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1.  Effect of chitosan chewing gum on reducing serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:98.
Background
HS219 (40 mg chitosan-loaded chewing gum) is designed to bind salivary phosphorus as an add-on to available phosphorus binders. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HS219 in hemodialysis (HD) patients with hyperphosphatemia as an add-on to phosphorus binders.
Methods
Sixty-eight HD patients who were maintained on calcium carbonate (n = 33) or sevelamer hydrochloride (n = 35) were enrolled. The primary end point was a change in serum phosphorus levels. Secondary end points included changes in levels of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and intact fibroblast growth factor (iFGF) 23.
Results
Sixty-three patients chewed either HS219 (n = 35) or placebo (n = 28) for 30 min, three times a day, for 3 weeks. HS219 was well tolerated and safe. However, HS219 was not superior to placebo with additional reduction of serum phosphorus with respect to phosphorus binders at the end of the chewing period. There were no significant effects of HS219 on reduction of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, iPTH, or iFGF23 levels.
Conclusions
The chitosan-loaded chewing gum HS219 does not affect serum and salivary phosphorus levels in Japanese HD patients with hyperphosphatemia. Our findings do not support previous findings that 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum reduces serum and salivary phosphorus levels.
Trail registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039428, 24 December, 2009.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-98
PMCID: PMC4080692  PMID: 24968790
Chewing gum; Chitosan; Clinical trial; Hemodialysis; Hyperphosphatemia; Phosphorus binders
2.  DNA markers linked to Pga1, an adzuki bean gene that confers resistance to Cadophora gregata race 1 
Breeding Science  2013;63(3):353-357.
Brown stem rot (BSR) caused by Cadophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola (syn. Phialophora gregata) is a serious soilborne disease of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) in Japan. Cultivation of resistant cultivars is the most effective disease control method, therefore the selection of resistant lines is a priority for breeders. BSR-resistant adzuki bean lines have been screened in pathogen-infected fields. However, field selection using the pathogen and artificial inoculation methods is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In the present study, we used 105 F3 lines derived from a cross between a BSR-resistant cultivar ‘Syumari’ and a susceptible cultivar ‘Buchishoryukei-1’ for BSR inoculation tests. Amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses with 1024 primer sets revealed that six fragments were polymorphic between resistance and susceptible bulked groups. Five DNA markers (Pg77, Pg118, Pg138, Pg139 and Pg126) were developed from the nucleotide sequences of polymorphic AFLP markers and their flanking regions. Pg118, which was derived from E-ACT/M-ACT-118, was tightly linked to the resistance gene Pga1 and was converted into a codominant marker for its easier use in marker-assisted selection for adzuki bean BSR resistance. Finally, the applicability of the developed markers for BSR resistance was tested on 32 adzuki bean accessions or cultivars.
doi:10.1270/jsbbs.63.353
PMCID: PMC3770564  PMID: 24273432
adzuki bean; brown stem rot; DNA marker; Cadophora gregata; resistance gene
3.  Parotid Gland Metastasis of Breast Cancer: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Breast Care  2011;6(6):471-473.
Background
Parotid gland metastasis in breast cancer is extremely rare, and only 14 cases have been reported between 1982 and 2010.
Case Report
A 67-year-old female patient was diagnosed with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left breast. Although clinical staging was T1N3M1 (stage IV), the tumor experienced a complete response to chemotherapy. We therefore performed a mastectomy followed by radiotherapy, and continued administration of trastuzumab. However, 11 months later, the patient complained of a swelling in the left parotid gland. Histology following a partial parotidectomy revealed a parotid gland metastasis from the breast.
Conclusion
Treatment with capecitabine in addition to trastuzumab, which is one of the strategies applied in HER2-positive breast cancer, was effective in our patient. Analysis of the 14 cases of parotid gland metastasis from the breast reported between 1982 and 2010 revealed that the metastasis may occur not by direct lymphatic but by hematogenous spread.
doi:10.1159/000335222
PMCID: PMC3290006  PMID: 22419903
Parotid gland metastasis; Breast cancer; Trastuzumab
4.  Evaluation of the effects of five QTL regions on Fusarium head blight resistance and agronomic traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 
Breeding Science  2012;62(1):11-17.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions for resistance to FHB and estimate their effects on reducing FHB damage to wheat in Hokkaido, northern Japan. We examined 233 F1-derived doubled-haploid (DH) lines from a cross between ‘Kukeiharu 14’ and ‘Sumai 3’ to determine their reaction to FHB during two seasons under field conditions. The DH lines were genotyped at five known FHB-resistance QTL regions (on chromosomes 3BS, 5AS, 6BS, 2DL and 4BS) by using SSR markers. ‘Sumai 3’ alleles at the QTLs at 3BS and 5AS effectively reduced FHB damage in the environment of Hokkaido, indicating that these QTLs will be useful for breeding spring wheat cultivars suitable for Hokkaido. Some of the QTL regions influenced agronomic traits: ‘Sumai 3’ alleles at the 4BS and 5AS QTLs significantly increased stem length and spike length, that at the 2DL QTL significantly decreased grain weight, and that at the 6BS QTL significantly delayed heading, indicating pleiotropic or linkage effects between these agronomic traits and FHB resistance.
doi:10.1270/jsbbs.62.11
PMCID: PMC3405959  PMID: 23136509
agronomic traits; Fusarium head blight; QTL; wheat
5.  Identification of Oseltamivir Resistance among Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses by an His275Tyr Genotyping Assay Using the Cycling Probe Method▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;49(1):125-130.
Neuraminidase inhibitors are agents used against influenza viruses; however, the emergence of drug-resistant strains is a major concern. Recently, the prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus increased globally and the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses was reported. In this study, we developed a cycling probe real-time PCR method for the detection of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal influenza A (H1N1) and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses. We designed two sets of primers and probes that were labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein or 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that correspond to a histidine and a tyrosine at position 275 in the neuraminidase protein, respectively. These SNPs confer susceptibility and resistance to oseltamivir, respectively. In the 2007-2008 season, the prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses was 0% (0/72), but in the 2008-2009 season, it increased to 100% (282/282). In the 2009-2010 season, all of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses were susceptible to oseltamivir (0/73, 0%). This method is sensitive and specific for the screening of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) viruses. This method is applicable to routine laboratory-based monitoring of drug resistance and patient management during antiviral therapy.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01401-10
PMCID: PMC3020414  PMID: 21084523
7.  Individuals with mutations in XPNPEP3, which encodes a mitochondrial protein, develop a nephronophthisis-like nephropathy  
The autosomal recessive kidney disease nephronophthisis (NPHP) constitutes the most frequent genetic cause of terminal renal failure in the first 3 decades of life. Ten causative genes (NPHP1–NPHP9 and NPHP11), whose products localize to the primary cilia-centrosome complex, support the unifying concept that cystic kidney diseases are “ciliopathies”. Using genome-wide homozygosity mapping, we report here what we believe to be a new locus (NPHP-like 1 [NPHPL1]) for an NPHP-like nephropathy. In 2 families with an NPHP-like phenotype, we detected homozygous frameshift and splice-site mutations, respectively, in the X-prolyl aminopeptidase 3 (XPNPEP3) gene. In contrast to all known NPHP proteins, XPNPEP3 localizes to mitochondria of renal cells. However, in vivo analyses also revealed a likely cilia-related function; suppression of zebrafish xpnpep3 phenocopied the developmental phenotypes of ciliopathy morphants, and this effect was rescued by human XPNPEP3 that was devoid of a mitochondrial localization signal. Consistent with a role for XPNPEP3 in ciliary function, several ciliary cystogenic proteins were found to be XPNPEP3 substrates, for which resistance to N-terminal proline cleavage resulted in attenuated protein function in vivo in zebrafish. Our data highlight an emerging link between mitochondria and ciliary dysfunction, and suggest that further understanding the enzymatic activity and substrates of XPNPEP3 will illuminate novel cystogenic pathways.
doi:10.1172/JCI40076
PMCID: PMC2827951  PMID: 20179356
8.  Virological Properties and Nucleotide Sequences of Cas-E-Type Endogenous Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Viruses in South Asian Wild Mice, Mus musculus castaneus 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(11):5049-5058.
Two types of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs), termed AKV- and Cas-E-type MuLVs, differ in nucleotide sequence and distribution in wild mouse subspecies. In contrast to AKV-type MuLV, Cas-E-type MuLV is not carried by common laboratory mice. Wild mice of Mus musculus (M. m.) castaneus carry multiple copies of Cas-E-type endogenous MuLV, including the Fv-4r gene that is a truncated form of integrated MuLV and functions as a host's resistance gene against ecotropic MuLV infection. Our genetic cross experiments showed that only the Fv-4r gene was associated with resistance to ecotropic F-MuLV infection. Because the spontaneous expression of infectious virus was not detected in M. m. castaneus, we generated mice that did not carry the Fv-4r gene but did carry a single or a few endogenous MuLV loci. In mice not carrying the Fv-4r gene, infectious MuLVs were isolated in association with three of six Cas-E-type endogenous MuLV loci. The isolated viruses showed a weak syncytium-forming activity for XC cells, an interfering property of ecotropic MuLV, and a slight antigenic variation. Two genomic DNAs containing endogenous Cas-E-type MuLV were cloned and partially sequenced. All of the Cas-E-type endogenous MuLVs were closely related, hybrid-type viruses with an ecotropic env gene and a xenotropic long terminal repeat. Duplications and a deletion were found in a restricted region of the hypervariable proline-rich region of Env glycoprotein.
doi:10.1128/JVI.75.11.5049-5058.2001
PMCID: PMC114909  PMID: 11333885
9.  Properties of the Naturally Occurring Soluble Surface Glycoprotein of Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus: Binding Specificity and Possible Conformational Change after Binding to Receptor 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(4):1815-1826.
Ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) infection is initiated by the interaction between the surface glycoprotein (SU) of the virus and its cell-surface receptor mCAT-1. We investigated the SU-receptor interaction by using a naturally occurring soluble SU which was encoded by the envelope (env) gene of a defective endogenous MuLV, Fv-4r. Binding of the SU to mCAT-1-positive mouse cells was completed by 1 min at 37°C. The SU could not bind to mouse cells that were persistently infected by ecotropic MuLVs (but not amphotropic or dualtropic MuLVs) or transfected with wild-type ecotropic env genes or a mutant env gene which can express only precursor Env protein that is restricted to retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. These cells were also resistant to superinfection by ecotropic MuLVs. Thus, superinfection resistance correlated with the lack of SU-binding capacity. After binding to the cells, the SU appeared to undergo some conformational changes within 1 min in a temperature-dependent manner. This was suggested by the different properties of two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with the same C-terminal half of the Fv-4r SU domain, including a proline-rich motif which was shown to be important for conformation of the SU and interaction between the SU and the transmembrane protein. One MAb reacting with the soluble SU bound to cells was dissociated by a temperature shift from 4 to 37°C. Such dissociation was not observed in cells synthesizing the SU or when another MAb was used, indicating that the dissociation was not due to a temperature-dependent release of the MAb but to possible conformational changes in the SU.
PMCID: PMC111660  PMID: 10644355
10.  The Mouse Homolog of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Receptor Is Closely Related to the δ Subunit of Adaptor-Related Protein Complex AP-3, Not Associated with the Cell Surface 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(1):593-599.
A mouse cDNA (mBLVR1) which was highly homologous to the bovine cDNA of the bovine leukemia virus receptor (BLVR) gene was cloned. The mBLVR1 cDNA, of 4,730 bp, covered nearly the full length of the mRNA (about 5 kb) and included an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 1,199 amino acids. While the bovine BLVR protein was thought to be a type I transmembrane protein, the deduced protein coded by mBLVR1 did not appear to be a typical transmembrane protein. The ORF of mBLVR1 ended at a site 280 amino acids upstream of the termination codon of the bovine BLVR ORF, so the deduced mouse BLVR protein lacked the corresponding transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of the predicted bovine BLVR protein. No significant hydrophobic region was found in the mouse protein. Recently, a human cDNA which was highly homologous (69.6% homology) to the mouse BLVR gene was reported. The cDNA encodes the δ subunit of the human adaptor-related protein complex AP-3, which aligned almost collinearly with the mouse BLVR protein. AP-3 and all other related adaptor protein complexes have been shown to be associated with intracellular vesicles but not with the cell surface. Thus, the mouse BLVR homolog appeared to be the mouse AP-3 δ subunit itself or closely related to it, but the bovine BLVR gene seemed slightly different from the adaptor subunit gene family.
PMCID: PMC109412  PMID: 9420263

Results 1-10 (10)