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author:("habeck, Nadia")
2.  AGO Recommendations for Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer: Update 2013 
Breast Care  2013;8(3):181-185.
doi:10.1159/000353590
PMCID: PMC3728631  PMID: 24415967
Guidelines; Locoregional relapse; Metastatic breast cancer; Targeted therapy
3.  13th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2013: Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer Evidence, Controversies, Consensus – Opinion of a German Team of Experts (Zurich 2013) 
Breast Care  2013;8(3):221-229.
Summary
The International Consensus Conference on the treatment of primary breast cancer takes place every two years in St. Gallen, Switzerland. The panel in St. Gallen is composed of international experts from different countries. From a German perspective, it seems reasonable to interpret the voting results in the light of AGO-recommendations and S3-guidelines for everyday practice in Germany. Consequently, a team of eight breast cancer experts, of whom two are members of the international St. Gallen panel, commented on the voting results of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference (2013). The main topics at this year's St. Gallen conference were surgical issues of the breast and axilla, radio-therapeutic and systemic treatment options, and the clinical relevance of tumour biology. The clinical utility of multigene assays for supporting individual treatment decisions was also intensively discussed.
doi:10.1159/000351692
PMCID: PMC3728634  PMID: 24415975
St. Gallen Consensus; Early breast cancer; Adjuvant therapy; Multigene signatures; Targeted therapy
4.  Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) Program: Baseline Data and Patient Characteristics from a Population-Based, Randomized Study Evaluating Compliance to Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy in Postmenopausal Women with Hormone-Sensitive Early Breast Cancer 
Breast Care  2013;8(2):110-120.
Summary
Background
The Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) program is a large randomized study designed to assess whether the provision of educational materials (EM) could improve compliance with aromatase inhibitor therapy in postmenopausal women with early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
Patients and Methods
The PACT study presented a large, homogeneous dataset. The baseline analysis included patient demographics and initial treatments and patient perceptions about treatment and quality of life.
Results
Overall, 4,923 patients were enrolled at 109 German breast cancer centers/clinics in cooperation with 1,361 office-based gynecologists/oncologists. 4,844 women were randomized 1:1 to standard therapy (n = 2,402) or standard therapy plus EM (n = 2,442). Prior breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy had been received by 76% and 24% of the patients, respectively. Radiotherapy was scheduled for 85% of the patients, adjuvant chemotherapy for 38%. Reflecting the postmenopausal, hormone-sensitive nature of this population, only 285 patients (7%) had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Conclusions
A comparison with epidemiological data from the West German Breast Center suggests that the patients in the PACT study are representative of a general postmenopausal early breast cancer population and that the findings may be applicable to ‘real-world’ Germany and beyond. Compliance data from PACT are eagerly anticipated.
doi:10.1159/000350777
PMCID: PMC3683950  PMID: 24419247
Breast cancer; Compliance; Aromatase inhibitors; Breast-conserving surgery; Mastectomy
5.  HER2 Dimerization Inhibitor Pertuzumab – Mode of Action and Clinical Data in Breast Cancer 
Breast Care  2013;8(1):49-55.
Summary
The humanized monoclonal antibody pertuzumab prevents the dimerization of HER2 with other HER receptors, in particular the pairing of the most potent signaling heterodimer HER2/HER3, thus providing a potent strategy for dual HER2 inhibition. It binds to the extracellular domain of HER2 at a different epitope than trastuzumab. Pertuzumab and trastuzumab act in a complementary fashion and provide a more complete blockade of HER2-mediated signal transduction than either agent alone. Phase II studies demonstrated that pertuzumab was generally well tolerated as a single agent or in combination with trastuzumab and/or cytotoxic agents, and implied an improved clinical efficacy of the combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer. Results of the pivotal phase III study CLEOPATRA in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer demonstrated that the addition of pertuzumab to first-line combination therapy with docetaxel and trastuzumab significantly prolonged progression-free and overall survival without increasing cardiac toxicity. Currently, the combination of both antibodies is being explored in the palliative setting as well as in the treatment of early HER2-positive breast cancer. Dual HER2 inhibition with the HER2 dimerization inhibitor pertuzumab and trastuzumab may change clinical practice in HER2-positive first-line metastatic breast cancer treatment.
doi:10.1159/000346837
PMCID: PMC3971793  PMID: 24715843
HER2-positive; Dual inhibition; Breast cancer, metastatic; Pertuzumab; Trastuzumab
6.  Side Effects of Standard Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens According to Age Groups in Primary Breast Cancer 
Breast Care  2013;8(1):60-66.
Summary
Background
Elderly breast cancer patients are underrepresented in clinical trials and this leads to a lack of knowledge regarding the tolerance and side effects of modern chemotherapy regimens, especially in dose-dense (dd) or dose-intensified combination.
Patients and Methods
In this analysis, data from 4 German, randomized (neo-)adjuvant trials, including anthracycline-based chemotherapy, were evaluated for toxicity, compliance and feasibility. Patients were grouped according to age.
Results
Of the 4,775 patients, 73.6% were < 60 years, 15.8% were 60–64 years and 10.6% were > 64 years. The patients’ compliance decreased with increasing age, the rate of therapy discontinuations was 10.3%; 16.0% were > 64 years old (p < 0.001). The rate of dose reductions also increased with increasing age in the docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (TAC) (p overall = 0.02) and 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (FE120C) (p overall < 0.001) treatment groups. Neutropenia grade 3 + 4 in patients of > 64 years was 77% in FE120C- compared to 55% in TAC-treated patients (with primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs)). The incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) was lowest in the regimens without additional taxanes. FN in patients aged > 64 years was lower in the FE120C- than in TAC-and dd-doxorubicin/docetaxel-treated groups.
Conclusion
The range and intensity of toxicity increased with age. Neutropenia did not increase significantly in the dd groups; the highest rate was seen in FE120C-treated patients. FE120C without G-CSFs is not an option in patients older than 64 years.
doi:10.1159/000346834
PMCID: PMC3971817  PMID: 24715845
Elderly; Chemotherapy; Side effect; Tolerability; Breast cancer
7.  Filariasis of the Axilla in a Patient Returning from Travel Abroad: A Case Report 
Breast Care  2012;7(6):487-489.
Summary
Background
The term filariasis comprises a group of parasitic infections caused by helminths belonging to different genera in the superfamily Filaroidea. The human parasites occur mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, but filariae are also found in temperate climates, where they can infect wild and domestic animals. Humans are rarely infected by these zoonotic parasites.
Patients and Methods
A 55-year-old patient presented with a new-onset, subcutaneous, non-tender palpable mass in the right axilla. Ultrasonography showed a 1.3-cm, solid, singular encapsulated node. Sonography of the breast on both sides, axilla and lymphatic drainage on the left side, lymphatic drainage on the right side, and mammography on both sides were without pathological findings. The node was excised under local anesthesia as the patient refused minimal invasive biopsy.
Results
On histopathological examination, the tail of a parasite of the group of filariae was found. The patient revealed that she had stayed in Africa and Malaysia for professional reasons. 6 months before the time of diagnosis, she had also suffered from a fever and poor general condition after a trip abroad. The patient was referred for further treatment to the Institute for Tropical Medicine at the University of Dusseldorf, where a treatment with ivermectin was conducted on the basis of positive staining with antibodies against filariae.
Conclusion
Our case demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration between breast center, pathology, and other specialties such as microbiology and tropical medicine.
doi:10.1159/000345471
PMCID: PMC3971795  PMID: 24715832
Filariasis; Breast; Axilla
8.  WSG ADAPT – adjuvant dynamic marker-adjusted personalized therapy trial optimizing risk assessment and therapy response prediction in early breast cancer: study protocol for a prospective, multi-center, controlled, non-blinded, randomized, investigator initiated phase II/III trial 
Trials  2013;14:261.
Background
Adjuvant treatment decision-making based on conventional clinical/pathological and prognostic single molecular markers or genomic signatures is a therapeutic area in which over-/under-treatment are still key clinical problems even though substantial and continuous improvement of outcome has been achieved over the past decades. Response to therapy is currently not considered in the decision-making procedure.
ADAPT is one of the first new generation (neo)adjuvant trials dealing with individualization of (neo)adjuvant decision-making in early breast cancer and aims to establish early predictive surrogate markers, e.g., Ki-67, for therapy response under a short induction treatment in order to maximally individualize therapy and avoid unnecessary toxicity by ineffective treatment.
Methods/design
The prospective, multi-center, controlled, non-blinded, randomized, investigator initiated phase II/III ADAPT trial has an innovative “umbrella” protocol design. The “umbrella” is common for all patients, consisting of dynamic testing of early therapy response. ADAPT will recruit 4,936 patients according to their respective breast cancer subtype in four distinct sub-trials at 80 trial sites in Germany; 4,000 patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+) and HER2 negative disease will be included in the ADAPT HR+/HER2- sub-trial, where treatment decision is based on risk assessment and therapy response to induction therapy, and 380 patients will be included in ADAPT HER2+/HR+. A further 220 patients will be included in ADAPT HER2+/HR- and 336 patients will be recruited for ADAPT Triple Negative. These three sub-trials focus on identification of early surrogate markers for therapy success in the neoadjuvant setting. Patients will be allocated to the respective sub-trial according to the result of their diagnostic core biopsy, as reported by local/central pathology for HR and HER2 status.
Discussion
Recent trials, such as the GeparTrio, have shown that response-guided therapy using clinical response may improve outcome. For chemotherapy or HER2-targeted treatment, pathologic complete response in a neoadjuvant setting is an excellent predictor of outcome. For endocrine therapy, response to short induction treatment – as defined by decrease in tumor cell proliferation – strongly correlates with outcome. ADAPT now aims to combine static prognostic and dynamic predictive markers, focusing not just on single therapeutic targets, but also on general markers of proliferation and cell death. Biomarker analysis will help to optimize selection of subtype-specific treatment.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: ADAPT Umbrella: NCT01781338; ADAPT HR+/HER2-: NCT01779206; ADAPT HER2+/HR+: NCT01745965; ADAPT HER2+/HR-: NCT01817452; ADAPT TN:NCT01815242.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-261
PMCID: PMC3765940  PMID: 23958221
ADAPT; Biomarker; Early breast cancer; Investigator initiated trial
10.  St. Gallen 2013: Brief Preliminary Summary of the Consensus Discussion 
Breast Care  2013;8(2):102-109.
Summary
The 2013 St. Gallen Consensus Conference on early breast cancer provided mostly evidence-based, globally valid treatment recommendations for breast cancer care, with a broad spectrum of acceptable clinical practice. This report summarizes the results of the 2013 international panel voting procedures with regard to loco-regional and endocrine treatment, chemotherapy, targeted therapy as well as adjuvant bisphosphonate use. This report is not aimed to replace the official St. Gallen Consensus publication, some recommendations may even be altered in the final paper, but should serve a preliminary rapid report of this important meeting.
doi:10.1159/000351193
PMCID: PMC3683952  PMID: 24000280
Early breast cancer; Bisphosphonates; Endocrine therapy; Chemotherapy; Surgery; Axillary dissection; Targeted therapy; Neoadjuvant therapy
11.  Capecitabine Monotherapy: Review of Studies in First-Line HER-2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer 
The Oncologist  2012;17(4):476-484.
The available evidence for the use of capecitabine as a single agent in the first-line treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative metastatic breast cancer is reviewed.
The goals of treatment for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are to prolong overall survival (OS) while maximizing quality of life, palliating symptoms, and delaying tumor progression. For many years, anthracyclines and taxanes have been the mainstay of treatment for MBC, but these agents are now commonly administered earlier in the course of the disease. A recent meta-analysis revealed adverse effects on OS and overall response rates in patients with MBC receiving first-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy following relapse on adjuvant chemotherapy. Noncrossresistant cytotoxic agents and combinations that combine high clinical activity and acceptable tolerability while being convenient for patients are therefore needed for the first-line treatment of MBC patients. Capecitabine has substantial antitumor activity in the first-line treatment of patients with MBC in prospective, randomized, phase II/III clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with biologic and novel agents. First-line capecitabine monotherapy has a favorable safety profile, lacking myelosuppression and alopecia, and does not compromise the administration of further lines of chemotherapy. Capecitabine is suitable for long-term administration without the cumulative toxicity that can limit the prolonged use of other chemotherapy agents. Here, we review the available data on capecitabine as a single agent for first-line treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative MBC.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0281
PMCID: PMC3336834  PMID: 22418569
Metastatic breast cancer; Capecitabine; First-line therapy; Chemotherapy
12.  ABC1 Consensus Conference – a German Perspective 
Breast Care  2012;7(1):52-59.
A group of German breast cancer experts (medical oncologists and gynaecologists) reviewed and commented on the results of the first international ‘Advanced Breast Cancer First Consensus Conference’ (ABC1) for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer. The ABC1 Conference is an initiative of the European School of Oncology (ESO) Metastatic Breast Cancer Task Force in cooperation with the EBCC (European Breast Cancer Conference), ESMO (European Society of Medical Oncology) and the American JNCI (Journal of the National Cancer Institute). The main focus of the ABC1 Conference was metastatic breast cancer (stage IV). The ABC1 consensus is based on the vote of 33 breast cancer experts from different countries and has been specified as a guideline for therapeutic practice by the German expert group. It is the objective of the ABC1 consensus as well as of the German comments to provide an internationally standardized and evidence-based foundation for qualified decision-making in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
doi:10.1159/000336049
PMCID: PMC3335349  PMID: 22553474
ABC1-consensus; Metastatic breast cancer, diagnosis and staging, treatment; Tumor markers; Metastases, biopsy; Chemotherapy; Endocrine therapy; Anti-HER2-targeted therapy; Palliative care
13.  Fetal Renal Insufficiency Following Trastuzumab Treatment for Breast Cancer in Pregnancy: Case Report und Review of the Current Literature 
Breast Care  2011;6(6):475-478.
Some drugs are known for their fetal nephrotoxicity and should be avoided during pregnancy. We report on a pregnant woman suffering from breast cancer who received a weekly neoadjuvant trastuzumab (Herceptin®) therapy from 15 weeks of gestation onward, in addition to a 3-weekly carboplatin/docetaxel chemotherapy. Fetal renal insufficiency with anhydramnios and missing visualization of the fetal bladder developed at 21 weeks. After discontinuation of trastuzumab and repeated instillation of amniotic fluid, the amount of amniotic fluid remained stable after 24 weeks of gestation. After caesarean section at 34 weeks because of fetal growth restriction, the renal function of the neonate was normal postnatally. In accordance with the current literature, our case shows a reversible adverse effect of trastuzumab on the fetal renal function and confirms the current recommendation that trastuzumab in pregnancy should be avoided. In pregnancies exposed to trastuzumab, treatment should be discontinued and the fetus should be closely monitored, with particular attention to the amniotic fluid and the fetal bladder volume, as these reflect fetal renal function.
doi:10.1159/000335202
PMCID: PMC3290009  PMID: 22419904
Fetus; Renal insufficiency; Trastuzumab; Breast cancer; Pregnancy
14.  Can We Keep the ‘PROMISE’? AGO Breast Commission: Commentary on Recent Evidence Regarding LHRH Analogues for the Preservation of Ovarian Function 
Breast Care  2011;6(6):467-470.
Recently reported data from the German ZORO trial and the Italian PROMISE-GIM6 trial have come to different conclusions. The AGO Breast Commission does not recommend the general use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues for the preservation of ovarian function. Instead, we distinguish between patients with hormone receptor-negative and hormone receptor-positive disease. This article reviews the AGO recommendations in light of the ZORO and PROMISE-GIM6 data. In conclusion, separate recommendations are needed for the prevention of ovarian failure and for fertility preservation because the trials did not investigate fertility rate as a primary outcome measure. The results from not yet published trials such as OPTION and POEM may shed new light on the role of LHRH analogues.
doi:10.1159/000335477
PMCID: PMC3290029  PMID: 22419902
LHRH; Ovarian function preservation; Fertility preservation; Chemotherapy; Breast cancer
16.  A phase II trial to assess efficacy and safety of afatinib in extensively pretreated patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer 
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment  2012;134(3):1149-1159.
Afatinib (BIBW 2992) is an ErbB-family blocker that irreversibly inhibits signaling from all relevant ErbB-family dimers. Afatinib has demonstrated preclinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 (ErbB2)-positive and triple-negative xenograft models of breast cancer, and clinical activity in phase I studies. This was a multicenter phase II study enrolling patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer progressing following no more than three lines of chemotherapy. No prior epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy was allowed. Patients received 50-mg afatinib once daily until disease progression. Tumor assessment was performed at every other 28-day treatment course. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit (CB) for ≥4 treatment courses in triple-negative (Cohort A) metastatic breast cancer (TNBC) and objective responses measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in patients with HER2-negative, estrogen receptor-positive, and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (Cohort B). Fifty patients received treatment, including 29 patients in Cohort A and 21 patients in Cohort B. No objective responses were observed in either cohort. Median progression-free survival was 7.4 and 7.7 weeks in Cohorts A and B, respectively. Three patients with TNBC had stable disease for ≥4 treatment courses, one of them for 12 courses (median 26.3 weeks; range 18.9–47.9 weeks). The most frequently observed afatinib-associated adverse events (AEs) were gastrointestinal and skin-related side effects, which were manageable by symptomatic treatment and dose reductions. Afatinib pharmacokinetics were comparable to those observed in previously reported phase I trials. In conclusion, afatinib had limited activity in HER2-negative breast cancer. AEs were generally manageable and mainly affected the skin and the gastrointestinal tract.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10549-012-2126-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10549-012-2126-1
PMCID: PMC3409367  PMID: 22763464
Afatinib; Metastatic breast cancer; Triple-negative breast cancer; HER2-negative breast cancer; EGFR TKI
17.  Integrating Palliative Medicine into Comprehensive Breast Cancer Therapy – a Pilot Project 
Breast Care  2011;6(3):215-220.
Summary
Background
To comply with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, our institution's administrative directives were adopted to advocate the provision of palliative care (PC) early in the disease trajectory of breast cancer (BC). To assess the outcome of this recommendation, this study evaluated the effects of this approach.
Methods
A retrospective systematic chart analysis of a 2-year period was performed. The first PC consultation of patients was analyzed according to (a) physical condition, (b) symptom burden of the patients, and (c) reasons for PC consultation.
Results
Many patients were already in a reduced physical state and experienced burdening symptoms when first counselled by PC. After a 1-year experience with PC consultations, the number of burdening symptoms identified at first PC consultation decreased and senologists increasingly requested PC support also for non-somatic issues.
Conclusions
A development towards a better understanding of PC competencies after a 1-year initiation period could be demonstrated, but BC patients continued to be in late stages of the disease at the time of first PC contact. Disease-specific guidelines may facilitate and optimize the integration of PC into breast cancer therapy.
doi:10.1159/000328162
PMCID: PMC3132969  PMID: 21779227
Comprehensive cancer care; Palliative medicine; Simultaneous care; Shared care; Quality of life; Symptom control
18.  Facilitating Early Integration of Palliative Care into Breast Cancer Therapy. Promoting Disease-Specific Guidelines 
Breast Care  2011;6(3):240-244.
Summary
To comply with patients' needs as well as ASCO and WHO recommendations, our institution aims to integrate palliative care (PC) early in the course of breast cancer (BC) therapy. The evaluation of relevant pilot project data revealed that these recommendations were too vague to trigger PC integration. Therefore, a standard operating procedure (SOP) was developed by our interdisciplinary working group to provide disease-specific information to overcome the ambiguity of the WHO recommendations and guide PC integration. Literally, the SOP states that ‘Specialized PC is recommended regularly for all BC patients without curative treatment options, specifically for patients with i) metastasized and inoperable, or ii) locally advanced and inoperable, or iii) relapsing BC, who are receiving intravenous chemotherapy’. This SOP for the first time presents disease-specific guidelines for PC integration into comprehensive BC therapy by defining ‘green flags’ for early integration of PC and delineating PC from senology assignments. Although disease-specific SOPs have also been developed by this working group for other malignancies, the decision when to first integrate PC into BC therapy differs substantially because of the different clinical characteristics of the disease.
doi:10.1159/000329007
PMCID: PMC3132974  PMID: 21779232
Comprehensive cancer care; Palliative medicine; Early integration; Quality of Life
20.  St. Gallen 2011: Summary of the Consensus Discussion 
Breast Care  2011;6(2):136-141.
Summary
The 2011 St. Gallen Consensus Conference on early breast cancer provided mostly evidence-based treatment recommendations with a broad spectrum of acceptable clinical practice for global breast cancer care. This report summarizes the results of the 2011 international panel voting procedures with regard to locoregional and endocrine treatment, chemotherapy, targeted therapy as well as adjuvant bisphosphonate use.
doi:10.1159/000328054
PMCID: PMC3100376  PMID: 21633630
Early breast cancer; Bisphosphonates; Endocrine therapy; Chemotherapy; Surgery; Targeted therapy; Neoadjuvant therapy
21.  Prospective evaluation of prognostic factors uPA/PAI-1 in node-negative breast cancer: Phase III NNBC3-Europe trial (AGO, GBG, EORTC-PBG) comparing 6 × FEC versus 3 × FEC/3 × Docetaxel 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:140.
Background
Today, more than 70% of patients with primary node-negative breast cancer are cured by local therapy alone. Many patients receive overtreatment by adjuvant chemotherapy due to inadequate risk assessment. So far, few clinical trials have prospectively evaluated tumor biology based prognostic factors. Risk assessment by a biological algorithm including invasion factors urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) will assess up to 35-55% of node-negative patients as low-risk and thus avoid chemotherapy. In contrast, a clinical-pathological algorithm will only classify 20-40% of patients as low-risk. High-risk node-negative patients should receive chemotherapy. Anthracycline-based regimens are accepted as a standard, the additional benefit of taxanes remains an open question.
Methods/Design
The international NNBC3 ("Node Negative Breast Cancer 3-Europe") trial compares biological risk assessment (UP) using invasion factors uPA/PAI-1 with a clinical-pathological algorithm (CP). In this trial, the type of risk assessment (CP or UP) was chosen upfront by each center for its patients. Fresh frozen tissue was obtained to determine uPA/PAI-1 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients assessed as high-risk were stratified by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and then randomised to receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil (F)/Epirubicin (E)/Cyclophosphymide (C) or an anthracycline-taxane sequence (FE100C*6 versus FE100C*3 followed by Docetaxel100*3).
Discussion
In this trial, 4,149 node-negative patients with operable breast cancer from 153 centers in Germany and France were included since 2002. Measurement of uPA/PAI-1 by ELISA was performed with standardised central quality assurance for 2,497 patients (60%) from 56 "UP"-centers. The NNBC 3-Europe trial showed that inclusion of patients into a clinical phase III trial is feasible based on biological testing of fresh frozen tumor material. In addition, 2,661 patients were classified as high-risk and thus received chemotherapy. As adjuvant chemotherapy, 1,334 high-risk patients received FE100C-Docetaxel100, and 1,327 received French FE100C. No unexpected toxicities were observed. Chemotherapy efficacy and comparison of UP with CP will be evaluated after longer follow-up.
Trial Registration
clinical Trials.gov NCT01222052.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-140
PMCID: PMC3089797  PMID: 21496284
22.  Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer: The HER2/neu Oncogene 
Breast Care  2010;5(Suppl 1):3-7.
Summary
Besides surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and endocrine treatment, immunotherapy has become an established part of systemic therapy in treating metastatic breast cancer. One of the most interesting targets for the design of anticancer therapeutics is the HER2/ErbB2 receptor which is overexpressed in about 20–25% of breast cancers. Given the poor prognosis of women whose tumors express ErbB2 (HER2) at high levels, accurate determination of the ErbB2 status should be routinely performed in women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer. Efficacy and safety data of numerous trials led to the approval of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab as the first ErbB2-targeting therapy in ErbB2-positive breast cancer. However, the majority of patients who achieve an initial response to trastuzumab-based regimens for metastatic disease develop resistance within 1 year. This underlines the need for alternative or additional anti-ErbB2-targeting strategies.
doi:10.1159/000285714
PMCID: PMC2931093  PMID: 20847829
Metastatic breast cancer; HER2/ErbB2; ErbB2 testing; Trastuzumab; Resistance
23.  CDO1 Promoter Methylation is a Biomarker for Outcome Prediction of Anthracycline Treated, Estrogen Receptor-Positive, Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:247.
Background
Various biomarkers for prediction of distant metastasis in lymph-node negative breast cancer have been described; however, predictive biomarkers for patients with lymph-node positive (LNP) disease in the context of distinct systemic therapies are still very much needed. DNA methylation is aberrant in breast cancer and is likely to play a major role in disease progression. In this study, the DNA methylation status of 202 candidate loci was screened to identify those loci that may predict outcome in LNP/estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
Methods
Quantitative bisulfite sequencing was used to analyze DNA methylation biomarker candidates in a retrospective cohort of 162 LNP/ER+ breast cancer patients, who received adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. First, twelve breast cancer specimens were analyzed for all 202 candidate loci to exclude genes that showed no differential methylation. To identify genes that predict distant metastasis, the remaining loci were analyzed in 84 selected cases, including the 12 initial ones. Significant loci were analyzed in the remaining 78 independent cases. Metastasis-free survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression, time-dependent ROC analysis, and the Kaplan-Meier method. Pairwise multivariate regression analysis was performed by linear Cox Proportional Hazard models, testing the association between methylation scores and clinical parameters with respect to metastasis-free survival.
Results
Of the 202 loci analysed, 37 showed some indication of differential DNA methylation among the initial 12 patient samples tested. Of those, 6 loci were associated with outcome in the initial cohort (n = 84, log rank test, p < 0.05).
Promoter DNA methylation of cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) was confirmed in univariate and in pairwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age at surgery, pathological T stage, progesterone receptor status, grade, and endocrine therapy as a strong and independent biomarker for outcome prediction in the independent validation set (log rank test p-value = 0.0010).
Conclusions
CDO1 methylation was shown to be a strong predictor for distant metastasis in retrospective cohorts of LNP/ER+ breast cancer patients, who had received adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-247
PMCID: PMC2893112  PMID: 20515469
24.  Zurich Consensus: German Expert Opinion on the St. Gallen Votes on 15 March 2009 (11th International Conference at St. Gallen: Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer) 
Breast Care  2009;4(2):109-116.
Summary
A German working group of 23 breast cancer experts discussed the results from the vote at this year's St. Gallen Consensus Conference on Primary Therapy for Early Breast Cancer (March 11–14, 2009) and came up with some concrete recommendations for day-to-day therapeutic decisions in Germany. Due the fact that the concept of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference merely allows for a minimal consensus, the objective of the working group was to provide practice-related recommendations for day-to-day clinical decisions in Germany. One area of emphasis at St. Gallen was tumor biology as a starting point for reaching individual therapeutic decisions. Intensive discussion was necessary with respect to the clinical relevance of predictive and prognostic factors. A new addition to the area of systemic therapy was a first-ever discussion of the adjuvant administration of bisphosponates and the fact that therapy with trastuzumab in HER2 overexpressing breast cancer has been defined as the standard for neoadjuvant therapy. The value of taxanes as a component of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy as well as the value of aromatase inhibitors for the endocrine adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal patients were affirmed.
doi:10.1159/000212164
PMCID: PMC2931071  PMID: 21049070
25.  Phase III randomized trial of sunitinib versus capecitabine in patients with previously treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer 
This multicenter, randomized, open-label phase III trial (planned enrollment: 700 patients) was conducted to test the hypothesis that single-agent sunitinib improves progression-free survival (PFS) compared with capecitabine as treatment for advanced breast cancer (ABC). Patients with HER2-negative ABC that recurred after anthracycline and taxane therapy were randomized (1:1) to sunitinib 37.5 mg/day or capecitabine 1,250 mg/m2 (1,000 mg/m2 in patients >65 years) BID on days 1–14 q3w. The independent data-monitoring committee (DMC) determined during the first interim analysis (238 patients randomized to sunitinib, 244 to capecitabine) that the trial be terminated due to futility in reaching the primary endpoint. No statistical evidence supported the hypothesis that sunitinib improved PFS compared with capecitabine (one-sided P = 0.999). The data indicated that PFS was shorter with sunitinib than capecitabine (median 2.8 vs. 4.2 months, respectively; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16–1.87; two-sided P = 0.002). Median overall survival (15.3 vs. 24.6 months; HR, 1.17; two-sided P = 0.350) and objective response rates (11 vs. 16%; odds ratio, 0.65; P = 0.109) were numerically inferior with sunitinib versus capecitabine. While no new or unexpected safety findings were reported, sunitinib treatment was associated with higher frequencies and greater severities of many common adverse events (AEs) compared with capecitabine, resulting in more temporary discontinuations due to AEs with sunitinib (66 vs. 51%). The relative dose intensity was lower with sunitinib than capecitabine (73 vs. 95%). Based on these efficacy and safety results, sunitinib should not be used as monotherapy for patients with ABC.
doi:10.1007/s10549-010-0788-0
PMCID: PMC2855860  PMID: 20339913
Advanced breast cancer; Sunitinib malate; Capecitabine; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

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