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1.  Barriers to breast cancer screening among a sample of Egyptian females 
Breast cancer (BC) is usually diagnosed in late stages in countries with limited resources. Early detection of BC is likely to improve the outcome of the disease for women in these areas.
The aim of this study was to understand the possible personal, economic, and systems barriers to BC screening in a sample of Egyptian women.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in family health centers representing the seven districts of Alexandria governorate, Egypt. A total of 612 women were randomly selected from the chosen centers.
In this sample of Egyptian women, the most frequently identified potential barriers to BC screening were the following: 81.8% would not seek care until they were ill, 77% were unwilling to have a mammogram until it was recommended by the doctor, 71.4% blamed the, lack of privacy, 69.2% thought that medical checkups were not worthwhile, and 64.6% blamed the cost of services. The study further revealed that women of lower education, women in the lower income category, women who did not do paid work, those who had poor knowledge of the risks of BC, and women with no family history of BC were more likely to perceive different screening barriers compared with their counterparts.
Many potential personal, economic, and health system barriers were identified. Addressing these barriers by increasing the awareness of BC and dealing with the misconceptions that the women have can help the policy makers to design more culturally relevant strategies to motivate women to utilize screening services.
PMCID: PMC4073560  PMID: 24987281
Breast cancer; barriers; Egypt; screening
2.  Raising the Breast Health Awareness amongst Women in an Urban Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt 
Breast Care  2011;6(5):375-379.
Breast Cancer (BC) is the most frequently occurring cancer among Egyptian women. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a health education program on raising the knowledge related to BC, its risk factors, and some related preventive practices among women living in an urban slum area in Alexandria.
Patients and Methods
A pre-/post-test interventional study was conducted during 2009–2010 on a random sample of women aged 30–65 years (n = 486) living in a slum area in Alexandria, Egypt. 20 health education sessions were carried out to educate the women on BC risk factors and some preventive practices. Previously trained nurses educated the sampled women on breast self-examination (BSE). The women's knowledge and opinion about BC and their practice of BSE were evaluated before and 3 months after the intervention.
The findings indicated a significant increase in the mean knowledge score regarding BC and the mean opinion score regarding some BC risk factors. A significant increase in the practice of BSE was observed post intervention.
This study confirms the effectiveness of intervention programs in improving the knowledge about BC risk factors and practice of BSE even in a group of women with a low literacy rate living in a slum area.
PMCID: PMC3357171  PMID: 22619648
Breast cancer; Breast self-examination; Breast awareness; Knowledge; Egypt

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