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1.  Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast in Males. In Search of the Optimal Treatment for this Rare Disease 
Breast Care  2011;6(5):399-403.
Intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC) of the breast in men is an extremely infrequent disease, and it appears to have a good prognosis. Because of this, histological findings are of great importance in the decision-making process regarding treatment. Clinical examination, radiological and histological assessments are required for early detection. Adequate surgical excision with negative margins is mandatory. However, the role of sentinel node biopsy has not been evaluated in male IPC. It appears that sentinel node biopsy may be an excellent alternative to radical axillary dissection in patients with IPC and associated ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. Nevertheless, due to the rarity of IPC and its confusing histopathological classification and staging, there are still no clear guidelines as far as IPC treatment is concerned.
doi:10.1159/000331386
PMCID: PMC3357144  PMID: 22619652
Breast cancer; Man; IPC; DCIS; Papilloma
2.  How Do Cytokines Trigger Genomic Instability? 
Inflammation is a double-edged sword presenting a dual effect on cancer development, from one hand promoting tumor initiation and progression and from the other hand protecting against cancer through immunosurveillance mechanisms. Cytokines are crucial components of inflammation, participating in the interaction between the cells of tumor microenvironment. A comprehensive study of the role of cytokines in the context of the inflammation-tumorigenesis interplay helps us to shed light in the pathogenesis of cancer. In this paper we focus on the role of cytokines in the development of genomic instability, an evolving hallmark of cancer.
doi:10.1155/2012/536761
PMCID: PMC3382994  PMID: 22754280
3.  Surgical control of life-threatening post-ERCP bleeding with a gelatin matrix-thrombin hemostatic agent 
INTRODUCTION
Several conventional techniques have been developed in order to control surgical bleeding. Their greatest disadvantage, though, is their inability to control bleeding in areas where access is very difficult. In such cases the application of topical hemostatic agents may prove particularly useful.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We describe the case of an 82-year old patient with life-threatening post-ERCP bleeding which was intraoperatively controlled with infusion of a topical gelatin matrix-thrombin hemostatic agent into the distal portion of the common bile duct.
DISCUSSION
Most iatrogenic cases of post-ERCP bleeding occur at the site of sphincterotomy at the level of the ampulla of Vater and may be relatively easily controlled by repeat endoscopy and local hemostatic measures. More rarely, however, significant and difficult to control bleeding may occur within the lower portion of the common bile duct (CBD) where routine hemostatic techniques may prove unsuccessful. Under these circumstances, we successfully employed a novel hemostatic technique using a gelatin matrix-thrombin agent in a patient with life-threatening bleeding after ERCP.
CONCLUSION
This novel technique might prove particularly useful for bleeding control in surgically challenging anatomical areas such as the lower portion of the CBD.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.05.014
PMCID: PMC3397303  PMID: 22743012
Post-ERCP bleeding; Common bile duct; Gelatin matrix-thrombin; Topical hemostatic agent
4.  De Garengeot's hernia in a 60-year-old woman: a case report 
Introduction
De Garengeot first described the presence of the appendix within a femoral hernia in 1731.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 66-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with acute appendicitis within an incarcerated femoral hernia. This is the first reported case of de Garengeot's hernia in the Balkan area.
Conclusions
Appropriate management without incurring any delay for radiological imaging can be promising for an uneventful postoperative course. The treatment of choice of this disease entity is emergency surgery and consists in simultaneous appendectomy through the hernia incision and primary hernia repair. In patients with large hernia defects or in older people the use of mesh for repairing the hernia defect can be an excellent choice.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-258
PMCID: PMC3141709  PMID: 21718485
5.  Cell cyclins: triggering elements of cancer or not? 
Cyclins are indispensable elements of the cell cycle and derangement of their function can lead to cancer formation. Recent studies have also revealed more mechanisms through which cyclins can express their oncogenic potential. This review focuses on the aberrant expression of G1/S cyclins and especially cyclin D and cyclin E; the pathways through which they lead to tumour formation and their involvement in different types of cancer. These elements indicate the mechanisms that could act as targets for cancer therapy.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-8-111
PMCID: PMC3016250  PMID: 21176227
6.  Medullary thyroid carcinoma: The third most common thyroid cancer reviewed 
Oncology Letters  2010;2(1):49-53.
Medullary thyroid cancer is a type of thyroid cancer of neuroendocrine origin. It occurs in hereditary and sporadic forms, and its aggressive behavior is associated with the clinical presentation and type of RET mutation. Total thyroidectomy remains the ideal choice of treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are the fundamental for a 100% cure rate. In this study, we present our experience of 3 cases, along with a complete review of the literature derived from a Pubmed Database search.
doi:10.3892/ol.2010.223
PMCID: PMC3412473  PMID: 22870127
thyroid gland; medullary thyroid carcinoma; calcitonin; thyroidectomy
7.  Walled-off pancreatic necrosis 
Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), formerly known as pancreatic abscess is a late complication of acute pancreatitis. It can be lethal, even though it is rare. This critical review provides an overview of the continually expanding knowledge about WOPN, by review of current data from references identified in Medline and PubMed, to September 2009, using key words, such as WOPN, infected pseudocyst, severe pancreatitis, pancreatic abscess, acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), pancreas, inflammation and alcoholism. WOPN comprises a later and local complication of ANP, occurring more than 4 wk after the initial attack, usually following development of pseudocysts and other pancreatic fluid collections. The mortality rate associated with WOPN is generally less than that of infected pancreatic necrosis. Surgical intervention had been the mainstay of treatment for infected peripancreatic fluid collection and abscesses for decades. Increasingly, percutaneous catheter drainage and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography have been used, and encouraging results have recently been reported in the medical literature, rendering these techniques invaluable in the treatment of WOPN. Applying the recommended therapeutic strategy, which comprises early treatment with antibiotics combined with restricted surgical intervention, fewer patients with ANP undergo surgery and interventions are ideally performed later in the course of the disease, when necrosis has become well demarcated.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i14.1707
PMCID: PMC2852817  PMID: 20380001
Walled-off pancreatic necrosis; Infected pseudocyst; Severe pancreatitis; Acute necrotizing pancreatitis; Pancreas; Inflammation; Alcoholism
8.  Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor 
Aim
To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups.
Material-methods
In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece.
Results
The ductal type of breast cancer was differentially distributed in blood groups Rh (+) (P ≤ 0.001). In patients with A (+) blood group the ductal type of breast cancer was present in 49.6% of cases, in relation to the other blood groups and in AB blood group the same type occurred rarely (3.6%). Rh (+) women with positive family history were more often found in A blood group. The relative risk of metastasis in Rh (-) patients was 4.2 times higher than that in Rh (+) patients. Among Rh (+) patients, the relative risk of metastasis was 1.29 times higher in A blood group than in other blood groups.
Conclusion
Blood group A is often associated with ductal breast cancer (49.6%), in contrast to the other blood groups and particularly to blood group AB (3.6%). Blood group A and, particularly, A (-) has the worst prognosis of all.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-6-14
PMCID: PMC2741482  PMID: 19689811
9.  Successful pregnancy after breast cancer therapy: dream or reality? 
Background
Nowadays, more breast cancer patients want to have children after the diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this study is to review the possibility and risks of giving birth among women with breast cancer previously treated by chemotherapy.
Case presentation
Two young women aged 28 and 34 respectively, were treated in our clinic for breast cancer, the first (negative hormonal receptors) by surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and the second (positive hormonal receptors) by surgery, radiotherapy and tamoxifen. They both became pregnant, 1 and 8 years after completion of the therapy respectively.
Results
Laboratory testing during pregnancy was negative in both cases and after an uneventful course each woman gave birth to a perfectly healthy child. The first patient breastfed her baby for three months, while the second one did not breastfeed her baby at all.
Conclusion
Women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer can maintain their fertility and get pregnant. Previous chemotherapy for breast cancer does not present any supplementary risks for the child's mental or physical health.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-6-7
PMCID: PMC2651905  PMID: 19254357
10.  Phylloides tumor of the breast: a rare neoplasm, though not that innocent 
Background
Cystosarcoma phylloides (CP) is an extremely rare form of breast cancer with an unpredictable clinical course. The histological characteristics of this neoplasm have not proved to offer much in the estimation of prognosis of these patients.
Patients and methods
In our clinics, in a time period of 38 years, 22 patients with cystosarcoma phylloides were treated. There were 5 cases of malignancy, 15 cases with benign tumors, and two cases histologically characterized as borderline neoplasia. Metastases were manifested in one patient. All patients were on a 5-year follow-up, except in five cases, one operated three years ago and four operated within the last two years.
Results
16 of 22 patients did not present any signs of local recurrence or metastases. There were three patients that manifested local recurrence and underwent supplementary ongectomy or mastectomy and are free of recurrence ever since. One patient with metastatic CP died.
Conclusion
Independently of its histopathological behavior, CP is a tumor difficult to be treated. Meticulous follow-up is mandatory in order to manage possible recurrence of the neoplasm.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-6-6
PMCID: PMC2649148  PMID: 19232098
11.  Primary melanoma of the gallbladder: Does it exist? Report of a case and review of the literature 
With the occasion of a case of malignant melanoma of the gallbladder, which appeared to be primary, we have reviewed the literature and the result of this research was that primary melanoma of the gallbladder remains a questionable medical entity. Only few cases of both primary and metastatic gallbladder melanoma have been reported so far, and the only agreement is that surgery is the mainstay treatment. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy, hormonotherapy or immunotherapy for both primary and metastatic disease remains undefined.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i26.4259
PMCID: PMC4087388  PMID: 16830389
Neoplasms of the gallbladder; Gallbladder; Metastatic melanoma

Results 1-11 (11)