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1.  CHRNA3/5, IREB2, and ADCY2 Are Associated with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Poland 
We examined the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or lung function with COPD and COPD-related phenotypes in a novel cohort of patients with severe to very severe COPD. We examined 315 cases of COPD and 330 Caucasian control smokers from Poland. We included three SNPs previously associated with COPD: rs7671167 (FAM13A), rs13180 (IREB2), and rs8034191 (CHRNA 3/5), and four SNPs associated with lung function in a genome-wide association study of general population samples: rs2070600 (AGER), rs11134242 (ADCY2), rs4316710 (THSD4), and rs17096090 (INTS12). We tested for associations with severe COPD and COPD-related phenotypes, including lung function, smoking behavior, and body mass index. Subjects with COPD were older (average age 62 versus 58 years, P < 0.01), with more pack-years of smoking (45 versus 33 pack-years, P < 0.01). CHRNA3/5 (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–2.4; P = 7.4 × 10−7), IREB2 (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.5–0.9; P = 3.4 × 10−3), and ADCY2 (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.1–1.7; P = 0.01) demonstrated significant associations with COPD. FAM13A (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7–1.0; P = 0.11) approached statistical significance. FAM13A and ADCY2 also demonstrated a significant association with lung function. Thus, in severe to very severe COPD, we demonstrate a replication of association between two SNPs previously associated with COPD (CHRNA3/5 and IREB2), as well as an association with COPD of one locus initially associated with lung function (ADCY2).
PMCID: PMC3423462  PMID: 22461431
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; genetic association analysis; lung function; smoking; nicotine addiction
2.  A genome-wide association study of COPD identifies a susceptibility locus on chromosome 19q13 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;21(4):947-957.
The genetic risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still largely unknown. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of limited size have identified several novel risk loci for COPD at CHRNA3/CHRNA5/IREB2, HHIP and FAM13A; additional loci may be identified through larger studies. We performed a GWAS using a total of 3499 cases and 1922 control subjects from four cohorts: the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE); the Normative Aging Study (NAS) and National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT); Bergen, Norway (GenKOLS); and the COPDGene study. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms with additional markers imputed using 1000 Genomes data; results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified a new genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 19q13 (rs7937, OR = 0.74, P = 2.9 × 10−9). Genotyping this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and another nearby SNP in linkage disequilibrium (rs2604894) in 2859 subjects from the family-based International COPD Genetics Network study (ICGN) demonstrated supportive evidence for association for COPD (P = 0.28 and 0.11 for rs7937 and rs2604894), pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (P = 0.08 and 0.04) and severe (GOLD 3&4) COPD (P = 0.09 and 0.017). This region includes RAB4B, EGLN2, MIA and CYP2A6, and has previously been identified in association with cigarette smoking behavior.
PMCID: PMC3298111  PMID: 22080838
3.  The Association of Genome-Wide Significant Spirometric Loci with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Susceptibility 
Two recent metaanalyses of genome-wide association studies conducted by the CHARGE and SpiroMeta consortia identified novel loci yielding evidence of association at or near genome-wide significance (GWS) with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesized that a subset of these markers would also be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. Thirty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 17 genes in 11 previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions were tested for association with COPD status in four COPD case-control study samples (NETT/NAS, the Norway case-control study, ECLIPSE, and the first 1,000 subjects in COPDGene; total sample size, 3,456 cases and 1,906 controls). In addition to testing the 32 spirometric GWS SNPs, we tested a dense panel of imputed HapMap2 SNP markers from the 17 genes located near the 32 GWS SNPs and in a set of 21 well studied COPD candidate genes. Of the previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions, three loci harbored SNPs associated with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate: the 4q24 locus including FLJ20184/INTS12/GSTCD/NPNT, the 6p21 locus including AGER and PPT2, and the 5q33 locus including ADAM19. In conclusion, markers previously associated at or near GWS with spirometric measures were tested for association with COPD status in data from four COPD case-control studies, and three loci showed evidence of association with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate.
PMCID: PMC3262664  PMID: 21659657
4.  An empirical assessment of validation practices for molecular classifiers 
Briefings in Bioinformatics  2011;12(3):189-202.
Proposed molecular classifiers may be overfit to idiosyncrasies of noisy genomic and proteomic data. Cross-validation methods are often used to obtain estimates of classification accuracy, but both simulations and case studies suggest that, when inappropriate methods are used, bias may ensue. Bias can be bypassed and generalizability can be tested by external (independent) validation. We evaluated 35 studies that have reported on external validation of a molecular classifier. We extracted information on study design and methodological features, and compared the performance of molecular classifiers in internal cross-validation versus external validation for 28 studies where both had been performed. We demonstrate that the majority of studies pursued cross-validation practices that are likely to overestimate classifier performance. Most studies were markedly underpowered to detect a 20% decrease in sensitivity or specificity between internal cross-validation and external validation [median power was 36% (IQR, 21–61%) and 29% (IQR, 15–65%), respectively]. The median reported classification performance for sensitivity and specificity was 94% and 98%, respectively, in cross-validation and 88% and 81% for independent validation. The relative diagnostic odds ratio was 3.26 (95% CI 2.04–5.21) for cross-validation versus independent validation. Finally, we reviewed all studies (n = 758) which cited those in our study sample, and identified only one instance of additional subsequent independent validation of these classifiers. In conclusion, these results document that many cross-validation practices employed in the literature are potentially biased and genuine progress in this field will require adoption of routine external validation of molecular classifiers, preferably in much larger studies than in current practice.
PMCID: PMC3088312  PMID: 21300697
predictive medicine; genes; gene expression; proteomics
5.  The COPD genetic association compendium: a comprehensive online database of COPD genetic associations 
Human Molecular Genetics  2009;19(3):526-534.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is thought to arise from the interaction of environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility, and major research efforts are underway to identify genetic determinants of COPD susceptibility. With the exception of SERPINA1, genetic associations with COPD identified by candidate gene studies have been inconsistently replicated, and this literature is difficult to interpret. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all population-based, case–control candidate gene COPD studies indexed in PubMed before 16 July 2008. We stored our findings in an online database, which serves as an up-to-date compendium of COPD genetic associations and cumulative meta-analysis estimates. On the basis of our systematic review, the vast majority of COPD candidate gene era studies are underpowered to detect genetic effect odds ratios of 1.2–1.5. We identified 27 genetic variants with adequate data for quantitative meta-analysis. Of these variants, four were significantly associated with COPD susceptibility in random effects meta-analysis, the GSTM1 null variant (OR 1.45, CI 1.09–1.92), rs1800470 in TGFB1 (0.73, CI 0.64–0.83), rs1800629 in TNF (OR 1.19, CI 1.01–1.40) and rs1799896 in SOD3 (OR 1.97, CI 1.24–3.13). In summary, most COPD candidate gene era studies are underpowered to detect moderate-sized genetic effects. Quantitative meta-analysis identified four variants in GSTM1, TGFB1, TNF and SOD3 that show statistically significant evidence of association with COPD susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC2798725  PMID: 19933216
6.  Laboratory Mouse Models for the Human Genome-Wide Associations 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e13782.
The agnostic screening performed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has uncovered associations for previously unsuspected genes. Knowledge about the functional role of these genes is crucial and laboratory mouse models can provide such information. Here, we describe a systematic juxtaposition of human GWAS-discovered loci versus mouse models in order to appreciate the availability of mouse models data, to gain biological insights for the role of these genes and to explore the extent of concordance between these two lines of evidence. We perused publicly available data (NHGRI database for human associations and Mouse Genome Informatics database for mouse models) and employed two alternative approaches for cross-species comparisons, phenotype- and gene-centric. A total of 293 single gene-phenotype human associations (262 unique genes and 69 unique phenotypes) were evaluated. In the phenotype-centric approach, we identified all mouse models and related ortholog genes for the 51 human phenotypes with a comparable phenotype in mice. A total of 27 ortholog genes were found to be associated with the same phenotype in humans and mice, a concordance that was significantly larger than expected by chance (p<0.001). In the gene-centric approach, we were able to locate at least 1 knockout model for 60% of the 262 genes. The knockouts for 35% of these orthologs displayed pre- or post-natal lethality. For the remaining non-lethal orthologs, the same organ system was involved in mice and humans in 71% of the cases (p<0.001). Our project highlights the wealth of available information from mouse models for human GWAS, catalogues extensive information on plausible physiologic implications for many genes, provides hypothesis-generating findings for additional GWAS analyses and documents that the concordance between human and mouse genetic association is larger than expected by chance and can be informative.
PMCID: PMC2967475  PMID: 21072174
7.  Genetic Associations With Hypoxemia and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in COPD* 
Chest  2008;135(3):737-744.
Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are known complications of advanced COPD. We sought to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with these traits in a population of patients with severe COPD from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT).
In 389 participants from the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in five candidate genes previously associated with COPD susceptibility (EPHX1, SERPINE2, SFTPB, TGFB1, and GSTP1). Linear regression models were used to test for associations among these SNPs and three quantitative COPD-related traits (Pao2, Paco2, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure). Genes associated with hypoxemia were tested for replication in probands from the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study.
In the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study population, SNPs in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) [p = 0.01 to 0.04] and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2) [p = 0.04 to 0.008] were associated with hypoxemia. One SNP within surfactant protein B (SFTPB) was associated with pulmonary artery systolic pressure (p = 0.01). In probands from the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, SNPs in EPHX1 and in SERPINE2 were associated with the requirement for supplemental oxygen.
In participants with severe COPD, SNPs in EPHX1 and SERPINE2 were associated with hypoxemia in two separate study populations, and SNPs from SFTPB were associated with pulmonary artery pressure in the NETT participants.
PMCID: PMC2906241  PMID: 19017876
case-control studies; COPD; genetics; phenotype; single-nucleotide polymorphism

Results 1-7 (7)