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1.  Ultrasound Evaluation of Muscle Thickness Changes in the External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis Muscles Considering the Influence of Posture and Muscle Contraction 
Journal of Physical Therapy Science  2014;26(9):1399-1402.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.
doi:10.1589/jpts.26.1399
PMCID: PMC4175243  PMID: 25276022
Trunk rotation; Low back pain; Functional evaluation
2.  The Postural Control Characteristics of Individuals with and without a History of Ankle Sprain during Single-leg Standing: Relationship between Center of Pressure and Acceleration of the Head and Foot Parameters 
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the postural control characteristics of individuals with and without a history of ankle sprain during single-leg standing by examining the relationship between various parameters of center of pressure (COP) and head and foot acceleration. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with and 23 subjects without a history of ankle sprain (sprain and control groups, respectively) participated. [Methods] Mean and maximum COP velocity and maximum COP range in the anteroposterior and mediolateral components of movement were calculated using a gravicorder. The anteroposterior and mediolateral maximum accelerations of the head and foot, as well as the root mean square (RMS) of each acceleration parameter, were measured using accelerometers. [Results] In the mediolateral component, a significant positive correlation was found between maximum acceleration of the foot and all COP parameters in the sprain group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that mediolateral momentary motion of the foot in individuals with a history of ankle sprain has relevance to various parameters of COP.
doi:10.1589/jpts.26.885
PMCID: PMC4085214  PMID: 25013289
Recurrent ankle sprain; Postural control assessment; Postural strategy
3.  Relationship between Lower Extremity Tightness and Star Excursion Balance Test Performance in Junior High School Baseball Players 
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower extremity tightness and lower extremity balance, measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), in junior high school baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-three male students belonging to baseball clubs in 2 junior high schools participated in this study. [Methods] For the SEBT, we chose to examine the anterior (ANT), posterior (POS), lateral (LAT), and medial (MED) directions. Regarding muscle tightness measurement, the angle of each joint of the bilateral iliopsoas, quadriceps, hamstring, gastrocnemius, hip internal rotator, and hip external rotator was measured. [Results] The ANT direction of the SEBT was significantly negatively correlated with gastrocnemius tightness. The MED direction of the SEBT was significantly positively correlated with hip internal rotator tightness and hamstrings tightness and significantly negatively correlated with gastrocnemius tightness. The LAT direction of the SEBT was significantly negatively correlated with iliopsoas tightness and gastrocnemius tightness. [Conclusion] Since the rate of upper extremity injury is high in these subjects and this could be due to tightness and instability of the lower extremity from a kinetic viewpoint, the SEBT could be used as a standard evaluation test when examining upper extremity injuries in young baseball players.
doi:10.1589/jpts.26.661
PMCID: PMC4047227  PMID: 24926127
Growth phase; Standing balance; Flexibility
4.  Correlation of Shoulder and Elbow Injuries with Muscle Tightness, Core Stability, and Balance by Longitudinal Measurements in Junior High School Baseball Players 
[Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects underwent muscle tightness testing, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and trunk endurance testing during each measurement session. [Results] Fifteen players experienced episodes of elbow or shoulder pain while throwing. Players in the pain group demonstrated a significant increase in the tightness of their shoulder internal rotators, axis-leg quadriceps, and axis-leg hamstrings. There was no clear evidence of differences of changes in core stability and dynamic standing balance between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that lower extremity muscle tightness early in a season and the subsequent decline in the flexibility of the axis-leg quadriceps and hamstrings during the season may be due to an increased upper extremity load while throwing, thus producing shoulder and elbow pain.
doi:10.1589/jpts.26.689
PMCID: PMC4047233  PMID: 24926133
Injury prevention; Flexibility; Growth phase
5.  Titanium Alloy Stem as a Cause for Adverse Reaction to Metal Debris after Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2014;2014:209461.
A 68-year-old male with failure of bipolar hemiarthroplasty consistent with adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) who presented with a painful cystic lesion and lower extremity swelling was encountered. However, revision surgical findings showed no apparent cause of ARMD previously described in the literature, such as corrosion at the head-neck junction and articular abrasion. Therefore, it was difficult to make a definite diagnosis of failure secondary to ARMD, which consequently led to the decision to perform two-stage revision procedure, though the stem was firmly fixed. Postoperative analysis in the retrieval tissues showed that the metal debris mainly originated from the titanium alloy stem itself. Although this is a very rare case, one should be aware that even the well-fixed femoral components themselves have the potential to be the cause of ARMD.
doi:10.1155/2014/209461
PMCID: PMC3971571  PMID: 24716061
6.  Postural Control Characteristics during Single Leg Standing of Individuals with a History of Ankle Sprain: Measurements Obtained Using a Gravicorder and Head and Foot Accelerometry 
[Purpose] This study aimed to validate the postural control characteristics of individuals with a history of ankle sprain during single leg standing by using a gravicorder and head and foot accelerometry. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with and 23 subjects without a history of ankle sprain (sprain and control groups, respectively) participated. [Methods] The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and total path lengths, as well as root mean square (RMS) of each length, were calculated using the gravicorder. The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant acceleration of the head and foot were measured using accelerometers and were evaluated as the ratio of the acceleration of the head to the foot. [Results] There was no significant difference between the two groups in path length or RMS acceleration of the head and foot. However, the ratios of the mediolateral and resultant components were significantly higher in the sprain group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that individuals with a history of ankle sprain have a higher head-to-foot acceleration ratio and different postural control characteristics than those of control subjects.
doi:10.1589/jpts.26.447
PMCID: PMC3976024  PMID: 24707105
Recurrent ankle sprain; Postural control assessment; Postural strategy
7.  The Relationship between Trunk Function and Injury among Junior High School Soccer Players 
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between trunk stability and injury among young soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 male soccer players in junior high school. The presence of injury was noted, and trunk stability was measured by using the bench test and sideways bench test, which were modified from “The 11+” exercises. [Results] There was no significant difference in endurance time in the bench test or sideways bench test between the injury group (n=9) and non-injury group (n=10). Comparison within each group revealed no significant difference in endurance time between the right and left sideways bench tests in the non-injury group; however, the time in the left sideways bench test was significantly longer than that in the right in the injury group. [Conclusion] This study suggests that there is a relationship between asymmetric trunk stability and injury. Further research investigating the relationship between asymmetric trunk function and balance skills is necessary.
doi:10.1589/jpts.25.775
PMCID: PMC3820415  PMID: 24259850
Trunk stability; Growth period; Injury prevention
8.  Electromyographic Study of Neck Muscle Activity According to Head Position in Rugby Tackles 
[Purpose] This study examined differences in neck muscle activity in two different head positions during tackles with the aim of contributing to the prevention of sports injuries. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 male high-school rugby players. [Methods] Two tackle positions were considered: a head-up position and a head-down position. Muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the upper, middle, and lower parts of the trapezius muscles were measured. [Results] Muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the right upper trapezius muscle were significantly increased in the head-up position, and the activity of the lower trapezius was significantly increased in the head-down position. [Conclusion] Tackling with the head-up position increases neck muscle activity and stability of the head and the neck.
doi:10.1589/jpts.25.563
PMCID: PMC3804966  PMID: 24259802
Sternocleidomastoid muscle; Trapezius muscle; Rugby
9.  Parotid Gland Metastasis of Breast Cancer: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Breast Care  2011;6(6):471-473.
Background
Parotid gland metastasis in breast cancer is extremely rare, and only 14 cases have been reported between 1982 and 2010.
Case Report
A 67-year-old female patient was diagnosed with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left breast. Although clinical staging was T1N3M1 (stage IV), the tumor experienced a complete response to chemotherapy. We therefore performed a mastectomy followed by radiotherapy, and continued administration of trastuzumab. However, 11 months later, the patient complained of a swelling in the left parotid gland. Histology following a partial parotidectomy revealed a parotid gland metastasis from the breast.
Conclusion
Treatment with capecitabine in addition to trastuzumab, which is one of the strategies applied in HER2-positive breast cancer, was effective in our patient. Analysis of the 14 cases of parotid gland metastasis from the breast reported between 1982 and 2010 revealed that the metastasis may occur not by direct lymphatic but by hematogenous spread.
doi:10.1159/000335222
PMCID: PMC3290006  PMID: 22419903
Parotid gland metastasis; Breast cancer; Trastuzumab
10.  Early Results of an Endoscopic Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy for Breast Cancer 
Background.
Endoscopic mastectomy has been reportedly associated with smaller scars and greater patient satisfaction; however, few reports on this topic have been made. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the early results of endoscopic nipple-sparing mastectomy (ENSM) and to investigate the safety of this procedure.
Methods.
Between January 2002 and December 2005, a total of 87 patients with breast cancer but without skin and nipple involvement, including two cases of bilateral breast cancer, underwent E-NSM. In case of bloody nipple discharge and suspicious extension near the nipple as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, the major ducts within the nipple were cored (nipple coring). In other cases, nipple coring was not performed.
Results.
Of the 89 breasts in 87 patients, 42 had tumors of >2 cm and 80 were diagnosed as having invasive carcinoma. Lymph node involvement was observed in 36 procedures. The overall rate of nipple necrosis was 18% (16 of 89). The rate of nipple necrosis among the procedures with nipple coring was statistically higher than that among those without nipple coring (7 of 17, 41%, vs. 9 of 72, 13%) (P = .01). Nipple involvement was observed in 2.2% (2 of 89). After a median follow-up period of 52 months, distant metastasis was observed in nine cases; no local recurrences occurred in this series.
Conclusions.
E-NSM is an oncologically safe procedure and an acceptable method in selected patients requiring a mastectomy. The higher rate of nipple necrosis may have been the result of a technical problem, indicating the need for continued improvement in nipple coring procedures.
doi:10.1007/s13193-011-0057-7
PMCID: PMC3372951  PMID: 22695768
11.  Tumor differentiation phenotype in gastric differentiated-type tumors and its relation to tumor invasion and genetic alterations 
AIM: To clarify the relations between tumor differentiation phenotype and tumor invasion or genetic alterations in gastric differentiated-type tumors.
METHODS: We examined the tumor differentiation phenotype, the presence of mutations in APC and p53, and the microsatellite instability (MSI) status in 48 gastric adenomas and 171 differentiated-type carcinomas. The tumor differentiation phenotype was determined by examining the expression of human gastric mucin (HGM), MUC6, MUC2 and CD10. The tumors were then classified into gastric- (G-), gastric and intestinal mixed- (GI-), or intestinal- (I-) phenotypes, according to the immunopositivity of the above markers. The presence of mutations in APC and p53 and the MSI status were also investigated in all the tumors.
RESULTS: Gastric adenomas were significantly associated with CD10 expression, I-phenotype tumors and the presence of APC mutations, compared with carcinomas (66.7% vs 25.1%, P < 0.0001; 56.3% vs 14.6%, P < 0.0001; 39.6% vs 14.0%, P < 0.0001, respectively) and inversely associated with expressions of HGM and MUC6 and the presence of p53 mutations (10.4% vs 62.6%, P < 0.0001; 39.6% vs 64.3%, P = 0.003; 2.0% vs 26.3%, P = 0.001, respectively). The frequency of APC mutations was significantly higher in HGM-negative tumors, MUC6-negative tumors, CD10-positive tumors and I-phenotype tumors than in HGM-positive tumors, MUC6-positive tumors, CD10-negative tumors and G-phenotype tumors (32.7% vs 7.1%, P < 0.0001; 27.8% vs 14.0%, P = 0.0182; 37.3% vs 10.4%, P < 0.0001; and 38.5% vs 9.5%, P = 0.0017, respectively). The frequency of MSI was significantly higher in MUC6-positive tumors, CD10-negative tumors and G-phenotype tumors than in MUC6-negative tumors, CD10-positive tumors and I-phenotype tumors (24.8% vs 6.7%, P = 0.0009; 22.2% vs 8.0%, P = 0.0143; and 28.6% vs 9.6%, P = 0.0353, respectively).
CONCLUSION: The tumor differentiation phenotype is closely related to tumor invasion and genetic alterations in gastric differentiated-type tumors.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i24.3803
PMCID: PMC4087925  PMID: 16804962
Gastric carcinoma; Tumor differentiation phenotype; APC; p53; Microsatellite instability

Results 1-11 (11)