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1.  Feasibility of Telaprevir-Based Triple Therapy in Liver Transplant Patients with Hepatitis C Virus: SVR 24 Results  
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80528.
Management of recurrent Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following liver transplantation remains a major challenge. In non-transplanted HCV genotype 1 patients, the introduction of protease inhibitor-based regimens has significantly increased the rate of sustained virological response. In this follow-up study, on the first published cohort of post-liver transplant patients treated with telaprevir-based triple therapy, we investigated both efficacy and safety data in follow-up to 24 weeks (SVR 24) after end of treatment (EOT). SVR 24 efficacy and safety data from 9 liver transplant HCV patients being treated with telaprevir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin, showed 5 of the transplanted patients accomplished the full duration of the 48 week triple therapy.
Notable were the 4 patients found to be HCV RNA-negative at week 4, and 8 patients at week 12. Upon EOT, at week 48, 6 patients were HCV RNA-negative. Importantly, at follow-up (24 weeks after EOT), a favorable sustained virological response rate was observed in 5 of these patients with HCV RNA remaining negative, including in one patient who discontinued treatment prematurely. Due to side effects, 2 patients discontinued, 2 suffered from virological breakthrough after the telaprevir treatment phase, and 1 patient had a relapse after EOT. Two thirds of patients exhibited hematological side effects requiring ribavirin dose reductions, administration of erythropoetin, or even blood transfusions.
This retrospective analysis provides evidence that - with respect to SVR 24 - liver transplant patients suffering from HCV genotype 1 recurrence may benefit from a telaprevir-based triple therapy as this new regimen showed acceptable antiviral efficacy in this small cohort of mostly pre-treated patients. Management of drug-drug interactions is challenging, but feasible. In part severe side effects are frequent during treatment and require therapeutic interventions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080528
PMCID: PMC3827217  PMID: 24265827
2.  Fetal Renal Insufficiency Following Trastuzumab Treatment for Breast Cancer in Pregnancy: Case Report und Review of the Current Literature 
Breast Care  2011;6(6):475-478.
Some drugs are known for their fetal nephrotoxicity and should be avoided during pregnancy. We report on a pregnant woman suffering from breast cancer who received a weekly neoadjuvant trastuzumab (Herceptin®) therapy from 15 weeks of gestation onward, in addition to a 3-weekly carboplatin/docetaxel chemotherapy. Fetal renal insufficiency with anhydramnios and missing visualization of the fetal bladder developed at 21 weeks. After discontinuation of trastuzumab and repeated instillation of amniotic fluid, the amount of amniotic fluid remained stable after 24 weeks of gestation. After caesarean section at 34 weeks because of fetal growth restriction, the renal function of the neonate was normal postnatally. In accordance with the current literature, our case shows a reversible adverse effect of trastuzumab on the fetal renal function and confirms the current recommendation that trastuzumab in pregnancy should be avoided. In pregnancies exposed to trastuzumab, treatment should be discontinued and the fetus should be closely monitored, with particular attention to the amniotic fluid and the fetal bladder volume, as these reflect fetal renal function.
doi:10.1159/000335202
PMCID: PMC3290009  PMID: 22419904
Fetus; Renal insufficiency; Trastuzumab; Breast cancer; Pregnancy
3.  Analysis of the clinical relevance of antimitochondrial antibodies to the β- and γ-subunits of the F1F0-ATPase in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:152.
Background
In a recent study we showed that in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) being positive or negative for anti-M2 antibodies reacting with the 2-oxoacid-dehydrogenase complex (ODC) also antibodies to the beta- and gamma-subunits of F1F0-ATPase (anti-β, anti-γ) occur. This is a mitochondrial enzyme but parts are also expressed on plasma membranes of endothelial cells. Here we wanted to analyse in more detail their clinical relevance.
Methods
Fifty-nine untreated and histologically defined PBC patients who had been followed for at least five years were included into the study (51 anti-M2 positive, 8 anti-M2 negative). Twenty-three of them were treated in the follow up with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), eight received during a trial methotrexate (MTX). In 13 patients orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) had to be performed. Serum samples before and during therapy were available. Patients were analysed with respect to laboratory parameters, disease activity and histological stages.
Patients’ sera were tested by ELISA for IgG- and IgM-antibodies against the beta- and gamma-subunits which had been recombinant expressed in E.coli and highly purified by electro-elution from SDS-gels after electrophoresis.
Results
Fifty-nine percent of the anti-M2 positive and 50% of the anti-M2 negative PBC patients had anti-β- and/or anti-γ-antibodies. There were no differences between anti-β- and/or anti-γ-antibody positive or negative patients with respect to biochemical parameters, immunoglobulins, histological stages or disease activity. Antibody reactivity significantly decreased during UDCA and MTX-treatment and also after OLT.
Conclusions
Antibodies to the β- and γ-subunits of F1F0-ATPase occur in anti-M2 positive and –negative PBC but do not have any relevance with respect to clinical activity or prognosis. However, in contrast to the anti-M2 antibodies they decrease during UDCA and immunosuppressive therapy.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-152
PMCID: PMC3523002  PMID: 23095491
Primary biliary cirrhosis; Antimitochondrial antibodies; Anti-M2/ODC; F1F0-ATPase; β-subunit; γ-subunit
4.  Autoantibodies to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors found in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis 
BMC Gastroenterology  2010;10:120.
Background
Autoantibodies to the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor of the M3 type (hmAchR M3) have been suggested to play an etiopathogenic role in Sjögren's syndrome. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) often is associated with this syndrome. Therefore, we studied the co-presence of hmAchR M3 autoantibodies in patients with PBC.
Methods
Frequency of hmAchR M3 autoantibodies was assessed by Western blotting analysis as well as by an ELISA using a 25-mer peptide of the 2nd extracellular loop of hmAchR M3. Co-localization of hmAchR M3/PBC-specific autoantibodies was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Finally, sera from patients with PBC as well as from healthy controls were tested.
Results
Western blotting analysis as well as results from ELISA testing revealed a significantly enhanced IgG reactivity in PBC patients in contrast to healthy controls. Co-localization of autoantibodies with the hmAchR M3 receptor-specific autoantibodies was observed in 10 out of 12 PBC-patients but none of the 5 healthy controls. Antibodies of the IgM type were not found to be affected.
Conclusions
For the first time, our data demonstrate the presence of autoantibodies to the hmAchR M3 in PBC patients. These findings might contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Further studies have to focus on the functionality of hmAchR M3 autoantibodies in PBC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-10-120
PMCID: PMC2972237  PMID: 20950485
5.  Catalytic domain of PDC-E2 contains epitopes recognized by antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis 
AIM: To search for further immunodominant peptides of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2-component (PDC-E2) recognized by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).
METHODS: Sera from 95 patients with PBC were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 33 synthetic overlapping peptides (25 amino acids; aa) covering the entire length of the E2-subunit of PDC-E2. Furthermore, the inner lipoyl peptide 167-184 was used in an unlipoylated and a lipoylated form as well as coupled to ovalbumin. Sera from 11 AMA negative/ANA positive PBC patients, 63 patients with other liver disorders and 22 healthy blood donors served as controls.
RESULTS: Of the 95 PBC-sera, 74% reacted with the peptide 475-499 and 58% with the peptide 407-431 located within the catalytic domain of PDC-E2. Patients with other disorders or healthy controls were positive in only up to 18%. Antibodies to the unlipoylated and lipoylated peptide 167-184 within the inner lipoyl domain were found in only 5% and 11% of the PBC sera, respectively; using ovalbumin-coupled peptides, the incidence increased up to 57% (unlipoylated form).
CONCLUSION: Peptides within the catalytic site of PDC-E2 rather than the previously reported lipoyl binding peptide 167-184 may represent major immunodominant epitopes recognized by AMA in PBC.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i8.973
PMCID: PMC2828602  PMID: 20180236
Anti-M2; Epitope mapping; E2-subunit; Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; Inner lipoyl domain; Active site; Catalytic domain; Primary biliary cirrhosis
6.  Hepatitis C virus core protein induces apoptosis-like caspase independent cell death 
Virology Journal  2009;6:213.
Background
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated liver diseases may be related to apoptotic processes. Thus, we investigated the role of different HCV proteins in apoptosis induction as well as their potency to interact with different apoptosis inducing agents.
Methods and Results
The use of a tightly adjustable tetracycline (Tet)-dependent HCV protein expression cell system with the founder osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS allowed switch-off and on of the endogenous production of HCV proteins. Analyzed were cell lines expressing the HCV polyprotein, the core protein, protein complexes of the core, envelope proteins E1, E2 and p7, and non-structural proteins NS3 and NS4A, NS4B or NS5A and NS5B. Apoptosis was measured mainly by the detection of hypodiploid apoptotic nuclei in the absence or presence of mitomycin C, etoposide, TRAIL and an agonistic anti-CD95 antibody. To further characterize cell death induction, a variety of different methods like fluorescence microscopy, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-catalyzed deoxyuridinephosphate (dUTP)-nick end labeling) assay, Annexin V staining, Western blot and caspase activation assays were included into our analysis.
Two cell lines expressing the core protein but not the total polyprotein exerted a strong apoptotic effect, while the other cell lines did not induce any or only a slight effect by measuring the hypodiploid nuclei. Cell death induction was caspase-independent since it could not be blocked by zVAD-fmk. Moreover, caspase activity was absent in Western blot analysis and fluorometric assays while typical apoptosis-associated morphological features like the membrane blebbing and nuclei condensation and fragmentation could be clearly observed by microscopy. None of the HCV proteins influenced the apoptotic effect mediated via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway while only the core protein enhanced death-receptor-mediated apoptosis.
Conclusion
Our data showed a caspase-independent apoptosis-like effect of the core protein, which seems to be inhibited in the presence of further HCV proteins like the non structural (NS) proteins. This observation could be of relevance for the viral spread since induction of an apoptosis-like cell death by the core protein may have some impact on the release of the HCV particles from the host cell.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-6-213
PMCID: PMC3224943  PMID: 19951438
7.  Early MRI response monitoring of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma under treatment with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:208.
Background
New therapeutic principles in clinical oncology require the adjustment of response criteria to govern therapy decisions. For advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) a new era has recently begun by the approval of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. As a unique feature, HCC usually develops in a diseased liver and current imaging technologies employing classical response criteria have not been prospectively evaluated for this new treatment.
Methods
MRI signal patterns were assessed in 21 advanced HCC patients receiving sorafenib. MRI was performed at baseline and in short-term intervals thereafter. Signal changes under therapy on T1WI, T2WI and post-gadolinium images including necrosis volume and its ratio to the entire tumor volume were compared to baseline imaging. To assess the association between the categorical variables, Fisher's exact tests were applied for a statistical analysis. Survey time ranged from 2–65 weeks, and a total of 39 target lesions were evaluated.
Results
Signal abnormalities during sorafenib therapy were disclosed by T1WI and T2WI in 15/21 patients. The predominant tumor signal change was hyperintensity on both T1WI and T2WI. Interestingly, most patients developed MRI signal changes within 4 weeks of therapy; in contrast, two non-responders did not show any signal alteration at follow-up. Under therapy, 16/21 patients presented with new or progressive necrosis, whereas 7 patients achieved temporarily >75% tumor necrosis under sorafenib. Significantly associated MRI variables were increase in T1WI signal and tumor necrosis (p = 0.017) as well as increase of tumor necrosis with an elevated ratio of necrotic to vital tumor areas (p = 0.002). Remarkably, some (3/13) of the patients developing necrotic tumor areas showed a relevant (>20%) increase in tumor volume, which should be considered in the assessment of imaging studies.
Conclusion
As sorafenib induces early intralesional necrosis with profound changes in T1WI/T2WI MRI signal intensities and measurable necrotic tumor areas in most HCC patients, early MRI-based evaluation could pave the way for its rationale and cost-effective application.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-208
PMCID: PMC2714320  PMID: 19558720
8.  Ribavirin and Alpha Interferon Enhance Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis and Caspase Activation in Human Hepatoma Cells 
The molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of alpha interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are not understood. Elimination of infected cells occurs in part by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) expressing CD95 ligand and thereby attacking target cells which are positive for the death receptor CD95. Since many viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis, the opposite, namely, promotion of apoptosis, could be a strategy to strengthen the host antiviral response. In the present study, we have asked whether the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin could support CD95-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspases, a family of proteases known for their essential role in apoptosis. HepG2 cells, stimulated with the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody, served as a minimal model to mimic the CD95 stimulation ocurring during a CTL attack of target cells in vivo. Apoptosis was quantitated by flow cytometric detection of hypodiploid nuclei. Caspase activity was measured by cytofluorometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. IFN and ribavirin sensitized HepG2 cells for CD95-mediated apoptosis. This effect was correlated with an increase in CD95-mediated caspase activation and enhanced cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, the positive effect on CD95-mediated caspase activation by IFN and ribavirin was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for activated caspase-3 and by immunoblot detection of activated caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8. Our data demonstrate that the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin are able to sensitize for CD95-mediated apoptosis. IFN and ribavirin also enhance CD95-mediated caspase activation, which might in part be responsible for the apoptosis-promoting effect of these antiviral compounds.
doi:10.1128/AAC.47.6.1912-1921.2003
PMCID: PMC155820  PMID: 12760867

Results 1-8 (8)