867  PMID: 21108826
7.  Viral Nucleic Acids in Live-Attenuated Vaccines: Detection of Minority Variants and an Adventitious Virus▿ †  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(12):6033-6040.
Metagenomics and a panmicrobial microarray were used to examine eight live-attenuated viral vaccines. Viral nucleic acids in trivalent oral poliovirus (OPV), rubella, measles, yellow fever, varicella-zoster, multivalent measles/mumps/rubella, and two rotavirus live vaccines were partially purified, randomly amplified, and pyrosequenced. Over half a million sequence reads were generated covering from 20 to 99% of the attenuated viral genomes at depths reaching up to 8,000 reads per nucleotides. Mutations and minority variants, relative to vaccine strains, not known to affect attenuation were detected in OPV, mumps virus, and varicella-zoster virus. The anticipated detection of endogenous retroviral sequences from the producer avian and primate cells was confirmed. Avian leukosis virus (ALV), previously shown to be noninfectious for humans, was present as RNA in viral particles, while simian retrovirus (SRV) was present as genetically defective DNA. Rotarix, an orally administered rotavirus vaccine, contained porcine circovirus-1 (PCV1), a highly prevalent nonpathogenic pig virus, which has not been shown to be infectious in humans. Hybridization of vaccine nucleic acids to a panmicrobial microarray confirmed the presence of endogenous retroviral and PCV1 nucleic acids. Deep sequencing and microarrays can therefore detect attenuated virus sequence changes, minority variants, and adventitious viruses and help maintain the current safety record of live-attenuated viral vaccines.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02690-09
PMCID: PMC2876658  PMID: 20375174
8.  A Functional Gene Array for Detection of Bacterial Virulence Elements 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(5):e2163.
Emerging known and unknown pathogens create profound threats to public health. Platforms for rapid detection and characterization of microbial agents are critically needed to prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. Available detection technologies cannot provide broad functional information about known or novel organisms. As a step toward developing such a system, we have produced and tested a series of high-density functional gene arrays to detect elements of virulence and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Our first generation array targets genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for gene family detection and discrimination. When tested with organisms at varying phylogenetic distances from the four target strains, the array detected orthologs for the majority of targeted gene families present in bacteria belonging to the same taxonomic family. In combination with whole-genome amplification, the array detects femtogram concentrations of purified DNA, either spiked in to an aerosol sample background, or in combinations from one or more of the four target organisms. This is the first report of a high density NimbleGen microarray system targeting microbial antibiotic resistance and virulence mechanisms. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002163
PMCID: PMC2367441  PMID: 18478124
9.  Limited Dynamic Range of Immune Response Gene Expression Observed in Healthy Blood Donors Using RT-PCR 
Molecular Medicine  2006;12(7-8):185-195.
The use of quantitative gene expression analysis for the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of disease requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological changes from natural variations. To characterize these variations in apparently healthy subjects, quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure various immune response genes in whole blood collected from blood bank donors. In a single-time-point study of 131 donors, of 48 target genes, 43 were consistently expressed and 34 followed approximately log-normal distribution. Most transcripts showed a limited dynamic range of expression across subjects. Specifically, 36 genes had standard deviations (SDs) of 0.44 to 0.79 cycle threshold (CT) units, corresponding to less than a 3-fold variation in expression. Separately, a longitudinal study of 8 healthy individuals demonstrated a total dynamic range (> 2 standard error units) of 2- to 4-fold in most genes. In contrast, a study of whole blood gene expression in 6 volunteers injected with LPS showed 15 genes changing in expression 10- to 90-fold within 2 to 5 h and returning to within normal range within 21 hours. This work demonstrates that (1) the dynamic range of expression of many immune response genes is limited among healthy subjects; (2) expression levels for most genes analyzed are approximately log-normally distributed; and (3) individuals exposed to an infusion of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), show gene expression profiles that can be readily distinguished from those of a healthy population. These results suggest that normal reference ranges can be established for gene expression assays, providing critical standards for the diagnosis and management of disease.
doi:10.2119/2006-00018.McLoughlin
PMCID: PMC1626595  PMID: 17088951

Results 1-9 (9)