Bone cancer pain seriously affects the quality of life of cancer patients. Our previous study found that endogenous formaldehyde was produced by cancer cells metastasized into bone marrows and played an important role in bone cancer pain. However, the mechanism of production of this endogenous formaldehyde by metastatic cancer cells was unknown in bone cancer pain rats. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is one of the major enzymes catalyzing the production of formaldehyde. The expression of LSD1 and the concentration of formaldehyde were up-regulated in many high-risk tumors.
This study aimed to investigate whether LSD1 in metastasized MRMT-1 breast cancer cells in bone marrows participated in the production of endogenous formaldehyde in bone cancer pain rats.
Concentration of the endogenous formaldehyde was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Endogenous formaldehyde dramatically increased in cultured MRMT-1 breast cancer cells in vitro, in bone marrows and sera of bone cancer pain rats, in tumor tissues and sera of MRMT-1 subcutaneous vaccination model rats in vivo. Formaldehyde at a concentration as low as the above measured (3 mM) induced pain behaviors in normal rats. The expression of LSD1 which mainly located in nuclei of cancer cells significantly increased in bone marrows of bone cancer pain rats from 14 d to 21 d after inoculation. Furthermore, inhibition of LSD1 decreased the production of formaldehyde in MRMT-1 cells in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of LSD1 inhibitor pargyline from 3 d to 14 d after inoculation of MRMT-1 cancer cells reduced bone cancer pain behaviors.
Our data in the present study, combing our previous report, suggested that in the endogenous formaldehyde-induced pain in bone cancer pain rats, LSD1 in metastasized cancer cells contributed to the production of the endogenous formaldehyde.
The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV H1N1) that infected almost every country in the world. Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury. In this report, we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease. The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model. Moreover, elevated levels of IL-17, Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing. IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice. These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics.
cytokine; acute lung injury; S-OIV H1N1
p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. It does so by inducing anti-proliferative processes as a response to various tumor-promoting stresses. p53 is regulated by the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. The optimal function of Mdm2 requires Daxx, which stabilizes Mdm2 through the deubiquitinase Hausp/USP7 and also directly promotes Mdm2’s ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53. The Daxx-Mdm2 interaction is disrupted upon DNA damage. However, both the mechanisms and the consequence of the Daxx-Mdm2 dissociation are not understood. Here we show that upon DNA damage Daxx is phosphorylated in a manner that is dependent on ATM, a member of the PI 3-kinase family that orchestrates the DNA damage response. The main phosphorylation site of Daxx is identified to be Ser564, which is a direct target of ATM. Phosphorylation of endogenous Daxx at Ser564 occurs rapidly during the DNA damage response and precedes p53 activation. Blockage of this phosphorylation event prevents the separation of Daxx from Mdm2, stabilizes Mdm2, and inhibits DNA damage-induced p53 activation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Daxx by ATM upon DNA damage disrupts the Daxx-Mdm2 interaction and facilitates p53 activation.
Ghrelin has been reported to protect the cardiovascular system; however, the cardioprotective effect of ghrelin against cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced myocardial injury are unclear. In this study, the protective effect of ghrelin on CPB induced myocardial injury and the underlying mechanisms were investigated.
Methods and Results
Adult male rats were subjected to CPB and randomly to receive vehicle (n = 8), ghrelin (n = 8), ghrelin plus [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, a GHSR-1a inhibitor (n = 8), or ghrelin plus wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3′-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (n = 8). In vitro study was performed on cultured cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated cardiopulmonary bypass (SCPB). Ghrelin attenuated the inﬂammatory response, as evidenced by reduced induction of TNF-α, IL-6 and myocardial myeloperoxidase activity and concurrent reduction in apoptosis, oxidative stress, and levels of myocardial injury markers following CPB. Moreover, ghrelin significantly increased cardiac function after CPB. In cultured cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated CPB, ghrelin increased cell viability and decreased the percentage of apoptotic myocytes. Inhibition of ghrelin downstream signaling blocked the cardioprotective effects both in vivo and vitro.
Ghrelin could provide an effective approach to the attenuation of CPB induced myocardial injury. The cardioprotective effects elicited by ghrelin may contribute to the inhibition of inflammatory response through the Akt-activated pathway.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mainly infects macrophages/dendritic cells and modulates cytokine expression in these cells. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in wide range of biological activities. It has been shown to be essential for the generation, activation, and proliferation of NK and NKT cells and for the survival and activation of CD8+ effector and memory T cells. In this study, we discovered that PRRSV infection upregulated IL-15 production at both the mRNA and protein levels in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMo), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). We subsequently demonstrated that the NF-κB signaling pathway was essential for PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production. First, addition of an NF-κB inhibitor drastically reduced PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production. We then found that NF-κB was indeed activated upon PRRSV infection, as evidenced by IκB phosphorylation and degradation. Moreover, we revealed an NF-κB binding motif in the cloned porcine IL-15 (pIL-15) promoter, deletion of which abrogated the pIL-15 promoter activity in PRRSV-infected alveolar macrophages. In addition, we demonstrated that PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein had the ability to induce IL-15 production in porcine alveolar macrophage cell line CRL2843 by transient transfection, which was mediated by its multiple motifs, and it also activated NF-κB. These data indicated that PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production was likely through PRRSV N protein-mediated NF-κB activation. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underling the IL-15 production induced by PRRSV infection.
Neuropathic pain (NP) is an intractable clinical problem without satisfactory treatments. However, certain natural products have been revealed as effective therapeutic agents for the management of pain states. In this study, we used the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model to investigate the antinociceptive effect of triptolide (T10), a major active component of the traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Intrathecal T10 inhibited the mechanical nociceptive response induced by SNL without interfering with motor performance. Additionally, the anti-nociceptive effect of T10 was associated with the inhibition of the activation of spinal astrocytes. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of T10 attenuated SNL-induced janus kinase (JAK) signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling pathway activation and inhibited the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and tumour necrosis factor-α, in dorsal horn astrocytes. Moreover, NR2B-containing spinal N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) was subsequently inhibited. Above all, T10 can alleviate SNL-induced NP via inhibiting the neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn. The anti-inflammation effect of T10 may be related with the suppression of spinal astrocytic JAK-STAT3 activation. Our results suggest that T10 may be a promising drug for the treatment of NP.
Poor survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) compromised the efficacy of stem cell therapy for ischemic diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PEP-1-CAT transduction in MSC survival and its effect on ischemia-induced angiogenesis.
MSC apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining and quantified by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow Cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities were simultaneously measured. MSC mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed with JC-1 staining. MSC survival in rat muscles with gender-mismatched transplantation of the MSC after lower limb ischemia was assessed by detecting SRY expression. MSC apoptosis in ischemic area was determined by TUNEL assay. The effect of PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC on angiogenesis in vivo was determined in the lower limb ischemia model.
PEP-1-CAT transduction decreased MSC apoptosis rate while down-regulating MDA content and blocking LDH release as compared to the treatment with H2O2 or CAT. However, SOD activity was up-regulated in PEP-1-CAT-transduced cells. Consistent with its effect on MSC apoptosis, PEP-1-CAT restored H2O2-attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT blocked H2O2-induced down-regulation of PI3K/Akt activity, an essential signaling pathway regulating MSC apoptosis. In vivo, the viability of MSC implanted into ischemic area in lower limb ischemia rat model was increased by four-fold when transduced with PEP-1-CAT. Importantly, PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC significantly enhanced ischemia-induced angiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF expression.
PEP-1-CAT-transduction was able to increase MSC viability by regulating PI3K/Akt activity, which stimulated ischemia-induced angiogenesis.
This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of operable breast cancers in young and elderly Chinese women.
Patients and Methods
This study included 209 patients aged ≤35 years and 213 patients aged ≥60 but <70 years, who received treatment between January 2000 and December 2004. The clinicopathological features, molecular subtypes, therapeutic strategies, and prognosis were evaluated.
Tumor size was of significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.018), with more T2 and T3 tumors in the young group and more lymph node involvement in young patients with stage T1 tumors (p = 0.033). There were more triple-negative and less luminal A tumors in the young group (p = 0.018). 47.1% of tumors were not detected by mammography in the young group as compared to 5.5% in the elderly group (p < 0.001). More patients received chemotherapy in the young group (p < 0.001) and preferred breast-conserving surgery (p = 0.031). The 6-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 80 and 66% in the elderly and the young group, respectively (p = 0.001), but no difference was seen in overall survival.
Compared with elderly women, young breast cancer patients have different clinicopathological features and molecular subtypes, and poorer DFS. Furthermore, the insidious onset of breast cancer in young women suggests that clinicians should pay more attention to young women with breast abnormalities.
Breast; cancer; Molecular subtypes; Prognostic features; Very young women; Elderly women
The 2009 influenza pandemic affected people in almost all countries in the world, especially in younger age groups. During this time, the debate over whether to use corticosteroid treatment in severe influenza H1N1 infections patients resurfaced and was disputed by clinicians. There is an urgent need for a susceptible animal model of 2009 H1N1 infection that can be used to evaluate the pathogenesis and the therapeutic effect of corticosteroid treatment during infection.
We intranasally inoculated two groups of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (using 4- or 6-to 8-week-old mice) to compare the pathogenesis of several different H1N1 strains in mice of different ages. Based on the results, a very susceptible 4-week-old C57BL/6 mouse model of Beijing 501 strain of 2009 H1N1 virus infection was established, showing significantly elevated lung edema and cytokine levels compared to controls. Using our established animal model, the cytokine production profile and lung histology were assessed at different times post-infection, revealing increased lung lesions in a time-dependent manner. In additional,the mice were also treated with dexamethasone, which significantly improved survival rate and lung lesions in infected mice compared to those in control mice. Our data showed that corticosteroid treatment ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the 2009 A/H1N1 virus in mice and suggested that corticosteroids are valid drugs for treating 2009 A/H1N1 infection.
Using the established, very susceptible 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) mouse model, our studies indicate that corticosteroids are a potential therapeutic remedy that may address the increasing concerns over future 2009 A/H1N1pandemics.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) improves myocardial survival and the engraftment of implanted MSC in infarcted hearts and promotes recruitment of stem cells through paracrine release of myocardial stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α).
Methods and results
VEGF-expressing MSC (VEGFMSC)-conditioned medium enhanced SDF-1α expression in heart slices and H9C2 cardiomyoblast cells via VEGF and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). The VEGFMSC-conditioned medium markedly promoted cardiac stem cell (CSC) migration at least in part via the SDF-1α/CXCR4 pathway and involved binding to VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-3. In vivo, VEGFMSC-stimulated SDF-1α expression in infarcted hearts resulted in massive mobilization and homing of bone marrow stem cells and CSC. Moreover, VEGF-induced SDF-1α guided the exogenously introduced CSC in the atrioventricular groove to migrate to the infarcted area, leading to a reduction in infarct size. Functional studies showed that VEGFMSC transplantation stimulated extensive angiomyogenesis in infarcted hearts as indicated by the expression of cardiac troponin T, CD31, and von Willebrand factor and improved the left ventricular performance, whereas blockade of SDF-1α or its receptor by RNAi or antagonist significantly diminished the beneficial effects of VEGFMSC.
Exogenously expressed VEGF promotes myocardial repair at least in part through SDF-1α/CXCR4-mediated recruitment of CSC.
Myocardial infarction; VEGF; SDF-1α; Cardiac stem cell; Migration
Nanoparticle applications in medicine have seen a tremendous growth in the last decade. In addition to their drug targeting application and their ability to improve bioavailability of drugs, nanoparticles can be designed to allow their detection with a variety of imaging methodologies.
In the current study we developed a multimodal nanoparticle platform to enable imaging guided therapy, which was evaluated in a colon cancer mouse model. This “theranostic” platform, is based on oil-in-water nanoemulsions and carries iron oxide nanocrystals for MRI, the fluorescent dye Cy7 for NIRF imaging and the hydrophobic glucocorticoid prednisolone acetate valerate (PAV) for therapeutic purposes. Angiogenesis targeted nanoemulsions functionalized with αvβ3-specific RGD-peptides were evaluated as well. When subcutaneous tumor were palpable the nanoemulsions were administered at a dose of 30 mg FeO/kg and 10 mg PAV/kg. MRI and NIRF imaging showed significant nanoparticle accumulation in the tumors, while tumor growth profiles revealed a potent inhibitory effect in all the PAV-nanoemulsions treated animals as compared to the ones treated with control nanoemulsions, the free drug or saline.
In conclusion, this study demonstrated that our nanoemulsions, when loaded with PAV, iron oxide nanocrystals and Cy7, represent a flexible and unique theranostic nanoparticle platform that can be applied for imaging guided therapy of cancer.
Nanoemulsions; Theranostics; Multimodal Imaging; Cancer Nanotherapy; Glucocorticoids
CD4+ T cells serve as master regulators of the adaptive immune response to HBV. However, CD4+ T-cell subsets are heterogeneous, and it remains unknown how the antiviral agents affect the different CD4+ T cell subtypes. To this end, the expressions of signature transcription factors and cytokines of CD4+ T-cell subtypes were examined in hepatitis B patients before and after treatment with telbivudine. Results showed that, upon the rapid HBV copy decrease induced by telbivudine treatment, the frequencies and related cytokines of Th17 and Treg cells were dramatically decreased, while those for Th2 cells were dramatically increased. No obvious changes were observed in Th1 cell frequencies; although, IFN-γ expression was upregulated in response to telbivudine treatment, suggesting another cell source of IFN-γ in CHB patients. Statistical analyses indicated that Th17 and Tr1 (a Treg subtype) cells were the most sensitive subpopulations of the peripheral blood CD4+ T cells to telbivudine treatment over 52 weeks. Thus, Th17 and Tr1 cells may represent a suitable and effective predictor of responsiveness during telbivudine therapy. These findings not only improve our understanding of hepatitis pathogenesis but also can aid in future development of appropriate therapeutic strategies to control viral hepatitis.
Directional migration of MDCK cells is regulated by the ratio of the deposited basement membrane proteins laminin-511 and laminin-332. Knockdown of laminin-511 or its receptor integrin α3 inhibits directional migration and destabilizes cell–cell contacts, disturbing the polarization machinery.
Sustained directional migration of epithelial cells is essential for regeneration of injured epithelia. Front–rear polarity of migrating cells is determined by local activation of a signaling network involving Cdc42 and other factors in response to spatial cues from the environment, the nature of which are obscure. We examined the roles of laminin (LM)-511 and LM-332, two structurally different laminin isoforms, in the migration of Madin–Darby canine kidney cells by suppressing expression of their α subunits using RNA interference. We determined that knockdown of LM-511 inhibits directional migration and destabilizes cell–cell contacts, in part by disturbing the localization and activity of the polarization machinery. Suppression of integrin α3, a laminin receptor subunit, in cells synthesizing normal amounts of both laminins has a similar effect as knockdown of LM-511. Surprisingly, simultaneous suppression of both laminin α5 and laminin α3 restores directional migration and cell–cell contact stability, suggesting that cells recognize a haptotactic gradient formed by a combination of laminins.
Chicken growth traits are important economic traits in broilers. A large number of studies are available on finding genetic factors affecting chicken growth. However, most of these studies identified chromosome regions containing putative quantitative trait loci and finding causal mutations is still a challenge. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified a narrow 1.5 Mb region (173.5–175 Mb) of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome (GGA) 1 to be strongly associated with chicken growth using 47,678 SNPs and 489 F2 chickens. The growth traits included aggregate body weight (BW) at 0–90 d of age measured weekly, biweekly average daily gains (ADG) derived from weekly body weight, and breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW) and wing weight (WW) at 90 d of age. Five SNPs in the 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region at GGA1 had the highest significant effects for all growth traits in this study, including a SNP at 8.9 Kb upstream of FOXO1A for BW at 22–48 d and 70 d, a SNP at 1.9 Kb downstream of FOXO1A for WW, a SNP at 20.9 Kb downstream of ENSGALG00000022732 for ADG at 29–42 d, a SNP in INTS6 for BW at 90 d, and a SNP in KPNA3 for BMW and LMW. The 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region contained two microRNA genes that could bind to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of IGF1, FOXO1A and KPNA3. It was further indicated that the 1.5 Mb GGA1 region had the strongest effects on chicken growth during 22–42 d.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide with demonstrated immunosuppressive and neuroprotective activities. It has been shown to inhibit Amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration by indirectly suppressing the production and release of a variety of inflammatory and neurotoxic factors by activated microglia. We demonstrated that VIP markedly increased microglial phagocytosis of fibrillar Aβ42 and that this enhanced phagocytotic activity depended on activation of the Protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. In addition, VIP suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide(NO) from microglia activated by combined treatment with fibrillar Aβ42 and low dose interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We utilized an adenovirus-mediated gene delivery method to overexpress VIP constitutively in the hippocampus of APPswPS1 transgenic mice. The Aβ load was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of this animal model of Alzheimer's disease, possibly due to the accumulation and activation of cd11b-immunoactive microglial cells. The modulation of microglial activation, phagocytosis, and secretion by VIP is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD).
This work reports on Raman scattering of rhodamine (R6G) molecules absorbed on either randomly distributed or grating-like arrays of approximately 8-nm Ag nanoparticles developed by inert gas aggregation. Optimal growth and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) parameters have been obtained for the randomly distributed nanoparticles, while effects related to the aging of the silver nanoparticles were studied. Grating-like arrays of nanoparticles have been fabricated using line arrays templates formed either by fracture-induced structuring or by standard lithographic techniques. Grating structures fabricated by both methods exhibit an enhancement of the SERS signal, in comparison to the corresponding signal from randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles, as well as a preferential enhancement in the areas of the sharp features, and a dependence on the polarization direction of the incident exciting laser beam, with respect to the orientation of the gratings structuring. The observed spectroscopic features are consistent with a line-arrangement of hot-spots due to the self- alignment of metallic nanoparticles, induced by the grating-like templates.
SERS; self-aligned silver nanoparticles; R6G; Raman spectra; nanotechnology (design-applications)
The transcription factor Batf controls TH17 differentiation by regulating the expression of both RORγt and RORγt target genes such as Il17. Here, we report the mechanism by which Batf controls in vivo class switch recombination (CSR). In T cells, Batf directly controls expression of the transcription factors Bcl-6 and c-Maf, both of which are needed for development of T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Restoring TFH activity to Batf−/− T cells in vivo requires co-expression of both Bcl-6 and c-Maf. In B cells, Batf directly controls the expression of both activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and of IH-CH germline transcripts. Thus, Batf functions at multiple hierarchical levels across two cell types to globally regulate in vivo switched antibody responses.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are needed to mitigate this public health issue. Advances in nanotechnology have generated innovative strategies for diagnosis and therapy in a variety of diseases, foremost in cancer. Based on these studies, a novel concept referred to as nanomedical theranostics, or the combinatory application of nanoparticulate agents to allow diagnostic therapy, is being explored to enable image-guided, personalized, or targeted treatment. Preclinically, theranostics have been gradually applied to CVD with several interesting and encouraging findings. This article summarizes studies and challenges of nanotheranostic strategies in CVD. It also evaluates nanotheranostic strategies that may potentially be utilized to benefit patients.
Cardiovascular disease; Nanoparticle; Theranostics; Diagnostics; Therapeutics; Cardiac molecular imaging
Regulatory T cells (Treg) contribute to the crucial immunological processes of self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Genomic mechanisms that regulate cell fate decisions leading to Treg or conventional T cells (Tconv) lineages and those underlying Treg function remain to be fully elucidated, especially at the histone modification level. We generated high-resolution genome-wide distribution maps of monomethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1) and trimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me3) in human CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs and CD4+CD25+FOXP3− activated (a)Tconv cells by DNA sequencing-by-synthesis. 2115 H3K4me3 regions corresponded to proximal promoters; in Tregs, the genes associated with these regions included the master regulator FOXP3 and the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7). 41024 Treg-specific H3K4me1 regions were identified. The majority of the H3K4me1 regions differing between Treg and aTconv cells were located at promoter-distal sites, and in vitro reporter gene assays were used to evaluate and identify novel enhancer activity. We provide for the first time a comprehensive genome-wide dataset of lineage-specific H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 patterns in Treg and aTconv cells, which may control cell type-specific gene regulation. This basic principle is likely not restricted to the two closely-related T cell populations, but may apply generally to somatic cell lineages in adult organisms.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as stroke and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in angiogenesis and vasogenic edema during stroke and hypoxia. However, the role of VEGF in BBB permeability after hypoxia has not been fully elucidated. We therefore investigated VEGF effects in an in vitro BBB model using rbcec4 endothelial cell line with the stimulation of VEGF or hypoxia. In this study, BBB permeability was studied using 14C-sucrose detection. The expression of BBB tight junction protein ZO-1, and the expression and phosphorylation of vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were determined using fluorescent immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses. We found that hypoxia upregulated VEGF expression, and VEGF increased BBB permeability. Hypoxia also increased VASP phosphorylation, which is mediated, in part, through VEGFR2. We also found that VASP at tight junctions was co-localized with ZO-1 in cell-cell contacts. Our findings show that VASP phosphorylation is affected by hypoxia and VEGFR2 inhibition suggesting a role for VASP in BBB permeability.
Blood-brain barrier; VEGF; Hypoxia; VEGFR2; Permeability; Vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein
This study seeks to determine whether antihypertensive medication refill adherence, ambulatory visits, and type of antihypertensive medication exposures are associated with decreased stroke and death for community-dwelling hypertensive patients.
This retrospective cohort study included all chronic medication-treated hypertensives enrolled in Tennessee’s Medicaid program (TennCare) for 3–7 years during the period 1994–2000 (n = 49,479). Health care utilization patterns were evaluated using administrative data linked to vital records during a 2-year run-in period and 1- to 5-year follow-up period. Antihypertensive medication refill adherence was calculated using pharmacy records.
Associations with stroke and death were assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Stroke occurred in 619 patients (1.25%) and death in 2,051 (4.15%). Baseline antihypertensive medication refill adherence was associated with decreased multivariate hazards of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86–0.97 for 15% increase in adherence]. Adherence in the follow-up period was associated with decreased hazards of stroke (HR 0.92; CI 0.87–0.96) and death (HR 0.93; CI 0.90–0.96). Baseline ambulatory visits were associated with decreased death (HR 0.99; CI 0.98–1.00). Four major classes of antihypertensive agents were associated with mortality reduction. Only thiazide-type diuretic use was associated with decreased stroke (HR 0.89; CI 0.85–0.93).
Ambulatory visits and antihypertensive medication exposures are associated with reduced mortality. Increasing adherence by one pill per week for a once-a-day regimen reduces the hazard of stroke by 8–9% and death by 7%.
hypertension; ambulatory care; adherence; stroke; thiazide diuretics
Our previous studies indicate that either PEP-1-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) or PEP-1-catalase (CAT) fusion proteins protects myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in rats. The aim of this study is to explore whether combined use of PEP-1-SOD1 and PEP-1-CAT enhances their protective effects.
SOD1, PEP-1-SOD1, CAT or PEP-1-CAT fusion proteins were prepared and purified by genetic engineering. In vitro and in vivo effects of these proteins on cell apoptosis and the protection of myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion injury were measured. Embryo cardiac myocyte H9c2 cells were used for the in vitro studies. In vitro cellular injury was determined by the expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Cell apoptosis was quantitatively assessed with Annexin V and PI double staining by Flow cytometry. In vivo, rat left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was ligated for one hour followed by two hours of reperfusion. Hemodynamics was then measured. Myocardial infarct size was evaluated by TTC staining. Serum levels of myocardial markers, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cTnT were quantified by ELISA. Bcl-2 and Bax expression in left ventricle myocardium were analyzed by western blot.
In vitro, PEP-1-SOD1 or PEP-1-CAT inhibited LDH release and apoptosis rate of H9c2 cells. Combined transduction of PEP-1-SOD1 and PEP-1-CAT, however, further reduced the LDH level and apoptosis rate. In vivo, combined usage of PEP-1-SOD1 and PEP-1-CAT produced a greater effect than individual proteins on the reduction of CK-MB, cTnT, apoptosis rate, lipoxidation end product malondialdehyde, and the infarct size of myocardium. Functionally, the combination of these two proteins further increased left ventricle systolic pressure, but decreased left ventricle end-diastolic pressure.
This study provided a basis for the treatment or prevention of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury with the combined usage of PEP-1-SOD1 and PEP-1-CAT fusion proteins.
The title compound, C12H10Cl2N2S2, features an S—S bond [2.0671 (16) Å] that bridges two 4-amino-2-chlorophenyl rings with a C—S—S—C torsion angle of −84.2 (2)°. The two benzene rings are twisted with respect to each other at a dihedral angle of 39.9 (2)°. Intermolecular N—H⋯S hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure.
In the crystal structure of the title compound, C16H19O6P, intermolecular O—H⋯O interactions link the molecules into chains parallel to the b axis. These chains are linked by C—H⋯π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7307 (29) Å] into a three-dimensional network. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 73.5 (1)°. The C and O atoms of all four methoxy groups lie very close to the mean planes of their attached rings; the C atoms are 0.055 (2)–0.1038 (1) Å out of the mean plane of the attached rings.