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1.  Role of maximum standardized uptake value in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography predicts malignancy grade and prognosis of operable breast cancer: a multi-institute study 
The malignant biological behavior of breast cancer remains obscure on diagnostic images, although understanding the grade of such malignancy is important for selecting appropriate treatment. Therefore, malignancy grades in operable breast cancer were evaluated using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in a multicenter setting. We prospectively examined the features and prognosis of 344 patients (mean age ± SD: 58.0 ± 12.5 years) with clinical stages I–III breast cancer, who underwent surgical intervention without induction therapy between January 2006 and December 2011. Maximum standardized uptake values (maxSUV) obtained from whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT immediately before surgery were assessed to predict the malignant aggressiveness of tumors including the recurrence-free survival of the patients. Variations in maxSUV among institutions, which are limitations of PET assessments in multicenter studies, were adjusted using a phantom study. The median follow up period was 52 months. The patients were divided into groups according to cut-off maxSUV (≤3.0 vs. >3.0) values established from receiver operating characteristic analysis of recurrence (area under the curve = 0.713). A higher maxSUV was significantly associated with a higher T-factor (p < 0.0001), N-factor (p = 0.0049), nuclear grade (p < 0.0001), negative for estrogen (p = 0.0309), and progesterone receptors (p = 0.0063), positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (p = 0.0012), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0128), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0110). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard regression model revealed high maxSUV and negative estrogen receptor status as significantly prognostic factors (p = 0.033 and p = 0.004, respectively). This study demonstrated that maxSUV on PET/CT as well as estrogen receptor status is useful to predict malignancy grades and the prognosis of patients with breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3785187  PMID: 24026860
Breast cancer; PET/CT; maxSUV; Prognosis; Estrogen receptor; Recurrence
2.  Parotid Gland Metastasis of Breast Cancer: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Breast Care  2011;6(6):471-473.
Parotid gland metastasis in breast cancer is extremely rare, and only 14 cases have been reported between 1982 and 2010.
Case Report
A 67-year-old female patient was diagnosed with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left breast. Although clinical staging was T1N3M1 (stage IV), the tumor experienced a complete response to chemotherapy. We therefore performed a mastectomy followed by radiotherapy, and continued administration of trastuzumab. However, 11 months later, the patient complained of a swelling in the left parotid gland. Histology following a partial parotidectomy revealed a parotid gland metastasis from the breast.
Treatment with capecitabine in addition to trastuzumab, which is one of the strategies applied in HER2-positive breast cancer, was effective in our patient. Analysis of the 14 cases of parotid gland metastasis from the breast reported between 1982 and 2010 revealed that the metastasis may occur not by direct lymphatic but by hematogenous spread.
PMCID: PMC3290006  PMID: 22419903
Parotid gland metastasis; Breast cancer; Trastuzumab
3.  A case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer 
We report a case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy 6 years after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. The primary tumor was negative for HER-2 as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (1+, and ratio, 1.1), but examination of the recurrent lymph node metastasis showed positivity for HER-2 by FISH (ratio, 5.2). No lesions were detected in either her left breast or in other organs, and the patient was diagnosed as having HER-2-positive recurrent disease. Combination chemotherapy using weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated, and a clinically complete response was achieved. This report suggests the benefit of routine evaluation of HER-2 status in recurrent breast cancer with the introduction of HER-2-targeting agents.
PMCID: PMC3220638  PMID: 22059982
discordance; HER-2; trastuzumab; recurrent breast cancer

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