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1.  Inferring weak population structure with the assistance of sample group information 
Molecular ecology resources  2009;9(5):1322-1332.
Genetic clustering algorithms require a certain amount of data to produce informative results. In the common situation that individuals are sampled at several locations, we show how sample group information can be used to achieve better results when the amount of data is limited. New models are developed for the structure program, both for the cases of admixture and no admixture. These models work by modifying the prior distribution for each individual’s population assignment. The new prior distributions allow the proportion of individuals assigned to a particular cluster to vary by location. The models are tested on simulated data, and illustrated using microsatellite data from the CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel. We demonstrate that the new models allow structure to be detected at lower levels of divergence, or with less data, than the original structure models or principal components methods, and that they are not biased towards detecting structure when it is not present. These models are implemented in a new version of structure which is freely available online at http://pritch.bsd.uchicago.edu/structure.html.
doi:10.1111/j.1755-0998.2009.02591.x
PMCID: PMC3518025  PMID: 21564903
admixture; divergence; population structure; prior distribution
2.  PHAST and RPHAST: phylogenetic analysis with space/time models 
Briefings in Bioinformatics  2010;12(1):41-51.
The PHylogenetic Analysis with Space/Time models (PHAST) software package consists of a collection of command-line programs and supporting libraries for comparative genomics. PHAST is best known as the engine behind the Conservation tracks in the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser. However, it also includes several other tools for phylogenetic modeling and functional element identification, as well as utilities for manipulating alignments, trees and genomic annotations. PHAST has been in development since 2002 and has now been downloaded more than 1000 times, but so far it has been released only as provisional (‘beta’) software. Here, we describe the first official release (v1.0) of PHAST, with improved stability, portability and documentation and several new features. We outline the components of the package and detail recent improvements. In addition, we introduce a new interface to the PHAST libraries from the R statistical computing environment, called RPHAST, and illustrate its use in a series of vignettes. We demonstrate that RPHAST can be particularly useful in applications involving both large-scale phylogenomics and complex statistical analyses. The R interface also makes the PHAST libraries acccessible to non-C programmers, and is useful for rapid prototyping. PHAST v1.0 and RPHAST v1.0 are available for download at http://compgen.bscb.cornell.edu/phast, under the terms of an unrestrictive BSD-style license. RPHAST can also be obtained from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN; http://cran.r-project.org).
doi:10.1093/bib/bbq072
PMCID: PMC3030812  PMID: 21278375
statistical phylogenetics; functional element identification
3.  Genome-Wide Inference of Ancestral Recombination Graphs 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(5):e1004342.
The complex correlation structure of a collection of orthologous DNA sequences is uniquely captured by the “ancestral recombination graph” (ARG), a complete record of coalescence and recombination events in the history of the sample. However, existing methods for ARG inference are computationally intensive, highly approximate, or limited to small numbers of sequences, and, as a consequence, explicit ARG inference is rarely used in applied population genomics. Here, we introduce a new algorithm for ARG inference that is efficient enough to apply to dozens of complete mammalian genomes. The key idea of our approach is to sample an ARG of chromosomes conditional on an ARG of chromosomes, an operation we call “threading.” Using techniques based on hidden Markov models, we can perform this threading operation exactly, up to the assumptions of the sequentially Markov coalescent and a discretization of time. An extension allows for threading of subtrees instead of individual sequences. Repeated application of these threading operations results in highly efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo samplers for ARGs. We have implemented these methods in a computer program called ARGweaver. Experiments with simulated data indicate that ARGweaver converges rapidly to the posterior distribution over ARGs and is effective in recovering various features of the ARG for dozens of sequences generated under realistic parameters for human populations. In applications of ARGweaver to 54 human genome sequences from Complete Genomics, we find clear signatures of natural selection, including regions of unusually ancient ancestry associated with balancing selection and reductions in allele age in sites under directional selection. The patterns we observe near protein-coding genes are consistent with a primary influence from background selection rather than hitchhiking, although we cannot rule out a contribution from recurrent selective sweeps.
Author Summary
The unusual and complex correlation structure of population samples of genetic sequences presents a fundamental statistical challenge that pervades nearly all areas of population genetics. Historical recombination events produce an intricate network of intertwined genealogies, which impedes demography inference, the detection of natural selection, association mapping, and other applications. It is possible to capture these complex relationships using a representation called the ancestral recombination graph (ARG), which provides a complete description of coalescence and recombination events in the history of the sample. However, previous methods for ARG inference have not been adequately fast and accurate for practical use with large-scale genomic sequence data. In this article, we introduce a new algorithm for ARG inference that has vastly improved scaling properties. Our algorithm is implemented in a computer program called ARGweaver, which is fast enough to be applied to sequences megabases in length. With the aid of a large computer cluster, ARGweaver can be used to sample full ARGs for entire mammalian genome sequences. We show that ARGweaver performs well in simulation experiments and demonstrate that it can be used to provide new insights about both demographic processes and natural selection when applied to real human genome sequence data.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004342
PMCID: PMC4022496  PMID: 24831947
4.  Genome-wide inference of natural selection on human transcription factor binding sites 
Nature genetics  2013;45(7):723-729.
For decades, it has been hypothesized that gene regulation has had central role in human evolution, yet much remains unknown about the genome-wide impact of regulatory mutations. Here we use whole-genome sequences and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing data to demonstrate that natural selection has profoundly influenced human transcription factor binding sites since the divergence of humans from chimpanzees 4–6 million years ago. Our analysis uses a new probabilistic method, called INSIGHT, for measuring the influence of selection on collections of short, interspersed noncoding elements. We find that, on average, transcription factor binding sites have experienced somewhat weaker selection than protein-coding genes. However, the binding sites of several transcription factors show clear evidence of adaptation. Several measures of selection are strongly correlated with predicted binding affinity. Overall, regulatory elements seem to contribute substantially to both adaptive substitutions and deleterious polymorphisms with key implications for human evolution and disease.
doi:10.1038/ng.2658
PMCID: PMC3932982  PMID: 23749186
5.  Replacing and Additive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Streptococcus 
Molecular Biology and Evolution  2012;29(11):3309-3320.
The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (“replacing HGT”) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (“additive HGT”). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY–SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE direction. This finding is of particular interest in light of the recent increase in virulence of pathogenic SDE. We find much stronger evidence for SPY–SDE gene flow among replacing than among additive transfers, suggesting a primary influence from homologous recombination between co-occurring SPY and SDE cells in human hosts. Putative virulence genes are correlated with transfer events, but this correlation is found to be driven by additive, not replacing, HGTs. The genes affected by additive HGTs are enriched for functions having to do with transposition, recombination, and DNA integration, consistent with previous findings, whereas replacing HGTs seen to influence a more diverse set of genes. Additive transfers are also found to be associated with evidence of positive selection. These findings shed new light on the manner in which HGT has shaped pathogenic bacterial genomes.
doi:10.1093/molbev/mss138
PMCID: PMC3472495  PMID: 22617954
bacterial evolutionary genomics; recombination; Streptococcus pyogenes; Streptococcus dysgalactiae
6.  A Model-Based Analysis of GC-Biased Gene Conversion in the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(8):e1003684.
GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a recombination-associated process that favors the fixation of G/C alleles over A/T alleles. In mammals, gBGC is hypothesized to contribute to variation in GC content, rapidly evolving sequences, and the fixation of deleterious mutations, but its prevalence and general functional consequences remain poorly understood. gBGC is difficult to incorporate into models of molecular evolution and so far has primarily been studied using summary statistics from genomic comparisons. Here, we introduce a new probabilistic model that captures the joint effects of natural selection and gBGC on nucleotide substitution patterns, while allowing for correlations along the genome in these effects. We implemented our model in a computer program, called phastBias, that can accurately detect gBGC tracts about 1 kilobase or longer in simulated sequence alignments. When applied to real primate genome sequences, phastBias predicts gBGC tracts that cover roughly 0.3% of the human and chimpanzee genomes and account for 1.2% of human-chimpanzee nucleotide differences. These tracts fall in clusters, particularly in subtelomeric regions; they are enriched for recombination hotspots and fast-evolving sequences; and they display an ongoing fixation preference for G and C alleles. They are also significantly enriched for disease-associated polymorphisms, suggesting that they contribute to the fixation of deleterious alleles. The gBGC tracts provide a unique window into historical recombination processes along the human and chimpanzee lineages. They supply additional evidence of long-term conservation of megabase-scale recombination rates accompanied by rapid turnover of hotspots. Together, these findings shed new light on the evolutionary, functional, and disease implications of gBGC. The phastBias program and our predicted tracts are freely available.
Author Summary
Interpreting patterns of DNA sequence variation in the genomes of closely related species is critically important for understanding the causes and functional effects of nucleotide substitutions. Classical models describe patterns of substitution in terms of the fundamental forces of mutation, recombination, neutral drift, and natural selection. However, an entirely separate force, called GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), also appears to have an important influence on substitution patterns in many species. gBGC is a recombination-associated evolutionary process that favors the fixation of strong (G/C) over weak (A/T) alleles. In mammals, gBGC is thought to promote variation in GC content, rapidly evolving sequences, and the fixation of deleterious mutations. However, its genome-wide influence remains poorly understood, in part because, it is difficult to incorporate gBGC into statistical models of evolution. In this paper, we describe a new evolutionary model that jointly describes the effects of selection and gBGC and apply it to the human and chimpanzee genomes. Our genome-wide predictions of gBGC tracts indicate that gBGC has been an important force in recent human evolution. Our publicly available computer program, called phastBias, and our genome-wide predictions will enable other researchers to consider gBGC in their analyses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003684
PMCID: PMC3744432  PMID: 23966869
7.  A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals 
Nature  2011;478(7370):476-482.
Comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here, we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and report constrained elements covering ~4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparison with experimental datasets to suggest candidate functions for ~60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events, and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements, and ~1,000 primate- and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants suggests our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology and health.
doi:10.1038/nature10530
PMCID: PMC3207357  PMID: 21993624
8.  Bayesian inference of ancient human demography from individual genome sequences 
Nature Genetics  2011;43(10):1031-1034.
Besides their value for biomedicine, individual genome sequences are a rich source of information about human evolution. Here we describe an effort to estimate key evolutionary parameters from sequences for six individuals from diverse human populations. We use a Bayesian, coalescent-based approach to extract information about ancestral population sizes, divergence times, and migration rates from inferred genealogies at many neutrally evolving loci from across the genome. We introduce new methods for accommodating gene flow between populations and integrating over possible phasings of diploid genotypes. We also describe a custom pipeline for genotype inference to mitigate biases from heterogeneous sequencing technologies and coverage levels. Our analysis indicates that the San of Southern Africa diverged from other human populations 108–157 thousand years ago (kya), that Eurasians diverged from an ancestral African population 38–64 kya, and that the effective population size of the ancestors of all modern humans was ~9,000.
doi:10.1038/ng.937
PMCID: PMC3245873  PMID: 21926973
9.  The Role of GC-Biased Gene Conversion in Shaping the Fastest Evolving Regions of the Human Genome 
Molecular Biology and Evolution  2011;29(3):1047-1057.
GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) is a recombination-associated evolutionary process that accelerates the fixation of guanine or cytosine alleles, regardless of their effects on fitness. gBGC can increase the overall rate of substitutions, a hallmark of positive selection. Many fast-evolving genes and noncoding sequences in the human genome have GC-biased substitution patterns, suggesting that gBGC—in contrast to adaptive processes—may have driven the human changes in these sequences. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a substitution model for DNA sequence evolution that quantifies the nonlinear interacting effects of selection and gBGC on substitution rates and patterns. Based on this model, we used a series of lineage-specific likelihood ratio tests to evaluate sequence alignments for evidence of changes in mode of selection, action of gBGC, or both. With a false positive rate of less than 5% for individual tests, we found that the majority (76%) of previously identified human accelerated regions are best explained without gBGC, whereas a substantial minority (19%) are best explained by the action of gBGC alone. Further, more than half (55%) have substitution rates that significantly exceed local estimates of the neutral rate, suggesting that these regions may have been shaped by positive selection rather than by relaxation of constraint. By distinguishing the effects of gBGC, relaxation of constraint, and positive selection we provide an integrated analysis of the evolutionary forces that shaped the fastest evolving regions of the human genome, which facilitates the design of targeted functional studies of adaptation in humans.
doi:10.1093/molbev/msr279
PMCID: PMC3278478  PMID: 22075116
genome evolution; conserved noncoding elements; lineage-specific adaption; human accelerated regions; GC-biased gene conversion
10.  Error and Error Mitigation in Low-Coverage Genome Assemblies 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e17034.
The recent release of twenty-two new genome sequences has dramatically increased the data available for mammalian comparative genomics, but twenty of these new sequences are currently limited to ∼2× coverage. Here we examine the extent of sequencing error in these 2× assemblies, and its potential impact in downstream analyses. By comparing 2× assemblies with high-quality sequences from the ENCODE regions, we estimate the rate of sequencing error to be 1–4 errors per kilobase. While this error rate is fairly modest, sequencing error can still have surprising effects. For example, an apparent lineage-specific insertion in a coding region is more likely to reflect sequencing error than a true biological event, and the length distribution of coding indels is strongly distorted by error. We find that most errors are contributed by a small fraction of bases with low quality scores, in particular, by the ends of reads in regions of single-read coverage in the assembly. We explore several approaches for automatic sequencing error mitigation (SEM), making use of the localized nature of sequencing error, the fact that it is well predicted by quality scores, and information about errors that comes from comparisons across species. Our automatic methods for error mitigation cannot replace the need for additional sequencing, but they do allow substantial fractions of errors to be masked or eliminated at the cost of modest amounts of over-correction, and they can reduce the impact of error in downstream phylogenomic analyses. Our error-mitigated alignments are available for download.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017034
PMCID: PMC3038916  PMID: 21340033
11.  Targets of Balancing Selection in the Human Genome 
Molecular Biology and Evolution  2009;26(12):2755-2764.
Balancing selection is potentially an important biological force for maintaining advantageous genetic diversity in populations, including variation that is responsible for long-term adaptation to the environment. By serving as a means to maintain genetic variation, it may be particularly relevant to maintaining phenotypic variation in natural populations. Nevertheless, its prevalence and specific targets in the human genome remain largely unknown. We have analyzed the patterns of diversity and divergence of 13,400 genes in two human populations using an unbiased single-nucleotide polymorphism data set, a genome-wide approach, and a method that incorporates demography in neutrality tests. We identified an unbiased catalog of genes with signatures of long-term balancing selection, which includes immunity genes as well as genes encoding keratins and membrane channels; the catalog also shows enrichment in functional categories involved in cellular structure. Patterns are mostly concordant in the two populations, with a small fraction of genes showing population-specific signatures of selection. Power considerations indicate that our findings represent a subset of all targets in the genome, suggesting that although balancing selection may not have an obvious impact on a large proportion of human genes, it is a key force affecting the evolution of a number of genes in humans.
doi:10.1093/molbev/msp190
PMCID: PMC2782326  PMID: 19713326
overdominance; frequency-dependent selection; heterosis; human evolution; population genetics; human diversity
13.  Proportionally More Deleterious Genetic Variation In European than in African Populations 
Nature  2008;451(7181):994-997.
Quantifying the number of deleterious mutations per diploid human genome is of critical concern to both evolutionary and medical geneticists1–3. Here, we combine genome-wide polymorphism data from PCR-based exon re-sequencing, comparative genomic data across mammalian species, and protein structure predictions to estimate the number of functionally consequential mutations carried by each of 15 African American (AA) and 20 European American (EA) individuals. We find that AAs show significantly higher levels of nucleotide heterozygosity than do EAs for all categories of functional mutations considered including synonymous, nonsynonymous, predicted “benign”, predicted “possibly damaging” and predicted “probably damaging” mutations. This result is wholly consistent with previous work showing higher overall levels of nucleotide variation in African populations as compared to Europeans4. EA individuals, on the other hand, have significantly more genotypes homozygous for the derived allele at synonymous and nonsynonymous SNPs and for the damaging allele at “probably damaging” SNPs than AAs do. Surprisingly, for SNPs segregating only in one population or the other, the proportion of nonsynonymous SNPs is significantly higher in the EA sample (55.4%) than in the AA sample (47.0%; P<2.3 ×10−37). We observe a similar proportional excess of SNPs that are inferred to be “probably damaging” (15.9% EA; 12.1% AA; P<3.3 ×10−11). Using extensive simulations, we show that this excess proportion of segregating damaging alleles in Europeans is likely a consequence of a bottleneck that Europeans experienced around the time of the migration out of Africa.
doi:10.1038/nature06611
PMCID: PMC2923434  PMID: 18288194
14.  A Simple Genetic Architecture Underlies Morphological Variation in Dogs 
PLoS Biology  2010;8(8):e1000451.
The largest genetic study to date of morphology in domestic dogs identifies genes controlling nearly 100 morphological traits and identifies important trends in phenotypic variation within this species.
Domestic dogs exhibit tremendous phenotypic diversity, including a greater variation in body size than any other terrestrial mammal. Here, we generate a high density map of canine genetic variation by genotyping 915 dogs from 80 domestic dog breeds, 83 wild canids, and 10 outbred African shelter dogs across 60,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Coupling this genomic resource with external measurements from breed standards and individuals as well as skeletal measurements from museum specimens, we identify 51 regions of the dog genome associated with phenotypic variation among breeds in 57 traits. The complex traits include average breed body size and external body dimensions and cranial, dental, and long bone shape and size with and without allometric scaling. In contrast to the results from association mapping of quantitative traits in humans and domesticated plants, we find that across dog breeds, a small number of quantitative trait loci (≤3) explain the majority of phenotypic variation for most of the traits we studied. In addition, many genomic regions show signatures of recent selection, with most of the highly differentiated regions being associated with breed-defining traits such as body size, coat characteristics, and ear floppiness. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of mapping multiple traits in the domestic dog using a database of genotyped individuals and highlight the important role human-directed selection has played in altering the genetic architecture of key traits in this important species.
Author Summary
Dogs offer a unique system for the study of genes controlling morphology. DNA from 915 dogs from 80 domestic breeds, as well as a set of feral dogs, was tested at over 60,000 points of variation and the dataset analyzed using novel methods to find loci regulating body size, head shape, leg length, ear position, and a host of other traits. Because each dog breed has undergone strong selection by breeders to have a particular appearance, there is a strong footprint of selection in regions of the genome that are important for controlling traits that define each breed. These analyses identified new regions of the genome, or loci, that are important in controlling body size and shape. Our results, which feature the largest number of domestic dogs studied at such a high level of genetic detail, demonstrate the power of the dog as a model for finding genes that control the body plan of mammals. Further, we show that the remarkable diversity of form in the dog, in contrast to some other species studied to date, appears to have a simple genetic basis dominated by genes of major effect.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000451
PMCID: PMC2919785  PMID: 20711490
15.  Patterns of Positive Selection in Six Mammalian Genomes 
PLoS Genetics  2008;4(8):e1000144.
Genome-wide scans for positively selected genes (PSGs) in mammals have provided insight into the dynamics of genome evolution, the genetic basis of differences between species, and the functions of individual genes. However, previous scans have been limited in power and accuracy owing to small numbers of available genomes. Here we present the most comprehensive examination of mammalian PSGs to date, using the six high-coverage genome assemblies now available for eutherian mammals. The increased phylogenetic depth of this dataset results in substantially improved statistical power, and permits several new lineage- and clade-specific tests to be applied. Of ∼16,500 human genes with high-confidence orthologs in at least two other species, 400 genes showed significant evidence of positive selection (FDR<0.05), according to a standard likelihood ratio test. An additional 144 genes showed evidence of positive selection on particular lineages or clades. As in previous studies, the identified PSGs were enriched for roles in defense/immunity, chemosensory perception, and reproduction, but enrichments were also evident for more specific functions, such as complement-mediated immunity and taste perception. Several pathways were strongly enriched for PSGs, suggesting possible co-evolution of interacting genes. A novel Bayesian analysis of the possible “selection histories” of each gene indicated that most PSGs have switched multiple times between positive selection and nonselection, suggesting that positive selection is often episodic. A detailed analysis of Affymetrix exon array data indicated that PSGs are expressed at significantly lower levels, and in a more tissue-specific manner, than non-PSGs. Genes that are specifically expressed in the spleen, testes, liver, and breast are significantly enriched for PSGs, but no evidence was found for an enrichment for PSGs among brain-specific genes. This study provides additional evidence for widespread positive selection in mammalian evolution and new genome-wide insights into the functional implications of positive selection.
Author Summary
Populations evolve as mutations arise in individual organisms and, through hereditary transmission, gradually become “fixed” (shared by all individuals) in the population. Many mutations have essentially no effect on organismal fitness and can become fixed only by the stochastic process of neutral drift. However, some mutations produce a selective advantage that boosts their chances of reaching fixation. Genes in which new mutations tend to be beneficial, rather than neutral or deleterious, tend to evolve rapidly and are said to be under positive selection. Genes involved in immunity and defense are a well-known example; rapid evolution in these genes presumably occurs because new mutations help organisms to prevail in evolutionary “arms races” with pathogens. Many mammalian genes show evidence of positive selection, but open questions remain about the overall impact of positive selection in mammals. For example, which key differences between species can be attributed to positive selection? How have patterns of selection changed across the mammalian phylogeny? What are the effects of population size and gene expression patterns on positive selection? Here we attempt to shed light on these and other questions in a comprehensive study of ∼16,500 genes in six mammalian genomes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000144
PMCID: PMC2483296  PMID: 18670650
16.  Localizing Recent Adaptive Evolution in the Human Genome 
PLoS Genetics  2007;3(6):e90.
Identifying genomic locations that have experienced selective sweeps is an important first step toward understanding the molecular basis of adaptive evolution. Using statistical methods that account for the confounding effects of population demography, recombination rate variation, and single-nucleotide polymorphism ascertainment, while also providing fine-scale estimates of the position of the selected site, we analyzed a genomic dataset of 1.2 million human single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in African-American, European-American, and Chinese samples. We identify 101 regions of the human genome with very strong evidence (p < 10−5) of a recent selective sweep and where our estimate of the position of the selective sweep falls within 100 kb of a known gene. Within these regions, genes of biological interest include genes in pigmentation pathways, components of the dystrophin protein complex, clusters of olfactory receptors, genes involved in nervous system development and function, immune system genes, and heat shock genes. We also observe consistent evidence of selective sweeps in centromeric regions. In general, we find that recent adaptation is strikingly pervasive in the human genome, with as much as 10% of the genome affected by linkage to a selective sweep.
Author Summary
A selective sweep is a single realization of adaptive evolution at the molecular level. When a selective sweep occurs, it leaves a characteristic signal in patterns of variation in genomic regions linked to the selected site; therefore, recently released population genomic datasets can be used to search for instances of molecular adaptation. Here, we present a comprehensive scan for complete selective sweeps in the human genome. Our analysis is complementary to several recent analyses that focused on partial selective sweeps, in which the adaptive mutation still segregates at intermediate frequency in the population. Consequently, our analysis identifies many genomic regions that were not previously known to have experienced natural selection, including consistent evidence of selection in centromeric regions, which is possibly the result of meiotic drive. Genes within selected regions include pigmentation candidate genes, genes of the dystrophin protein complex, and olfactory receptors. Extensive testing demonstrates that the method we use to detect selective sweeps is strikingly robust to both alternative demographic scenarios and recombination rate variation. Furthermore, the method we use provides precise estimates of the genomic position of the selected site, which greatly facilitates the fine-scale mapping of functionally significant variation in human populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030090
PMCID: PMC1885279  PMID: 17542651
17.  A Scan for Positively Selected Genes in the Genomes of Humans and Chimpanzees 
PLoS Biology  2005;3(6):e170.
Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout the genome. We here compare 13,731 annotated genes from humans to their chimpanzee orthologs to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection. Many of the genes that present a signature of positive selection tend to be involved in sensory perception or immune defenses. However, the group of genes that show the strongest evidence for positive selection also includes a surprising number of genes involved in tumor suppression and apoptosis, and of genes involved in spermatogenesis. We hypothesize that positive selection in some of these genes may be driven by genomic conflict due to apoptosis during spermatogenesis. Genes with maximal expression in the brain show little or no evidence for positive selection, while genes with maximal expression in the testis tend to be enriched with positively selected genes. Genes on the X chromosome also tend to show an elevated tendency for positive selection. We also present polymorphism data from 20 Caucasian Americans and 19 African Americans for the 50 annotated genes showing the strongest evidence for positive selection. The polymorphism analysis further supports the presence of positive selection in these genes by showing an excess of high-frequency derived nonsynonymous mutations.
Humans and chimps diverged about 5 million years ago. This study seeks to find the genes that have undergone positive selection during the evolution of both lineages since that time.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030170
PMCID: PMC1088278  PMID: 15869325

Results 1-17 (17)