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Breast Care (2)
Hacker, Astrid (2)
Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H. (2)
Sedlacek, Stefan (2)
Höfler, Heinz (1)
Nährig, Jörg (1)
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author:("heymann-brunner, Sylvia H.")
Advantages and Disadvantages of Mammography Screening
Mammography screening is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of asymptomatic women. Its frequent use, however, warrants diligent analysis of potential side effects. Radiation risk is far below the natural yearly risk of breast cancer and should not be used as an argument against screening. False-positive calls lead to additional imaging or histopathological assessment, mainly percutaneous breast biopsy. These measures are tolerated and accepted fairly well. Their number is limited by strict quality assurance and constant training. Interval cancers represent a limitation of breast screening that should prompt further research for optimization. Evaluation of overdiagnosis is a highly debated topic in the literature. According to the probably most realistic available calculations, overdiagnosis is acceptable as it is compensated by the potential mortality reduction. Nonetheless, this potential side effect warrants optimal adjustment of therapy to the patient's individual risk. The mortality reduction seen in randomized studies was confirmed by results from national screening programs. A recent case referent study indicated that improvements in mortality reduction run parallel to improved mammographic techniques. Use of less aggressive therapies is another valuable effect of screening. Awareness of potential problems, strict quality assurance, and further research should help to further develop screening programs.
Mammography; Screening; Advantages; Disadvantages; Overdiagnosis; Mortality reduction
B3 Lesions: Radiological Assessment and Multi-Disciplinary Aspects
B3 lesions comprise different histopathological entities that are considered benign but ‘of unknown biological potential’. These entities may act as risk indicators (for both breasts) or as non-obligatory precursors of malignancy. Being diagnosed at percutaneous breast biopsy, an additional risk of underestimate exists. Imaging appearances, histopathological appearance and risk of associated malignancy are presented. B3 lesions of high risk, which thus should usually be excised, include atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), pleomorphic or necrotic type of lobular neoplasia (LIN 3), and papillary lesions with atypias. Intermediate risk may be associated with classic lobular carcinoma in situ (LIN 2) or flat epithelial atypia (FEA), and low risk with radial sclerosing lesions (RSLs) and papillary lesions without atypias. LIN 1 is mostly an incidental finding acting as risk indicator. Follow-up is adequate if the initial diagnostic problem is solved. According to international guidelines, risk and subsequent recommendations should be discussed for each individual patient, taking into account biological risk, representative sampling, lesion size, lesion extent, percentage of lesion removal, other individual risks, and the possibility of surveillance. With vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB), surgery may be avoided for more of the small lesions at low risk. Further data collection and diligent evaluation may help to better assess the individual risk, to better adapt treatment recommendations and avoid overtreatment.
B3 lesion; Biopsy; Underestimate; Atypical hyperplasia
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