We performed a meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association studies of
coronary artery disease comprising 1,515 cases with coronary artery disease and
5,019 controls, followed by de novo replication studies in
15,460 cases and 11,472 controls, all of Chinese Han descent. We successfully
identified four new loci for coronary artery disease reaching genome-wide
significance (P < 5 × 10−8),
which mapped in or near TTC32-WDR35, GUCY1A3,
C6orf10-BTNL2 and ATP2B1. We also
replicated four loci previously identified in European populations
(PHACTR1, TCF21, CDKN2A/B
and C12orf51). These findings provide new insights into
biological pathways for the susceptibility of coronary artery disease in Chinese
Shikimic acid (SA) produced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) is a key intermediate for the synthesis of neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), an anti-influenza drug. However, plants cannot deliver a stable supply of SA. To avoid the resulting shortages and price fluctuations, a stable source of affordable SA is required. Although recent achievements in metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains have significantly increased SA productivity, commonly-used plasmid-based expression systems are prone to genetic instability and require constant selective pressure to ensure plasmid maintenance. Cofactors also play an important role in the biosynthesis of different fermentation products. In this study, we first constructed an E. coli SA production strain that carries no plasmid or antibiotic marker. We then investigated the effect of endogenous NADPH availability on SA production.
The pps and csrB genes were first overexpressed by replacing their native promoter and integrating an additional copy of the genes in a double gene knockout (aroK and aroL) of E. coli. The aroG
, aroB, aroE and tktA gene cluster was integrated into the above E. coli chromosome by direct transformation. The gene copy number was then evolved to the desired value by triclosan induction. The resulting strain, E. coli SA110, produced 8.9-fold more SA than did the parental strain E. coli (ΔaroKΔaroL). Following qRT-PCR analysis, another copy of the tktA gene under the control of the 5Ptac promoter was inserted into the chromosome of E. coli SA110 to obtain the more productive strain E. coli SA110. Next, the NADPH availability was increased by overexpressing the pntAB or nadK genes, which further enhanced SA production. The final strain, E. coli SA116, produced 3.12 g/L of SA with a yield on glucose substrate of 0.33 mol/mol.
An SA-producing E. coli strain that carries neither a plasmid nor an antibiotic marker was constructed by triclosan-induced chromosomal evolution. We present the first demonstration that increasing NADPH availability by overexpressing the pntAB or nadK genes significantly enhances SA production.
Shikimic acid; Escherichia coli; Chemically induced chromosomal evolution; NADPH; Transhydrogenase; NAD kinase
Mutations in MYH11 cause autosomal dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. At the same time, rare, non-synonymous variants in MYH11 that are predicted to disrupt protein function but do not cause inherited aortic disease are common in the general population and the vascular disease risk associated with these variants is unknown.
To determine the consequences of the recurrent MYH11 rare variant, R247C, through functional studies in vitro and analysis of a knock-in mouse model with this specific variant, including assessment of aortic contraction, response to vascular injury, and phenotype of primary aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs).
Methods and Results
The steady state ATPase activity (actin-activated) and the rates of phosphate and ADP release were lower for the R247C mutant myosin than for the wild-type, as was the rate of actin filament sliding in an in vitro motility assay. Myh11R247C/R247C mice exhibited normal growth, reproduction, and aortic histology but decreased aortic contraction. In response to vascular injury, Myh11R247C/R247C mice showed significantly increased neointimal formation due to increased SMC proliferation when compared with the wild-type mice. Primary aortic SMCs explanted from the Myh11R247C/R247C mice were de-differentiated compared with wild-type SMCs based on increased proliferation and reduced expression of SMC contractile proteins. The mutant SMCs also displayed altered focal adhesions and decreased Rho activation, associated with decreased nuclear localization of myocardin-related transcription factor-A. Exposure of the Myh11R247C/R247C SMCs to a Rho activator rescued the de-differentiated phenotype of the SMCs.
These results indicate that a rare variant in MYH11, R247C, alters myosin contractile function and SMC phenotype, leading to increased proliferation in vitro and in response to vascular injury.
MYH11; smooth muscle myosin heavy chain; thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections; smooth muscle differentiation; mouse model
Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotes required for metabolism and is involved in diverse diseases. To investigate autophagy in skeletal muscle under hyperglycemia status, we established two hyperglycemia-rat models that differ in their circulating insulin levels, by glucose infusion and singe high-dose streptozotocin injection. We then detected expression of autophagy related genes with real-time PCR and western blot. We found that under hyperglycemia status induced by glucose-infusion, autophagy was inhibited in rat skeletal muscle, whereas under streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia status autophagy was enhanced. Meanwhile, hyperglycemic gastrocnemius muscle was more prone to autophagy than soleus muscle. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy in skeletal muscle in glucose-infusion hyperglycemia rats was mediated by the m-TOR pathway while m-TOR and FoxO3 both contributed to enhancement of autophagy in gastrocnemius muscle in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats. These data shows that insulin plays a relatively more important role than hyperglycemia in regulating autophagy in hyperglycemia rat muscle through selectively activating the m-TOR or FoxO3 pathway in a fiber-selective manner.
In high-throughput cancer genomic studies, markers identified from the analysis of single datasets may have unsatisfactory properties because of low sample sizes. Integrative analysis pools and analyzes raw data from multiple studies, and can effectively increase sample size and lead to improved marker identification results. In this study, we consider the integrative analysis of multiple high-throughput cancer prognosis studies. In the existing integrative analysis studies, the interplay among genes, which can be described using the network structure, has not been effectively accounted for. In network analysis, tightly-connected nodes (genes) are more likely to have related biological functions and similar regression coefficients. The goal of this study is to develop an analysis approach that can incorporate the gene network structure in integrative analysis. To this end, we adopt an AFT (accelerated failure time) model to describe survival. A weighted least squares approach, which has low computational cost, is adopted for estimation. For marker selection, we propose a new penalization approach. The proposed penalty is composed of two parts. The first part is a group MCP penalty, and conducts gene selection. The second part is a Laplacian penalty, and smoothes the differences of coefficients for tightly-connected genes. A group coordinate descent approach is developed to compute the proposed estimate. Simulation study shows satisfactory performance of the proposed approach when there exist moderate to strong correlations among genes. We analyze three lung cancer prognosis datasets, and demonstrate that incorporating the network structure can lead to the identification of important genes and improved prediction performance.
Integrative analysis; Cancer prognosis; Gene network; Penalized selection; Laplacian shrinkage
In cancer research, high-throughput profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for genes/SNPs associated with prognosis. Despite seemingly significant differences, different subtypes of the same cancer (or different types of cancers) may share common susceptibility genes. In this study, we analyze prognosis data on multiple subtypes of the same cancer, but note that the proposed approach is directly applicable to the analysis of data on multiple types of cancers. We describe the genetic basis of multiple subtypes using the heterogeneity model, which allows overlapping but different sets of susceptibility genes/SNPs for different subtypes. An accelerated failure time (AFT) model is adopted to describe prognosis. We develop a regularized gradient descent approach, which conducts gene-level analysis and identifies genes that contain important SNPs associated with prognosis. The proposed approach belongs to the family of gradient descent approaches, is intuitively reasonable, and has affordable computational cost. Simulation study shows that when prognosis-associated SNPs are clustered in a small number of genes, the proposed approach outperforms alternatives with significantly more true positives and fewer false positives. We analyze an NHL (non-Hodgkin lymphoma) prognosis study with SNP measurements, and identify genes associated with the three major subtypes of NHL, namely DLBCL, FL and CLL/SLL. The proposed approach identifies genes different from using alternative approaches and has the best prediction performance.
Integrative analysis; Cancer Prognosis; Gradient descent; NHL; SNP
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a significant role in biological processes, as well as in tumorigenesis and the progression of cancer, especially breast cancer. However, the clinical application of CXCR4 for breast cancer prognosis is still very limited. A meta-analysis based on published studies was performed with the aim of obtaining an accurate evaluation of the relationship between CXCR4 expression and the prognosis of breast cancer.
A comprehensive search strategy was used to search relevant literature in PubMed, MEDLINE and the ISI Web of Science. The correlation between CXCR4 expression and clinicopathological features and breast cancer prognosis was analyzed. This meta-analysis was carried out using Review Manager 4.2.
Thirteen eligible studies consisting of 3865 participants were included. We found that breast cancers with CXCR4 expression were associated with lymph node status (pooled RR =1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43, P<0.001) and distant metastasis (pooled RR =1.52, 95% CI: 1.17-1.98, P = 0.125). CXCR4 overexpression was significantly associated with disease free survival (DFS) (RR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.70–0.86, P = 0.554) and overall survival (OS) (RR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.59–0.83, P = 0.329). However, there was no significant association between CXCR4 expression and some clinical parameters of breast cancer, such as tumor category, ER status, PR status, or c-erbB-2 status.
Our meta-analysis showed that CXCR4 is an efficient prognostic factor for breast cancer. Overexpression of CXCR4 was significantly associated with lymph node status and distant metastasis and indicated poor overall and disease free survival.
Breast cancer; CXCR4; Prognosis
Nonparametric varying coefficient models are useful for studying the time-dependent effects of variables. Many procedures have been developed for estimation and variable selection in such models. However, existing work has focused on the case when the number of variables is fixed or smaller than the sample size. In this paper, we consider the problem of variable selection and estimation in varying coefficient models in sparse, high-dimensional settings when the number of variables can be larger than the sample size. We apply the group Lasso and basis function expansion to simultaneously select the important variables and estimate the nonzero varying coefficient functions. Under appropriate conditions, we show that the group Lasso selects a model of the right order of dimensionality, selects all variables with the norms of the corresponding coefficient functions greater than certain threshold level, and is estimation consistent. However, the group Lasso is in general not selection consistent and tends to select variables that are not important in the model. In order to improve the selection results, we apply the adaptive group Lasso. We show that, under suitable conditions, the adaptive group Lasso has the oracle selection property in the sense that it correctly selects important variables with probability converging to one. In contrast, the group Lasso does not possess such oracle property. Both approaches are evaluated using simulation and demonstrated on a data example.
Basis expansion; group Lasso; high-dimensional data; non-parametric coefficient function; selection consistency; sparsity
Paclitaxel, a known TLR4 ligand, leads to activation of TLR4/MyD88-dependent pathway that mediates chemoresistance and tumor progression in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Atractylenolide-I (AO-I), a novel TLR4-antagonizing agent, inhibits TLR4 signaling by interfering with the binding of LPS or paclitaxel to membrane TLR4 of human leukocytes. In this study, AO-I was found to attenuate paclitaxel-induced protein expression of IL-6, VEGF and survivin, and to enhance early apoptosis and growth inhibition in MyD88+ EOC cells; AO-I was shown to fit into the hydrophobic pocket of human MD-2 and to partially overlap with the binding site of paclitaxel by docking simulations, suggesting that AO-I may block the MD-2-mediated TLR4/MyD88-dependent paclitaxel signaling in MyD88+ EOC cells. Therefore, AO-I could significantly sensitize the response of MyD88+ EOC cells to paclitaxel by blocking MD-2-mediated TLR4/MyD88 signaling, and that AO-I-paclitaxel combination could be a promising strategy for the treatment of EOC with a functional TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway.
Data on the association between the interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene polymorphisms and Graves' disease (GD) risk were conflicting. A meta-analysis was undertaken to assess this association.
We searched for case-control studies investigating the association between the IL1B (-511), IL1B (+3954), IL1RN (VNTR) polymorphisms and GD risk. We extracted data using standardized forms and calculated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
A total of 11 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Available data indicated that the IL1B (-511) polymorphism was associated with GD risk in the overall populations (Caucasians and Asians) in homozygote model (TT vs. CC, OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76–0.97, Pz = 0.015), but not in dominant and recessive models (TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.81–1.12, Pz = 0.553 and TT vs. TC+CC: OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.60–1.12, Pz = 0.205, respectively). No association between the IL1B (+3954), IL1RN (VNTR) polymorphisms and GD risk was found in the overall populations in any of the genetic models. In subgroup analyses according to ethnicity, the IL1B (-511) polymorphism was associated with GD risk in Asians in recessive and homozygote models (TT vs. TC+CC: OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.55–0.84, Pz<0.001 and TT vs. CC: OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70–0.93, Pz = 0.003, respectively), but not in dominant model (TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.77–1.11, Pz = 0.389). No association between the IL1B (+3954), IL1RN (VNTR) polymorphisms and GD risk was indicated in Asians, and we found no association between the IL1B (-511), IL1B (+3954), IL1RN (VNTR) polymorphisms and GD risk in Caucasians in any of the genetic models.
The IL1B (-511) polymorphism, but not the IL1B (+3954) and IL1RN (VNTR) polymorphisms was associated with GD risk in Asians. There was no association between these polymorphisms and GD risk in Caucasians.
Truncating mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) are strongly linked to colorectal cancers. APC is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway and constitutive Wnt activation mediated by enhanced Wnt–β-catenin target gene activation is believed to be the predominant mechanism responsible for APC mutant phenotypes. However, recent evidence suggests that additional downstream effectors contribute to APC mutant phenotypes. We previously identified a mechanism in cultured human cells by which APC, acting through glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), suppresses mTORC1, a nutrient sensor that regulates cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that truncating Apc mutations should activate mTORC1 in vivo and that mTORC1 plays an important role in Apc mutant phenotypes. We find that mTORC1 is strongly activated in apc mutant zebrafish and in intestinal polyps in Apc mutant mice. Furthermore, mTORC1 activation is essential downstream of APC as mTORC1 inhibition partially rescues Apc mutant phenotypes including early lethality, reduced circulation and liver hyperplasia. Importantly, combining mTORC1 and Wnt inhibition rescues defects in morphogenesis of the anterior-posterior axis that are not rescued by inhibition of either pathway alone. These data establish mTORC1 as a crucial, β-catenin independent effector of oncogenic Apc mutations and highlight the importance of mTORC1 regulation by APC during embryonic development. Our findings also suggest a new model of colorectal cancer pathogenesis in which mTORC1 is activated in parallel with Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
APC; Wnt; mTOR; mTORC1; Zebrafish; Colon cancer; Polyposis; GSK-3
Cerebral white matter lesion (WML) is one of the main causes for cognitive impairment and is often caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. A line of evidence has shown that aspirin has neuroprotective effects and produces some benefits in long-term outcome and survival for ischemic stroke patients. However, whether aspirin exerts a protective effect against WML is still largely unknown. Here, we showed that aspirin could promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation and differentiation into oligodendrocytes after WML. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, a well-established model for WML. Four weeks later, Morris water maze test showed an impairment of learning and memory ability of rat while aspirin treatment improved behavioral performance. Low dose of aspirin (25 mg/kg) was found to elevate the number of OPCs while relatively high doses (100–200 mg/kg) increased that of oligodendrocytes, and ameliorated WML-induced the thinning of myelin, as revealed by the electron microscope. Similarly, our in vitro study also showed that relatively low and high doses of aspirin enhanced OPC proliferation and differentiation into oligodendrocytes, respectively. Furthermore, we revealed that aspirin enhanced extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) but inhibited RhoA activities. In summary, we provided the first evidence that aspirin can promote oligodendrogenesis and oligodendrocyte myelination after WML, which may involve ERK and RhoA pathways.
aspirin; oligodendrocytes; oligodendrocyte precursor cells; white matter lesion; extracellular signal-related kinase; RhoA
We report the case of a patient with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) who exhibited sudden progression of lung infiltration while maintaining stable kidney function. The 69-year-old man was diagnosed with AAV and renal insufficiency 4 years ago. Pulmonic affectation was detected in the right lower lobe of lung by a computed tomography (CT) scan. After beginning cyclophosphamide pulse therapy and sequential therapy with low-dose prednisone, he underwent a 4-year follow-up to detect changes in hemoglobin levels and serum creatinine levels, and had chest CT examinations. The CT scan and creatinine assay showed stable pulmonic fibrosis and kidney function. Although there was no increase of creatinine and detectable perinuclear ANCA, the patient suffered a pulmonary hemorrhage and levels of hemoglobin became progressive lower; the lung infiltration was found to be enlarged compared to the last examination the previous year. After immunosuppressive therapy for one week, the lung fibrosis was progressive, increased pulmonary hemorrhage occurred, and the patient died due to respiratory failure but not end-stage renal failure.
vasculitis; ANCA; lung fibrosis; pulmonary hemorrhage; renal insufficiency
To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility.
A retrospective cohort study.
Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis.
Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care.
Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility.
The Forkhead Box L1 (Foxl1) transcription factor regulates epithelial proliferation and development of gastrointestinal tract, and has been implicated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic tumorigenesis. However, the role of Foxl1 in renal cancer development and progression remains to be elucidated. The study was conducted to investigate the expression of Foxl1 and its prognostic significance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Meanwhile, the function of Foxl1 in human ccRCC was further investigated in cell culture models. Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR, western-blot, immunohistochemistry were used to explore Foxl1 expression in primary ccRCC clinical specimens and ccRCC cell lines. Foxl1 expression was up-regulated by over-expression vector in 786-O and ACHN cells, proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion were assayed. Results: Foxl1 expression was down-regulated in the majority of the ccRCC clinical tissue specimens at both mRNA and protein levels. Clinic pathological analysis showed that Foxl1 expression was significantly correlated with tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, clinical TNM stage (cTNM) and histological grade of renal cancer. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that low Foxl1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in ccRCC patients. Foxl1 expression was an independent prognostic marker of overall ccRCC patient survival in a multivariate analysis. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that over-expression of Foxl1 inhibits tumor cell growth, migration and invasion in renal cancer cells. Conclusions: These results suggest that Foxl1 expression is a candidate predictor of clinical outcome in patients with resected ccRCC and it plays an inhibitory role in renal tumor progression.
Foxl1; clear cell renal cell carcinoma; prognosis
Argonaute 2 proteins (Ago2) have been demonstrated to be widely expressed and involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing and play key roles in carcinogenesis. However, its expression profile and prognostic value in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) have not been investigated. Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to explore Ago2 expression in UCBs and normal bladder tissues. Moreover immunohistochemistry (ICH) was used to detect the expression of Ago2 in UCBs. Spearman’s rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to analyze the data. Results: Up-regulated expression of Ago2 mRNA and protein was observed in the majority of UCBs by qRT-PCR and Western blot when compared with their paired normal bladder tissues. Clinic pathological analysis was showed a significant correlation existed between the higher expression of Ago2 protein with the Histological grade, lymph node metastasis and Distant metastasis (P<0.05); Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test demonstrated that elevated Ago2 expression in cancer tissue predicted poorer overall survival (OS) compared with group in lower expression (62.2% VS 86.3%, P<0.05). Notably, multivariate analyses by Cox’s proportional hazard model revealed that expression of Ago2 was an independent prognostic factor in UCB. Conclusions: These results suggest that the aberrant expression of Ago2 in human UCB is possibly involved with tumorigenesis and development, and the Ago2 protein could act as a potential biomarker for prognosis assessment of bladder cancer. Further studies on the cellular functions of Ago2 need to address these issues.
Urothelial carcinoma of bladder; Argonaute 2; immunohistochemical; prognosis
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) with NBS1 germ-line mutation is a human autosomal recessive disease characterized by genomic instability and enhanced cancer predisposition. The NBS1 gene codes for a protein, Nbs1(p95/Nibrin), involved in the processing/repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and heterogeneous tumor with several genomic alterations. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous NBS1 mice exhibited a higher incidence of HCC than did wild-type mice. The objective of the present study is to assess whether NBS1 mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of human primary liver cancer, including HBV-associated HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Eight missense NBS1 mutations were identified in six of 64 (9.4%) HCCs and two of 18 (11.1%) ICCs, whereas only one synonymous mutation was found in 89 control cases of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B. Analysis of the functional consequences of the identified NBS1 mutations in Mre11-binding domain showed loss of nuclear localization of Nbs1 partner Mre11, one of the hallmarks for Nbs1 deficiency, in one HCC and two ICCs with NBS1 mutations. Moreover, seven of the eight tumors with NBS1 mutations had at least one genetic alteration in the TP53 pathway, including TP53 mutation, MDM2 amplification, p14ARF homozygous deletion and promoter methylation, implying a synergistic effect of Nbs1 disruption and p53 inactivation. Our findings provide novel insight on the molecular pathogenesis of primary liver cancer characterized by mutation inactivation of NBS1, a DNA repair associated gene.
The ℓ1-penalized method, or the Lasso, has emerged as an important tool for the analysis of large data sets. Many important results have been obtained for the Lasso in linear regression which have led to a deeper understanding of high-dimensional statistical problems. In this article, we consider a class of weighted ℓ1-penalized estimators for convex loss functions of a general form, including the generalized linear models. We study the estimation, prediction, selection and sparsity properties of the weighted ℓ1-penalized estimator in sparse, high-dimensional settings where the number of predictors p can be much larger than the sample size n. Adaptive Lasso is considered as a special case. A multistage method is developed to approximate concave regularized estimation by applying an adaptive Lasso recursively. We provide prediction and estimation oracle inequalities for single- and multi-stage estimators, a general selection consistency theorem, and an upper bound for the dimension of the Lasso estimator. Important models including the linear regression, logistic regression and log-linear models are used throughout to illustrate the applications of the general results.
variable selection; penalized estimation; oracle inequality; generalized linear models; selection consistency; sparsity
It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation plays an active role in cancer. Inflammatory immunocytes and related cytokines in the tumor microenvironment are supposed to be a “double-edged sword” in colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, can promote cancer-elicited inflammation and prevent cancer cells from immune surveillance. Despite controversy, IL-17 is generally considered to be a promoter in CRC progression. In this review, we devote to summarize the current progress regarding the role of IL-17 in tumor initiation and progression, as well as the prognostic value in CRC.
The prognostic value of HIFs in colorectal cancer was evaluated in a large number of studies, but the conclusions were inconclusive. Meanwhile, clinicopathologic differences of HIF-1α and HIF-2α were rarely compared in recent studies.
Identical search strategies were used to search relevant literatures in the PubMed and Web of Science databases. The prognostic significances and clinicopathological differences of HIFs in CRC were analyzed.
A total of 23studies comprising 2984 CRC patients met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that overexpressed HIFs were significantly associated with increase of mortality risk, including overall survival (OS) (HR 2.06 95%CI 1.55–2.74) and disease free survival (HR 2.84, 95%CI 1.87–4.31). Subgroup analysis revealed that both overexpressed HIF-1α and HIF-2α had correlations with worse prognosis. The pooled HRs were 2.01 (95% CI: 1.55–2.6) and 2.07(95% CI: 1.01–4.26). Further subgroup analysis on HIF-1α was performed by study location, number of patients, quality score and cut-off value. The results showed that HIF-1α overexpression was significantly associated with poor OS, particularly in Asian countries (HR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.74–3.01), while not in European or other countries. In addition, overexpression of HIF-1α was closely related with these clinicopathological features, including Dukes' stages (OR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17–0.89), UICC stages (OR 0.42 95% CI: 0.3–0.59), depth of invasion (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51–0.99), lymphnode status (OR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32–0.73) and metastasis (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11–0.81). While overexpression of HIF-2α was only associated with grade of differentiation (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29–0.81).
This study showed that both HIF-1α and HIF-2α overexpression were associated with an unfavorable prognosis. HIF-1α overexpression seemed to be associated with worse prognosis in Asian countries. Additionally, HIF-1α and HIF-2α indicated distinct clinicopathologic features.
The dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes plays an important role in many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is one of the most common cancers in the world. In a previous microarray experiment, we found that DLGAP5 is overexpressed in HCCs. However, whether the up-regulation of DLGAP5 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear.
In this study, we showed that DLGAP5 was significantly up-regulated in 76.4% (168 of 220) of the analyzed HCC specimens when compared with adjacent liver tissue. DLGAP5 overexpression was evident in 25% (22 of 88) of the HCC specimens without AFP expression, suggesting that DLGAP5 may be a novel biomarker for HCC pathogenesis. The silencing of DLGAP5 gene expression by RNA interference significantly suppressed cell growth, migration and colony formation in vitro. The expression level of DLGAP5 was also found to be related to the methylation level of its promoter in the HCC specimens.
Taken together, these data suggest that the expression of DLGAP5 is regulated by methylation and that the up-regulation of DLGAP5 contributes to HCC tumorigenesis by promoting cell proliferation.
The prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detected in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still inconsistent. We aimed to assess the prognostic relevance of CTCs using a meta-analysis.
We searched PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE for relevant studies that assessed the prognostic relevance of CTCs in NSCLC. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence, odds ratio, relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fixed or random-effects models according to the heterogeneity of included studies.
A total of 20 studies, comprising 1576 patients, met the inclusion criteria. In identified studies, CTCs were not correlated with histology (adenocarcinoma vs squamous cell carcinoma) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–1.33; Z = –0.61; P = 0.545). However, pooled analyses showed that CTCs were associated with lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.18–3.62; Z = 2.20; P = 0.027) and tumor stage (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.08–3.54; Z = 2.53; P = 0.011). Moreover, CTCs were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (relative risk [RR] = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.53–3.12; Z = 4.32; P<0.0001) and progression-free/disease-free survival (RR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.36–3.38; Z = 3.28; P<0.0001).
The presence of CTCs indicates a poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Further well-designed prospective studies are required to explore the clinical applications of CTCs in lung cancer.
NgBR is a type I receptor with a single transmembrane domain and was identified as a specific receptor for Nogo-B. Our recent findings demonstrated that NgBR binds farnesylated Ras and recruits Ras to the plasma membrane, which is a critical step required for the activation of Ras signaling in human breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis. Here, we first use immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR approaches to examine the expression patterns of Nogo-B and NgBR in both normal and breast tumor tissues. Then, we examine the relationship between NgBR expression and molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and the roles of NgBR in estrogen-dependent survivin signaling pathway. Results showed that NgBR and Nogo-B protein were detected in both normal and breast tumor tissues. However, the expression of Nogo-B and NgBR in breast tumor tissue was much stronger than in normal breast tissue. The statistical analysis demonstrated that NgBR is highly associated with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer. We also found that the expression of NgBR has a strong correlation with the expression of survivin, which is a well-known apoptosis inhibitor. The correlation between NgBR and survivin gene expression was further confirmed by real-time PCR. In vitro results also demonstrated that estradiol induces the expression of survivin in ER-positive T47D breast tumor cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 breast tumor cells. NgBR knockdown with siRNA abolishes estradiol-induced survivin expression in ER-positive T47D cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, estradiol increases the expression of survivin and cell growth in ER-positive MCF-7 and T47D cells whereas knockdown of NgBR with siRNA reduces estradiol-induced survivin expression and cell growth. In summary, these results indicate that NgBR is a new molecular marker for breast cancer. The data suggest that the expression of NgBR may be essential in promoting ER-positive tumor cell proliferation via survivin induction in breast cancer.