Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been successfully applied to a broad range of vaccines as biological adjuvants to enhance the immune response. The recently defined HSP110, in particular, exhibits strong protein binding affinity and is capable of enhancing the immunogenicity of protein antigens remarkably more than other HSP family members. In our previous study, we verified that murine HSP110 (mHSP110) significantly enhanced the immune response of a C57BL/6 mouse model to the H-2d-restricted human papillomavirus (HPV) E749-57 epitope (short peptide spanning the 49th to 57th amino acid residues in the E7 protein). To determine whether HSP110 similarly enhances the immunogenicity of human epitope peptides, we used the HLA-A2 transgenic mouse model to investigate the efficacy of the mHSP110 chaperone molecule as an immunoadjuvant of the human HLA-A2-restricted HPV16 E711-20 epitope vaccine. Results showed that mHSP110 efficiently formed a noncovalently bound complex with the E711-20 epitope. The mHSP110-E711-20 complex induced epitope-specific splenocyte proliferation and E711-20-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion. Importantly, cytotoxic T lymphocytes primed by the mHSP110-E711-20 complex exerted strong cytolytic effects on target T2 cells pulsed with the E711-20 peptide or TC-1 cells transfected with the HLA-A2 gene. In addition, the mHSP110-E711-20 complex elicited stronger ex vivo and in vivo antitumor responses than either emulsified complete Freund's adjuvant or HSP70-chaperoned E711-20 peptide. These collective data suggest that HSP110 is a promising immunomodulator candidate for peptide-based human cancer vaccines, such as for the HLA-A2-restricted E711-20 epitope.
In this paper, the potential sensitivity in Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was investigated in frequency modulation (FM) and heterodyne amplitude modulation (AM) modes. We showed theoretically that the minimum detectable contact potential difference (CPD) in FM-KPFM is higher than in heterodyne AM-KPFM. We experimentally confirmed that the signal-to-noise ratio in FM-KPFM is lower than that in heterodyne AM-KPFM, which is due to the higher minimum detectable CPD dependence in FM-KPFM. We also compared the corrugations in the local contact potential difference on the surface of Ge (001), which shows atomic resolution in heterodyne AM-KPFM. In contrast, atomic resolution cannot be obtained in FM-KPFM under the same experimental conditions. The higher potential resolution in heterodyne AM-KPFM was attributed to the lower crosstalk and higher potential sensitivity between topographic and potential measurements.
Heterodyne amplitude modulation; Frequency modulation; Kelvin probe force microscopy
The exact molecular mechanism that mediates hypoxia-induced pulmonary fibrosis needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of angiotensin II (Ang II) on collagen synthesis in hypoxic human lung fibroblast (HLF) cells. The HLF-1 cell line was used for in vitro studies. Angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression levels in human lung fibroblasts were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after hypoxic treatment. Additionally, the collagen type I (Col-I), AT1R and nuclear factor κappaB (NF-κB) protein expression levels were detected using Western blot analysis, and NF-κB nuclear translocation was measured using immunofluorescence localization analysis. Ang II levels in HLF-1 cells were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that hypoxia increased Col-I mRNA and protein expression in HLF-1 cells, and this effect could be inhibited by an AT1R or AT2R inhibitor. The levels of NF-κB, RAS components and Ang II production in HLF-1 cells were significantly increased after the hypoxia exposure. Hypoxia or Ang II increased NF-κB-p50 protein expression in HLF-1 cells, and the special effect could be inhibited by telmisartan (TST), an AT1R inhibitor, and partially inhibited by PD123319, an AT2R inhibitor. Importantly, hypoxia-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation could be nearly completely inhibited by an AT1R or AT2R inhibitor. Furthermore pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-κB blocker, abolished the expression of hypoxia-induced AT1R and Col-I in HLF-1 cells. Our results indicate that Ang II-mediated NF-κB signalling via ATR is involved in hypoxia-induced collagen synthesis in human lung fibroblasts.
angiotensin II; hypoxic HLF-1; collagen synthesis; nuclear factor κappaB
A coupled model containing two neurons and one astrocyte is constructed by integrating Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal model and Li-Rinzel calcium model. Based on this hybrid model, information transmission between neurons is studied numerically. Our results show that when the successive spikes are produced in neuron 1 (N1), the bursting-like spikes (BLSs) occur in two neurons simultaneously during the spikes being transferred to neuron 2 (N2). The existence of the astrocyte and a higher expression level of mGluRs facilitate the occurrence of BLSs, but the rate of occurrence is not sensitive to the parameters. Furthermore, time delay τ occurs during the information transmission, and τ is almost independent of the effect of the astrocyte. Additionally, we found that low coupling strength may result in the distortion of the information, and this distortion is also proven to be almost independent of the astrocyte.
Several studies have shown that lactoferrin (LF) and neopterin (NT) are correlated with infection. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum levels of LF and NT are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury.
Material and methods
A total of 268 patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury who underwent spinal surgery were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of LF, NT, and C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to white blood cell count (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), were measured preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively.
In total, 22 of 268 patients (8.2%) developed postoperative infectious complications. The levels of serum LF, NT, and CRP were significantly higher in the infected patients than in the non-infected patients. No significant differences were observed in postoperative WBC count and ESR between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that LF (OR: 1.004 (1.002–1.007)), NT (OR: 1.137 (1.054–1.227)), and CRP (OR: 1.023 (1.002–1.044)) were significantly associated with the presence of postoperative infectious complications. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves for LF, NT, and CRP was 0.709, 0.779, and 0.629, respectively.
Elevated serum concentrations of LF and NT are associated with early infection after surgery. Compared to CRP, elevated levels of LF and NT are better indicators for predicting postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury.
lactoferrin; neopterin; acute traumatic spinal cord injury; postoperative infectious complications
Two new peptides, MCh-1 and MCh-2, along with three known trypsin inhibitors (MCTI-I, MCTI-II and MCTI-III), were isolated from the seeds of the tropical vine Momordica charantia. The sequences of the peptides were determined using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Using a strategy involving partial reduction and stepwise alkylation of the peptides, followed by enzymatic digestion and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing, the disulfide connectivity of MCh-1 was elucidated to be CysI-CysIV, CysII-CysV and CysIII-CysVI. The three-dimensional structures of MCh-1 and MCh-2 were determined using NMR spectroscopy and found to contain the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif. The sequences of the novel peptides differ significantly from peptides previously isolated from this plant. Therefore, this study expands the known peptide diversity in M. charantia and the range of sequences that can be accommodated by the ICK motif. Furthermore, we show that a stable two-disulfide intermediate is involved in the oxidative folding of MCh-1. This disulfide intermediate is structurally homologous to the proposed ancestral fold of ICK peptides, and provides a possible pathway for the evolution of this structural motif, which is highly prevalent in nature.
We report a case of a 15-year-old female, no family history of huge fibrosarcoma. Computed tomography (CT) showed that there was no clearance between the lump and pectoralis major and that there were pathological fractures in the third and fourth ribs. Fine-needle aspiration result suggested that it might be a phyllodes tumor of the breast. According to the postoperative pathologic and immunohistochemical results, the final diagnosis was breast fibrosarcoma.
Breast fibrosarcoma; diagnosis; synovial sarcoma; treatment
Primary pulmonary neoplasms rarely occur in children, but the majority of those that do are malignant. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) represents ~10% of all primary pulmonary malignant tumors. However, MEC is not usually considered in the clinical differential diagnosis in pediatric practice. The present study presents the case of a seven-year-old female with a one-year history of recurrent hemoptysis. Computerized tomography (CT) scans revealed a tumor originating in the right lower lobe bronchus. The patient did not receive any radiation and chemotherapy following a lobectomy on the right lower lung. The tumor was histopathologically determined to be an MEC of the tracheobronchial tree. Subsequent to a six-year follow-up, the MEC was undetectable in this patient, according to the clinical and radiological evidence. The literature with regard to pediatric MEC is also reviewed in this study.
pediatric mucoepidermoid carcinoma; children; lung cancer
The heavy metal cadmium is a non-degradable pollutant. By screening the effects of a panel of metal ions on the phosphatase activity, we unexpectedly identified cadmium as a potent inhibitor of PPM1A and PPM1G. In contrast, low micromolar concentrations of cadmium did not inhibit PP1 or tyrosine phosphatases. Kinetic studies revealed that cadmium inhibits PPM phosphatases through the M1 metal ion binding site. In particular, the negative charged D441 in PPM1G specific recognized cadmium. Our results suggest that cadmium is likely a potent inhibitor of most PPM family members except for PHLPPs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that cadmium inhibits PPM1A-regulated MAPK signaling and PPM1G-regulated AKT signaling potently in vivo. Cadmium reversed PPM1A-induced cell cycle arrest and cadmium insensitive PPM1A mutant rescued cadmium induced cell death. Taken together, these findings provide a better understanding of the effects of the toxicity of cadmium in the contexts of human physiology and pathology.
This is a 32-year-old woman with a left peripheral lung lesion about 3 cm in diameter found by physical examination. Lung cancer of the left upper lobe is suspected in preoperative diagnosis.
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS); left upper lobectomy; lung cancer
Formation and selection of multiarmed spiral wave due to spontaneous symmetry breaking are investigated in a regular network of Hodgkin-Huxley neuron by changing the excitability and imposing spatial forcing currents on the neurons in the network. The arm number of the multiarmed spiral wave is dependent on the distribution of spatial forcing currents and excitability diversity in the network, and the selection criterion for supporting multiarmed spiral waves is discussed. A broken spiral segment is measured by a short polygonal line connected by three adjacent points (controlled nodes), and a double-spiral wave can be developed from the spiral segment. Multiarmed spiral wave is formed when a group of double-spiral waves rotate in the same direction in the network. In the numerical studies, a group of controlled nodes are selected and spatial forcing currents are imposed on these nodes, and our results show that l-arm stable spiral wave (l = 2, 3, 4,...8) can be induced to occupy the network completely. It is also confirmed that low excitability is critical to induce multiarmed spiral waves while high excitability is important to propagate the multiarmed spiral wave outside so that distinct multiarmed spiral wave can occupy the network completely. Our results confirm that symmetry breaking of target wave in the media accounts for emergence of multiarmed spiral wave, which can be developed from a group of spiral waves with single arm under appropriate condition, thus the potential formation mechanism of multiarmed spiral wave in the media is explained.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease in pigs caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV). Although PRRSV infection-induced cell apoptosis has been established, the related viral protein is still unknown. Here, we reported that PRRSV nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4) was a critical apoptosis inducer. Nsp4 could activate caspase-3, -8, and -9. Using truncated constructs without different domains in nsp4, we demonstrated that the full-length of nsp4 structure was required for its apoptosis-inducing activity. Furthermore, using site-directed mutagenesis to inactivate the 3C-like serine protease activity of nsp4, we showed that nsp4-induced apoptosis was dependent on its serine protease activity. The ability of nsp4 to induce apoptosis was significantly impaired by His39, Asp64, and Ser118 mutations, suggesting that His39, Asp64, and Ser118 were essential for nsp4 to trigger apoptosis. In conclusion, our present work showed that PRRSV nsp4 could induce apoptosis in host cells and might be partially responsible for the apoptosis induced by PRRSV infection. PRRSV 3C-like protease-mediated apoptosis represents the first report in the genus Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae.
IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR)-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.
While it is known that IL-23 plays a pivotal role in maintenance of the Th17 phenotype and their production of the IL-17 cytokine, the mechanisms by which HBV induces particular immune cell types to produce IL-23 remain unknown. In the study of human hepatitis B described herein, we demonstrated that IL-23 is principally derived from the liver myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and macrophages. In vitro assay showed that mDCs produce large amounts of IL-23 upon stimulation with HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) through the mannose receptor (MR) and an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) was also capable of stimulating IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process occurs in an MR- and endocytosis-independent manner. IL-23 was also shown to efficiently stimulate the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells in the presence of HBsAg or HBcAg; furthermore, the Th17 cells were shown to be the primary source of IL-17. The results also indicated that both hepatic satellite cells and mDCs might be the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. Therefore, our study not only provides further insights into the mechanisms underlying HBV pathogenesis, but also suggests the potential intervening targets for patient treatment.
As a highly sensitive strain gauge element, GaAs-based resonant tunneling diode (RTD) has already been applied in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors. Due to poor mechanical properties and high cost, GaAs-based material has been limited in applications as the substrate for MEMS. In this work, we present a method to fabricate the GaAs-based RTD on Si substrate. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the piezoresistive coefficient achieved with this method reached 3.42 × 10−9 m2/N, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the Si-based semiconductor piezoresistors.
RTD epitaxy on Si; Strain gauge; Highly sensitive; Piezoresistive coefficient
Catalase (CAT) breaks down H2O2 into H2O and O2 to protects cells from oxidative damage. However, its translational potential is limited because exogenous CAT cannot enter living cells automatically. This study is aimed to investigate if PEP-1-CAT fusion protein can effectively protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress due to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury.
H9c2 cardomyocytes were pretreated with catalase (CAT) or PEP-1-CAT fusion protein followed by culturing in a hypoxia and re-oxygenation condition. Cell apoptosis were measured by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow cytometry. Intracellular superoxide anion level was determined, and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, PARP, p38 and phospho-p38 was analyzed by western blotting.
PEP-1-CAT protected H9c2 from H/R-induced morphological alteration and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde content. Superoxide anion production was also decreased. In addition, PEP-1-CAT inhibited H9c2 apoptosis and blocked the expression of apoptosis stimulator Bax while increased the expression of Bcl-2, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT inhibited p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, resulting in blockade of Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Our study has revealed a novel mechanism by which PEP-1-CAT protects cardiomyocyte from H/R-induced injury. PEP-1-CAT blocks Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by inhibiting p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.
Cell-penetrating peptide; PEP-1; Catalase; Cardiomyocyte; Apoptosis; MAPK
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic value of pathological indicators to predict the efficacy of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps. A total of 53 patients with CRS with nasal polyps, who had undergone endoscopic surgery at least one year before, were surveyed for their clinical symptoms. Surgical specimen biopsies were consulted and related pathological indicators were measured. The association between the main symptoms of CRS with nasal polyps following ESS and pathological indicators were statistically analyzed. The main symptoms of patients with CRS with nasal polyps following ESS were nasal congestion, thick nasal discharge, rhinorrhea or sneezing. Goblet cells are associated with the symptoms of sneezing and thick nasal discharge, pathological gland formation is associated with dizziness, and the degree of tissue edema is associated with post-nasal discharge (P<0.05). Pathological indicators aid the prediction of the efficacy of nasal ESS in patients with CRS with nasal polyps.
sinusitis; nasal polyps; pathology; efficacy
We study the Cramer-Rao bounds of parameter estimation and coherence performance for the next generation radar (NGR). In order to enhance the performance of NGR, the signal model of NGR with master-slave architecture based on a single pulse is extended to the case of pulse trains, in which multiple pulses are emitted from all sensors and then integrated spatially and temporally in a unique master sensor. For the MIMO mode of NGR where orthogonal waveforms are emitted, we derive the closed-form Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for the estimates of generalized coherence parameters (GCPs), including the time delay differences, total phase differences and Doppler frequencies with respect to different sensors. For the coherent mode of NGR where the coherent waveforms are emitted after pre-compensation using the estimates of GCPs, we develop a performance bound of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for NGR based on the aforementioned CRBs, taking all the estimation errors into consideration. It is shown that greatly improved estimation accuracy and coherence performance can be obtained with pulse trains employed in NGR. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.
next generation radar (NGR); Cramer-Rao bound (CRB); Fisher information matrix (FIM); pulse trains; parameter estimation; coherence performance
Bone cancer pain seriously affects the quality of life of cancer patients. Our previous study found that endogenous formaldehyde was produced by cancer cells metastasized into bone marrows and played an important role in bone cancer pain. However, the mechanism of production of this endogenous formaldehyde by metastatic cancer cells was unknown in bone cancer pain rats. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is one of the major enzymes catalyzing the production of formaldehyde. The expression of LSD1 and the concentration of formaldehyde were up-regulated in many high-risk tumors.
This study aimed to investigate whether LSD1 in metastasized MRMT-1 breast cancer cells in bone marrows participated in the production of endogenous formaldehyde in bone cancer pain rats.
Concentration of the endogenous formaldehyde was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Endogenous formaldehyde dramatically increased in cultured MRMT-1 breast cancer cells in vitro, in bone marrows and sera of bone cancer pain rats, in tumor tissues and sera of MRMT-1 subcutaneous vaccination model rats in vivo. Formaldehyde at a concentration as low as the above measured (3 mM) induced pain behaviors in normal rats. The expression of LSD1 which mainly located in nuclei of cancer cells significantly increased in bone marrows of bone cancer pain rats from 14 d to 21 d after inoculation. Furthermore, inhibition of LSD1 decreased the production of formaldehyde in MRMT-1 cells in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of LSD1 inhibitor pargyline from 3 d to 14 d after inoculation of MRMT-1 cancer cells reduced bone cancer pain behaviors.
Our data in the present study, combing our previous report, suggested that in the endogenous formaldehyde-induced pain in bone cancer pain rats, LSD1 in metastasized cancer cells contributed to the production of the endogenous formaldehyde.
The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV H1N1) that infected almost every country in the world. Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury. In this report, we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease. The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model. Moreover, elevated levels of IL-17, Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing. IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice. These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics.
cytokine; acute lung injury; S-OIV H1N1
p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. It does so by inducing anti-proliferative processes as a response to various tumor-promoting stresses. p53 is regulated by the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. The optimal function of Mdm2 requires Daxx, which stabilizes Mdm2 through the deubiquitinase Hausp/USP7 and also directly promotes Mdm2’s ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53. The Daxx-Mdm2 interaction is disrupted upon DNA damage. However, both the mechanisms and the consequence of the Daxx-Mdm2 dissociation are not understood. Here we show that upon DNA damage Daxx is phosphorylated in a manner that is dependent on ATM, a member of the PI 3-kinase family that orchestrates the DNA damage response. The main phosphorylation site of Daxx is identified to be Ser564, which is a direct target of ATM. Phosphorylation of endogenous Daxx at Ser564 occurs rapidly during the DNA damage response and precedes p53 activation. Blockage of this phosphorylation event prevents the separation of Daxx from Mdm2, stabilizes Mdm2, and inhibits DNA damage-induced p53 activation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Daxx by ATM upon DNA damage disrupts the Daxx-Mdm2 interaction and facilitates p53 activation.
Ghrelin has been reported to protect the cardiovascular system; however, the cardioprotective effect of ghrelin against cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced myocardial injury are unclear. In this study, the protective effect of ghrelin on CPB induced myocardial injury and the underlying mechanisms were investigated.
Methods and Results
Adult male rats were subjected to CPB and randomly to receive vehicle (n = 8), ghrelin (n = 8), ghrelin plus [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, a GHSR-1a inhibitor (n = 8), or ghrelin plus wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3′-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (n = 8). In vitro study was performed on cultured cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated cardiopulmonary bypass (SCPB). Ghrelin attenuated the inﬂammatory response, as evidenced by reduced induction of TNF-α, IL-6 and myocardial myeloperoxidase activity and concurrent reduction in apoptosis, oxidative stress, and levels of myocardial injury markers following CPB. Moreover, ghrelin significantly increased cardiac function after CPB. In cultured cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated CPB, ghrelin increased cell viability and decreased the percentage of apoptotic myocytes. Inhibition of ghrelin downstream signaling blocked the cardioprotective effects both in vivo and vitro.
Ghrelin could provide an effective approach to the attenuation of CPB induced myocardial injury. The cardioprotective effects elicited by ghrelin may contribute to the inhibition of inflammatory response through the Akt-activated pathway.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mainly infects macrophages/dendritic cells and modulates cytokine expression in these cells. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in wide range of biological activities. It has been shown to be essential for the generation, activation, and proliferation of NK and NKT cells and for the survival and activation of CD8+ effector and memory T cells. In this study, we discovered that PRRSV infection upregulated IL-15 production at both the mRNA and protein levels in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMo), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). We subsequently demonstrated that the NF-κB signaling pathway was essential for PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production. First, addition of an NF-κB inhibitor drastically reduced PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production. We then found that NF-κB was indeed activated upon PRRSV infection, as evidenced by IκB phosphorylation and degradation. Moreover, we revealed an NF-κB binding motif in the cloned porcine IL-15 (pIL-15) promoter, deletion of which abrogated the pIL-15 promoter activity in PRRSV-infected alveolar macrophages. In addition, we demonstrated that PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein had the ability to induce IL-15 production in porcine alveolar macrophage cell line CRL2843 by transient transfection, which was mediated by its multiple motifs, and it also activated NF-κB. These data indicated that PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production was likely through PRRSV N protein-mediated NF-κB activation. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underling the IL-15 production induced by PRRSV infection.
Neuropathic pain (NP) is an intractable clinical problem without satisfactory treatments. However, certain natural products have been revealed as effective therapeutic agents for the management of pain states. In this study, we used the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model to investigate the antinociceptive effect of triptolide (T10), a major active component of the traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Intrathecal T10 inhibited the mechanical nociceptive response induced by SNL without interfering with motor performance. Additionally, the anti-nociceptive effect of T10 was associated with the inhibition of the activation of spinal astrocytes. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of T10 attenuated SNL-induced janus kinase (JAK) signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling pathway activation and inhibited the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and tumour necrosis factor-α, in dorsal horn astrocytes. Moreover, NR2B-containing spinal N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) was subsequently inhibited. Above all, T10 can alleviate SNL-induced NP via inhibiting the neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn. The anti-inflammation effect of T10 may be related with the suppression of spinal astrocytic JAK-STAT3 activation. Our results suggest that T10 may be a promising drug for the treatment of NP.