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1.  Role of Deregulated microRNAs in Breast Cancer Progression Using FFPE Tissue 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54213.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to cancer initiation and progression by silencing the expression of their target genes, causing either mRNA molecule degradation or translational inhibition. Intraductal epithelial proliferations of the breast are histologically and clinically classified into normal, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). To better understand the progression of ductal breast cancer development, we attempt to identify deregulated miRNAs in this process using Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues from breast cancer patients. Following tissue microdissection, we obtained 8 normal, 4 ADH, 6 DCIS and 7 IDC samples, which were subject to RNA isolation and miRNA expression profiling analysis. We found that miR-21, miR-200b/c, miR-141, and miR-183 were consistently up-regulated in ADH, DCIS and IDC compared to normal, while miR-557 was uniquely down-regulated in DCIS. Interestingly, the most significant miRNA deregulations occurred during the transition from normal to ADH. However, the data did not reveal a step-wise miRNA alteration among discrete steps along tumor progression, which is in accordance with previous reports of mRNA profiling of different stages of breast cancer. Furthermore, the expression of MSH2 and SMAD7, two important molecules involving TGF-β pathway, was restored following miR-21 knockdown in both MCF-7 and Hs578T breast cancer cells. In this study, we have not only identified a number of potential candidate miRNAs for breast cancer, but also found that deregulation of miRNA expression during breast tumorigenesis might be an early event since it occurred significantly during normal to ADH transition. Consequently, we have demonstrated the feasibility of miRNA expression profiling analysis using archived FFPE tissues, typically with rich clinical information, as a means of miRNA biomarker discovery.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054213
PMCID: PMC3553092  PMID: 23372687
2.  Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast in Males. In Search of the Optimal Treatment for this Rare Disease 
Breast Care  2011;6(5):399-403.
Intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC) of the breast in men is an extremely infrequent disease, and it appears to have a good prognosis. Because of this, histological findings are of great importance in the decision-making process regarding treatment. Clinical examination, radiological and histological assessments are required for early detection. Adequate surgical excision with negative margins is mandatory. However, the role of sentinel node biopsy has not been evaluated in male IPC. It appears that sentinel node biopsy may be an excellent alternative to radical axillary dissection in patients with IPC and associated ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. Nevertheless, due to the rarity of IPC and its confusing histopathological classification and staging, there are still no clear guidelines as far as IPC treatment is concerned.
doi:10.1159/000331386
PMCID: PMC3357144  PMID: 22619652
Breast cancer; Man; IPC; DCIS; Papilloma
3.  Cell cyclins: triggering elements of cancer or not? 
Cyclins are indispensable elements of the cell cycle and derangement of their function can lead to cancer formation. Recent studies have also revealed more mechanisms through which cyclins can express their oncogenic potential. This review focuses on the aberrant expression of G1/S cyclins and especially cyclin D and cyclin E; the pathways through which they lead to tumour formation and their involvement in different types of cancer. These elements indicate the mechanisms that could act as targets for cancer therapy.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-8-111
PMCID: PMC3016250  PMID: 21176227
4.  Medullary thyroid carcinoma: The third most common thyroid cancer reviewed 
Oncology Letters  2010;2(1):49-53.
Medullary thyroid cancer is a type of thyroid cancer of neuroendocrine origin. It occurs in hereditary and sporadic forms, and its aggressive behavior is associated with the clinical presentation and type of RET mutation. Total thyroidectomy remains the ideal choice of treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are the fundamental for a 100% cure rate. In this study, we present our experience of 3 cases, along with a complete review of the literature derived from a Pubmed Database search.
doi:10.3892/ol.2010.223
PMCID: PMC3412473  PMID: 22870127
thyroid gland; medullary thyroid carcinoma; calcitonin; thyroidectomy
5.  Walled-off pancreatic necrosis 
Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), formerly known as pancreatic abscess is a late complication of acute pancreatitis. It can be lethal, even though it is rare. This critical review provides an overview of the continually expanding knowledge about WOPN, by review of current data from references identified in Medline and PubMed, to September 2009, using key words, such as WOPN, infected pseudocyst, severe pancreatitis, pancreatic abscess, acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), pancreas, inflammation and alcoholism. WOPN comprises a later and local complication of ANP, occurring more than 4 wk after the initial attack, usually following development of pseudocysts and other pancreatic fluid collections. The mortality rate associated with WOPN is generally less than that of infected pancreatic necrosis. Surgical intervention had been the mainstay of treatment for infected peripancreatic fluid collection and abscesses for decades. Increasingly, percutaneous catheter drainage and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography have been used, and encouraging results have recently been reported in the medical literature, rendering these techniques invaluable in the treatment of WOPN. Applying the recommended therapeutic strategy, which comprises early treatment with antibiotics combined with restricted surgical intervention, fewer patients with ANP undergo surgery and interventions are ideally performed later in the course of the disease, when necrosis has become well demarcated.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i14.1707
PMCID: PMC2852817  PMID: 20380001
Walled-off pancreatic necrosis; Infected pseudocyst; Severe pancreatitis; Acute necrotizing pancreatitis; Pancreas; Inflammation; Alcoholism
6.  Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor 
Aim
To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups.
Material-methods
In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece.
Results
The ductal type of breast cancer was differentially distributed in blood groups Rh (+) (P ≤ 0.001). In patients with A (+) blood group the ductal type of breast cancer was present in 49.6% of cases, in relation to the other blood groups and in AB blood group the same type occurred rarely (3.6%). Rh (+) women with positive family history were more often found in A blood group. The relative risk of metastasis in Rh (-) patients was 4.2 times higher than that in Rh (+) patients. Among Rh (+) patients, the relative risk of metastasis was 1.29 times higher in A blood group than in other blood groups.
Conclusion
Blood group A is often associated with ductal breast cancer (49.6%), in contrast to the other blood groups and particularly to blood group AB (3.6%). Blood group A and, particularly, A (-) has the worst prognosis of all.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-6-14
PMCID: PMC2741482  PMID: 19689811
7.  Gastrointestinal stromal tumor 
Background
GISTs are a subset of mesenchymal tumors and represent the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of GI tract. However, GIST is a recently recognized tumor entity and the literature on these stromal tumors has rapidly expanded.
Methods
An extensive review of the literature was carried out in both online medical journals and through Athens University Medical library. An extensive literature search for papers published up to 2009 was performed, using as key words, GIST, Cajal's cells, treatment, Imatinib, KIT, review of each study were conducted, and data were abstracted.
Results
GIST has recently been suggested that is originated from the multipotential mesenchymal stem cells. It is estimated that the incidence of GIST is approximately 10-20 per million people, per year.
Conclusion
The clinical presentation of GIST is variable but the most usual symptoms include the presence of a mass or bleeding. Surgical resection of the local disease is the mainstay therapy. However, therapeutic agents, such as Imatinib have now been approved for the treatment of advanced GISTs and others, such as everolimus, rapamycin, heat shock protein 90 and IGF are in trial stage demonstrate promising results for the management of GISTs.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-7-61
PMCID: PMC2749031  PMID: 19646278
8.  Successful pregnancy after breast cancer therapy: dream or reality? 
Background
Nowadays, more breast cancer patients want to have children after the diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this study is to review the possibility and risks of giving birth among women with breast cancer previously treated by chemotherapy.
Case presentation
Two young women aged 28 and 34 respectively, were treated in our clinic for breast cancer, the first (negative hormonal receptors) by surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and the second (positive hormonal receptors) by surgery, radiotherapy and tamoxifen. They both became pregnant, 1 and 8 years after completion of the therapy respectively.
Results
Laboratory testing during pregnancy was negative in both cases and after an uneventful course each woman gave birth to a perfectly healthy child. The first patient breastfed her baby for three months, while the second one did not breastfeed her baby at all.
Conclusion
Women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer can maintain their fertility and get pregnant. Previous chemotherapy for breast cancer does not present any supplementary risks for the child's mental or physical health.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-6-7
PMCID: PMC2651905  PMID: 19254357
9.  Phylloides tumor of the breast: a rare neoplasm, though not that innocent 
Background
Cystosarcoma phylloides (CP) is an extremely rare form of breast cancer with an unpredictable clinical course. The histological characteristics of this neoplasm have not proved to offer much in the estimation of prognosis of these patients.
Patients and methods
In our clinics, in a time period of 38 years, 22 patients with cystosarcoma phylloides were treated. There were 5 cases of malignancy, 15 cases with benign tumors, and two cases histologically characterized as borderline neoplasia. Metastases were manifested in one patient. All patients were on a 5-year follow-up, except in five cases, one operated three years ago and four operated within the last two years.
Results
16 of 22 patients did not present any signs of local recurrence or metastases. There were three patients that manifested local recurrence and underwent supplementary ongectomy or mastectomy and are free of recurrence ever since. One patient with metastatic CP died.
Conclusion
Independently of its histopathological behavior, CP is a tumor difficult to be treated. Meticulous follow-up is mandatory in order to manage possible recurrence of the neoplasm.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-6-6
PMCID: PMC2649148  PMID: 19232098
10.  Mirizzi Syndrome: an unexpected problem of cholelithiasis. Our experience with 27 cases 
Purpose
Mirizzi syndrome is a rare complication of long standing cholelithiasis. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively estimate the diagnostic and treatment methods applied in patients with Mirizzi syndrome.
Materials and methods
Our experience with 27 cases with Mirizzi syndrome is presented. They were diagnosed either by imaging techniques, or during surgical operation. All of the patients were managed surgically.
Results
8 patients were diagnosed preoperatively and the rest intraoperatively. Morbidity rate after surgery was 18,5%, and mortality rate was zero. The patients presented free of symptoms three months after surgery during the follow-up.
Conclusion
Mirizzi syndrome is rarely diagnosed preoperatively and US proved inadequate for this purpose. Surgery is the only therapy and usually provides additionally definitive diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-5-12
PMCID: PMC2413250  PMID: 18495037
11.  Acute abdomen due to primary omentitis: a case report 
Background
Idiopathic segmental infarction of the greater omentum (ISIGO) is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen in children and adults and its etiology is rather vague and speculative. The clinical presentation is usually with atypical acute or subacute abdominal pain. In a number of cases radiologic imaging allows proper preoperative diagnosis and treatment.
Case presentation
We report a case of ISIGO in a 31 year old patient, who presented with acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and leukocytosis. Radiologic investigation was non-specific. The patient underwent surgical resection of the infracted omentum with compete recovery.
Conclusion
ISIGO should be considered in the differential of acute abdomen especially when presentation is atypical and all other causes have been excluded. In cases with non-specific radiologic findings, laparotomy is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment. Surgical resection of the infracted omentum results in uneventful recovery in the majority of cases.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-4-19
PMCID: PMC1948008  PMID: 17655767

Results 1-11 (11)