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1.  Spindle Cell Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma with Leiomyoid Differentiation: A Case Report 
Breast Care  2011;6(3):230-233.
Summary
Background
Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is a rare but distinct entity within the group of undifferentiated invasive carcinomas. This entity accounts for less than 0.5% of all breast cancers and contains elements of epithelial (ductal), mesenchymal, and intermediate forms of differentiation. Of these metaplastic carcinomas, there have been reports of chondroid, squamous, osseous, and spindle differentiation.
Case Report
We describe the clinical course of a 52-year-old female patient with an unusual histopathology of a spindle cell carcinoma of the breast, discuss the literature, and recommend an approach to diagnosis and treatment. The patient initially presented to an outside hospital with a rapidly growing breast mass that was originally diagnosed as a malignant phylloides tumor. She presented 11 months after the primary treatment with a local subcutaneous relapse. She later developed a local relapse of her metaplastic carcinoma in the chest wall. Extensive histopathological analysis lead to the diagnosis of a spindle cell metaplastic breast carcinoma with leiomyoid differentiation, which has not been described previously.
Conclusions
Overlap in morphology can lead to a misinterpretation or underdiagnosis of metaplastic carcinomas. However, the prognosis is similar to more common types of breast adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.1159/000329330
PMCID: PMC3132972  PMID: 21779230
Carcinoma; Leiomyoid; Metaplasia; Phylloides; Spindle Cell
2.  Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tumor-Targeted Gene Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer 
Stem Cells and Development  2012;21(13):2355-2363.
Mesenchymal stem (or stromal) cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells that can be obtained from bone marrow aspirates or adipose tissue, expanded and genetically modified in vitro, and then used for cancer therapeutic strategies in vivo. Here, we review available data regarding the application of MSC-based tumor-targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer, provide an overview of the general history of MSC-based gene therapy in cancer research, and discuss potential problems associated with the utility of MSC-based therapy such as biosafety, immunoprivilege, transfection methods, and distribution in the host.
doi:10.1089/scd.2012.0060
PMCID: PMC3424981  PMID: 22530882
3.  A complex pattern of chemokine receptor expression is seen in osteosarcoma 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:23.
Background
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. Patients with primary metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. It is therefore important to better characterize the biology of this tumor to define new prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for tailored therapy. Chemokines and their receptors have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of malignant tumors. They are thought to be active participants in the biology of osteosarcoma. The function of specific chemokines and their receptors is strongly associated with the biological context and microenvironment of their expression. In this report we characterized the expression of a series of chemokine receptors in the complex environment that defines osteosarcoma.
Methods
The overall level of chemokine receptor mRNA expression was determined using TaqMan RT-PCR of microdissected archival patient biopsy samples. Expression was then verified at the protein level by immunohistochemistry using a series of receptor specific antibody reagents to elucidate the cellular association of expression.
Results
Expression at the RNA level was found for most of the tested receptors. CCR1 expression was found on infiltrating mononuclear and polynuclear giant cells in the tumor. Cells associated with the lining of intratumoral vessels were shown to express CCR4. Infiltrating mononuclear cells and tumor cells both showed expression of the receptor CCR5, while CCR7 was predominantly expressed by the mononuclear infiltrate. CCR10 was only very rarely detected in few scattered infiltrating cells.
Conclusion
Our data elucidate for the first time the cellular context of chemokine receptor expression in osteosarcoma. This is an important issue for better understanding potential chemokine/chemokine receptor function in the complex biologic processes that underlie the development and progression of osteosarcoma. Our data support the suggested involvement of chemokines and their receptors in diverse aspects of the biology of osteosarcoma, but also contradict aspects of previous reports describing the expression of these receptors in this tumor.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-23
PMCID: PMC2257957  PMID: 18215331

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