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1.  Inferring protein function from homology using the Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD) 
Inferring a protein’s function by homology is a powerful tool for biologists. The Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD) offers a simple way to visualize and analyze the relationships between homologous proteins in order to infer function. P-POD contains computationally-generated analysis distinguishing orthologs from paralogs combined with curated published information on functional complementation and on human diseases. P-POD also features an applet, Notung, for users to explore and modify phylogenetic trees and generate their own ortholog/paralogs calls. This unit describes how to search P-POD for precomputed data, how to find and use the associated curated information from the literature, and how to use Notung to analyze and refine the results.
doi:10.1002/0471250953.bi0611s33
PMCID: PMC3763948  PMID: 21400696
functional complementation; disease; conservation; phylogenetic analysis; trees; paralogs; Notung
2.  A yeast phenomic model for the gene interaction network modulating CFTR-ΔF508 protein biogenesis 
Genome Medicine  2012;4(12):103.
Background
The overall influence of gene interaction in human disease is unknown. In cystic fibrosis (CF) a single allele of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-ΔF508) accounts for most of the disease. In cell models, CFTR-ΔF508 exhibits defective protein biogenesis and degradation rather than proper trafficking to the plasma membrane where CFTR normally functions. Numerous genes function in the biogenesis of CFTR and influence the fate of CFTR-ΔF508. However it is not known whether genetic variation in such genes contributes to disease severity in patients. Nor is there an easy way to study how numerous gene interactions involving CFTR-ΔF would manifest phenotypically.
Methods
To gain insight into the function and evolutionary conservation of a gene interaction network that regulates biogenesis of a misfolded ABC transporter, we employed yeast genetics to develop a 'phenomic' model, in which the CFTR-ΔF508-equivalent residue of a yeast homolog is mutated (Yor1-ΔF670), and where the genome is scanned quantitatively for interaction. We first confirmed that Yor1-ΔF undergoes protein misfolding and has reduced half-life, analogous to CFTR-ΔF. Gene interaction was then assessed quantitatively by growth curves for approximately 5,000 double mutants, based on alteration in the dose response to growth inhibition by oligomycin, a toxin extruded from the cell at the plasma membrane by Yor1.
Results
From a comparative genomic perspective, yeast gene interactions influencing Yor1-ΔF biogenesis were representative of human homologs previously found to modulate processing of CFTR-ΔF in mammalian cells. Additional evolutionarily conserved pathways were implicated by the study, and a ΔF-specific pro-biogenesis function of the recently discovered ER membrane complex (EMC) was evident from the yeast screen. This novel function was validated biochemically by siRNA of an EMC ortholog in a human cell line expressing CFTR-ΔF508. The precision and accuracy of quantitative high throughput cell array phenotyping (Q-HTCP), which captures tens of thousands of growth curves simultaneously, provided powerful resolution to measure gene interaction on a phenomic scale, based on discrete cell proliferation parameters.
Conclusion
We propose phenomic analysis of Yor1-ΔF as a model for investigating gene interaction networks that can modulate cystic fibrosis disease severity. Although the clinical relevance of the Yor1-ΔF gene interaction network for cystic fibrosis remains to be defined, the model appears to be informative with respect to human cell models of CFTR-ΔF. Moreover, the general strategy of yeast phenomics can be employed in a systematic manner to model gene interaction for other diseases relating to pathologies that result from protein misfolding or potentially any disease involving evolutionarily conserved genetic pathways.
doi:10.1186/gm404
PMCID: PMC3906889  PMID: 23270647
Gene interaction; Genetic buffering; Genotype-phenotype complexity; Phenomics; Quantitative high throughput cell array phenotyping (Q-HTCP); Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR); ER membrane complex (EMC); ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter; Membrane protein biogenesis; Yeast model of human disease; Comparative functional genomics
3.  The BioGRID interaction database: 2013 update 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;41(D1):D816-D823.
The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID: http//thebiogrid.org) is an open access archive of genetic and protein interactions that are curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species. As of September 2012, BioGRID houses more than 500 000 manually annotated interactions from more than 30 model organisms. BioGRID maintains complete curation coverage of the literature for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A number of themed curation projects in areas of biomedical importance are also supported. BioGRID has established collaborations and/or shares data records for the annotation of interactions and phenotypes with most major model organism databases, including Saccharomyces Genome Database, PomBase, WormBase, FlyBase and The Arabidopsis Information Resource. BioGRID also actively engages with the text-mining community to benchmark and deploy automated tools to expedite curation workflows. BioGRID data are freely accessible through both a user-defined interactive interface and in batch downloads in a wide variety of formats, including PSI-MI2.5 and tab-delimited files. BioGRID records can also be interrogated and analyzed with a series of new bioinformatics tools, which include a post-translational modification viewer, a graphical viewer, a REST service and a Cytoscape plugin.
doi:10.1093/nar/gks1158
PMCID: PMC3531226  PMID: 23203989
4.  Toward community standards in the quest for orthologs 
Bioinformatics  2012;28(6):900-904.
The identification of orthologs—genes pairs descended from a common ancestor through speciation, rather than duplication—has emerged as an essential component of many bioinformatics applications, ranging from the annotation of new genomes to experimental target prioritization. Yet, the development and application of orthology inference methods is hampered by the lack of consensus on source proteomes, file formats and benchmarks. The second ‘Quest for Orthologs’ meeting brought together stakeholders from various communities to address these challenges. We report on achievements and outcomes of this meeting, focusing on topics of particular relevance to the research community at large. The Quest for Orthologs consortium is an open community that welcomes contributions from all researchers interested in orthology research and applications.
Contact: dessimoz@ebi.ac.uk
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bts050
PMCID: PMC3307119  PMID: 22332236
5.  Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium 
Briefings in Bioinformatics  2011;12(5):449-462.
The goal of the Gene Ontology (GO) project is to provide a uniform way to describe the functions of gene products from organisms across all kingdoms of life and thereby enable analysis of genomic data. Protein annotations are either based on experiments or predicted from protein sequences. Since most sequences have not been experimentally characterized, most available annotations need to be based on predictions. To make as accurate inferences as possible, the GO Consortium's Reference Genome Project is using an explicit evolutionary framework to infer annotations of proteins from a broad set of genomes from experimental annotations in a semi-automated manner. Most components in the pipeline, such as selection of sequences, building multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, retrieving experimental annotations and depositing inferred annotations, are fully automated. However, the most crucial step in our pipeline relies on software-assisted curation by an expert biologist. This curation tool, Phylogenetic Annotation and INference Tool (PAINT) helps curators to infer annotations among members of a protein family. PAINT allows curators to make precise assertions as to when functions were gained and lost during evolution and record the evidence (e.g. experimentally supported GO annotations and phylogenetic information including orthology) for those assertions. In this article, we describe how we use PAINT to infer protein function in a phylogenetic context with emphasis on its strengths, limitations and guidelines. We also discuss specific examples showing how PAINT annotations compare with those generated by other highly used homology-based methods.
doi:10.1093/bib/bbr042
PMCID: PMC3178059  PMID: 21873635
gene ontology; genome annotation; reference genome; gene function prediction; phylogenetics
6.  The BioGRID Interaction Database: 2011 update 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(Database issue):D698-D704.
The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) is a public database that archives and disseminates genetic and protein interaction data from model organisms and humans (http://www.thebiogrid.org). BioGRID currently holds 347 966 interactions (170 162 genetic, 177 804 protein) curated from both high-throughput data sets and individual focused studies, as derived from over 23 000 publications in the primary literature. Complete coverage of the entire literature is maintained for budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), and efforts to expand curation across multiple metazoan species are underway. The BioGRID houses 48 831 human protein interactions that have been curated from 10 247 publications. Current curation drives are focused on particular areas of biology to enable insights into conserved networks and pathways that are relevant to human health. The BioGRID 3.0 web interface contains new search and display features that enable rapid queries across multiple data types and sources. An automated Interaction Management System (IMS) is used to prioritize, coordinate and track curation across international sites and projects. BioGRID provides interaction data to several model organism databases, resources such as Entrez-Gene and other interaction meta-databases. The entire BioGRID 3.0 data collection may be downloaded in multiple file formats, including PSI MI XML. Source code for BioGRID 3.0 is freely available without any restrictions.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1116
PMCID: PMC3013707  PMID: 21071413
7.  Saccharomyces Genome Database provides mutant phenotype data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(Database issue):D433-D436.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is a scientific database for the molecular biology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly known as baker’s or budding yeast. The information in SGD includes functional annotations, mapping and sequence information, protein domains and structure, expression data, mutant phenotypes, physical and genetic interactions and the primary literature from which these data are derived. Here we describe how published phenotypes and genetic interaction data are annotated and displayed in SGD.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp917
PMCID: PMC2808950  PMID: 19906697
8.  The BioGRID Interaction Database: 2008 update 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;36(Database issue):D637-D640.
The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) database (http://www.thebiogrid.org) was developed to house and distribute collections of protein and genetic interactions from major model organism species. BioGRID currently contains over 198 000 interactions from six different species, as derived from both high-throughput studies and conventional focused studies. Through comprehensive curation efforts, BioGRID now includes a virtually complete set of interactions reported to date in the primary literature for both the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A number of new features have been added to the BioGRID including an improved user interface to display interactions based on different attributes, a mirror site and a dedicated interaction management system to coordinate curation across different locations. The BioGRID provides interaction data with monthly updates to Saccharomyces Genome Database, Flybase and Entrez Gene. Source code for the BioGRID and the linked Osprey network visualization system is now freely available without restriction.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm1001
PMCID: PMC2238873  PMID: 18000002
9.  Gene Ontology annotations at SGD: new data sources and annotation methods 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;36(Database issue):D577-D581.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org/) collects and organizes biological information about the chromosomal features and gene products of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although published data from traditional experimental methods are the primary sources of evidence supporting Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for a gene product, high-throughput experiments and computational predictions can also provide valuable insights in the absence of an extensive body of literature. Therefore, GO annotations available at SGD now include high-throughput data as well as computational predictions provided by the GO Annotation Project (GOA UniProt; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/GOA/). Because the annotation method used to assign GO annotations varies by data source, GO resources at SGD have been modified to distinguish data sources and annotation methods. In addition to providing information for genes that have not been experimentally characterized, GO annotations from independent sources can be compared to those made by SGD to help keep the literature-based GO annotations current.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm909
PMCID: PMC2238894  PMID: 17982175
10.  The Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD): A Comparative Genomics Analysis Tool for Biologists 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(8):e766.
Many biological databases that provide comparative genomics information and tools are now available on the internet. While certainly quite useful, to our knowledge none of the existing databases combine results from multiple comparative genomics methods with manually curated information from the literature. Here we describe the Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD, http://ortholog.princeton.edu), a user-friendly database system that allows users to find and visualize the phylogenetic relationships among predicted orthologs (based on the OrthoMCL method) to a query gene from any of eight eukaryotic organisms, and to see the orthologs in a wider evolutionary context (based on the Jaccard clustering method). In addition to the phylogenetic information, the database contains experimental results manually collected from the literature that can be compared to the computational analyses, as well as links to relevant human disease and gene information via the OMIM, model organism, and sequence databases. Our aim is for the P-POD resource to be extremely useful to typical experimental biologists wanting to learn more about the evolutionary context of their favorite genes. P-POD is based on the commonly used Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) schema and can be downloaded in its entirety for installation on one's own system. Thus, bioinformaticians and software developers may also find P-POD useful because they can use the P-POD database infrastructure when developing their own comparative genomics resources and database tools.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000766
PMCID: PMC1942082  PMID: 17712414
11.  Expanded protein information at SGD: new pages and proteome browser 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;35(Database issue):D468-D471.
The recent explosion in protein data generated from both directed small-scale studies and large-scale proteomics efforts has greatly expanded the quantity of available protein information and has prompted the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; ) to enhance the depth and accessibility of protein annotations. In particular, we have expanded ongoing efforts to improve the integration of experimental information and sequence-based predictions and have redesigned the protein information web pages. A key feature of this redesign is the development of a GBrowse-derived interactive Proteome Browser customized to improve the visualization of sequence-based protein information. This Proteome Browser has enabled SGD to unify the display of hidden Markov model (HMM) domains, protein family HMMs, motifs, transmembrane regions, signal peptides, hydropathy plots and profile hits using several popular prediction algorithms. In addition, a physico-chemical properties page has been introduced to provide easy access to basic protein information. Improvements to the layout of the Protein Information page and integration of the Proteome Browser will facilitate the ongoing expansion of sequence-specific experimental information captured in SGD, including post-translational modifications and other user-defined annotations. Finally, SGD continues to improve upon the availability of genetic and physical interaction data in an ongoing collaboration with BioGRID by providing direct access to more than 82 000 manually-curated interactions.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl931
PMCID: PMC1669759  PMID: 17142221
12.  Genome Snapshot: a new resource at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) presenting an overview of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;34(Database issue):D442-D445.
Sequencing and annotation of the entire Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome has made it possible to gain a genome-wide perspective on yeast genes and gene products. To make this information available on an ongoing basis, the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) () has created the Genome Snapshot (). The Genome Snapshot summarizes the current state of knowledge about the genes and chromosomal features of S.cerevisiae. The information is organized into two categories: (i) number of each type of chromosomal feature annotated in the genome and (ii) number and distribution of genes annotated to Gene Ontology terms. Detailed lists are accessible through SGD's Advanced Search tool (), and all the data presented on this page are available from the SGD ftp site ().
doi:10.1093/nar/gkj117
PMCID: PMC1347479  PMID: 16381907

Results 1-12 (12)