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1.  Statistical Literacy of Obstetrics-Gynecology Residents 
Residents' ability to interpret statistics is important for scholarly pursuits and understanding evidence-based medicine. Yet there is limited research assessing residents' statistical literacy and their training in statistics.
In 2011 we surveyed US obstetrics-gynecology residents participating in the Council for Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology In-Training Examination about their statistical literacy and statistical literacy training.
Our response rate was 95% (4713 of 4961). About two-thirds (2980 of 4713) of the residents rated their statistical literacy training as adequate. Female respondents were more likely to rate their statistical literacy training poorly, with 25% (897 of 3575) indicating inadequate literacy compared with 17% (141 of 806) of the male respondents (P < .001). Respondents performed poorly on 2 statistical literacy questions, with only 26% (1222 of 4713) correctly answering a positive predictive value question and 42% (1989 of 4173) correctly defining a P value. A total of 51% (2391 of 4713) of respondents reported receiving statistical literacy training through a journal club, 29% (1359 of 4713) said they had informal training, 15% (711 of 4713) said that they had statistical literacy training as part of a course, and 11% (527 of 4713) said that they had no training.
The findings suggest that statistical literacy training for residents could still be improved. A total of 37% (1743 of 4713) of obstetrics-gynecology residents have received no formal statistical literacy training in residency. Fewer residents answered the 2 statistical literacy questions correctly compared with previous studies.
PMCID: PMC3693693  PMID: 24404272
2.  Academic workforce trends in community hospitals 
Obstetrician-gynecologist faculty workforce studies have been limited to faculty at university training programs. Not much is known about the obstetrician-gynecologist faculty workforce at community programs.
This study assessed the obstetrician-gynecologist faculty workforce in community training programs via administering surveys to the department chairs. The questionnaire assessed number of current faculty by degree, work status (part-time/full-time), rank, and sub-specialty. Out of 125 programs, 65 responded (52% response rate).
The mean number of full-time faculty per department in community hospitals was 17 faculty. Two-thirds of community department chairs anticipated an increase in full-time faculty and 43% anticipated an increase in part-time faculty. Like university programs, sub-specialists and Professors (compared to generalists and assistant professors) were more likely to be male.
There are similarities between the community and university faculty workforce, many of the community program faculty are involved in research. Given the evolving clinical, educational, and research demands on community faculty, it is important to continue to monitor and study community program faculty.
PMCID: PMC3714083  PMID: 23882350
Workforce; community hospital; ob-gyn; faculty; gender; university
3.  Obstetrician-Gynecologists’ knowledge of sickle cell disease screening and management 
Although obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) play an important role in sickle cell disease (SCD) screening and patient care, there is little information on knowledge of SCD or sickle cell trait (SCT) or related practices in this provider group. Our objective was to assess SCD screening and prenatal management practices among OB/GYNs.
Twelve hundred Fellows and Junior Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the College)a were invited to complete a mailed survey, of which half (n = 600) belonged to the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network.b Participants answered questions regarding appropriate target patient groups for prenatal SCD screening, folic acid requirements, practice behaviors and adequacy of their medical school and residency training.
A total of 338 CARN members (56.3%) and 165 non-CARN members (27.5%) returned a survey. Of the 503 responders, 382 provided obstetric services and were included in the analyses. Forty percent of these respondents (n = 153) reported seeing at least 1 patient with SCD in the last year. Of these, 97.4% reported regularly screening people of African descent for SCD or SCT, whereas 52.9% reported regularly screening people of Mediterranean descent and 30.1% reported regularly screening people of Asian descent. Only 56.2% knew the correct recommended daily dose of folic acid for pregnant women with SCD. The proportion of respondents that rated training on SCD screening, assessment and treatment as barely adequate or inadequate ranged from 19.7% to 39.3%.
The practice of many OB/GYNs who care for patients with SCD are not consistent with the College Practice Guidelines on the screening of certain target groups and on folic acid supplementation. There may be an opportunity to improve this knowledge gap through enhanced medical education.
PMCID: PMC4287569  PMID: 25311876
Sickle cell disease; Physician practice patterns; Obstetrics
4.  Physicians' Perceptions of Patients' Knowledge and Opinions Regarding Breast Cancer: Associations with Patient Education and Physician Numeracy 
Breast Care  2011;6(4):285-288.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess physicians' perception of their patients' knowledge and opinions regarding regular screening, and the association of their perceptions with physician numeracy and patient education level. Methods: We carried out a survey study of 240 obstetrician-gynecologists. Results: Overall, 99.6% physicians perceive that their patients know that breast cancer is hereditary, 86.5% predicted that there is a gene mutation related to breast cancer, and 79.4% predicted that most breast cancer cases occur in women aged 50 years or greater. Physicians with less educated patients thought that their patients would not know about genetic screening, and physicians with more educated patients thought that their patients would know that mammography does not reduce the risk of getting breast cancer. A total of 66.0% of obstetrician-gynecologists answered all 3 numeracy questions correctly. Less numerate physicians were more likely to indicate that their typical patient would agree with the statement about regular mammography screens than the more numerate physicians. Conclusions: Obstetrician-gynecologists expect that their patients know some things about breast cancer and not others. Some of the physicians' perceptions about patients differ based on numeracy.
PMCID: PMC3225213  PMID: 22135626
Breast cancer; Counseling; Health behavior; Physician-patient interaction; Patient education Physician numeracy
5.  Survey of obstetrician-gynecologists in the United States about toxoplasmosis: 2012 Update 
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, can have serious impacts on fetal development in the setting of acute maternal primary infection. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) sought to determine current knowledge, practices, opinions and educational preferences regarding T. gondii infection in pregnancy among ACOG members practicing prenatal care.
A survey was sent to 1056 ACOG members chosen by stratified random sampling from membership lists, including 370 participants and 686 non-participants in the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (CARN). Mailings were sent up to 4 total times to nonresponders.
Minimum response rates were 40.3% (CARN) and 19.7% (non-CARN); responses rates adjusted for imputed non-eligibility were 59.7% (CARN) and 22.6% (non-CARN). Among providers, 80.2% had diagnosed no acute maternal T. gondii infections in the past 5 years, 12.7% correctly identified the screening role of the Toxoplasma avidity test, 42.6% routinely performed serologic T. gondii screening for at least some asymptomatic pregnant women, and 62.1% of those who so did used appropriate approaches. Providers in the northeastern United States were 2.02 times more likely to routinely screen than those in the west (p=.025) and female providers were 1.48 times more likely than male providers (p=.047). The potential educational interventions considered useful by the most practitioners were updated ACOG guidelines on screening (81.4%) and management (71.7%) for acute T. gondii infection in pregnancy.
ACOG members would benefit from educational efforts targeted at risk factor counseling and screening approaches.
PMCID: PMC4720129  PMID: 25205181
6.  Evaluation of bleeding disorders in women with menorrhagia: a survey of obstetrician-gynecologists 
To better understand the current evaluation of unexplained menorrhagia by obstetrician-gynecologists and the extent to which a bleeding disorder diagnosis is being considered in this population.
A total of 1200 Fellows and Junior Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists were invited to participate in a survey on blood disorders. Respondents completed a questionnaire regarding their patient population and their evaluation of patients with unexplained menorrhagia.
The overall response rate was 42.4%. Eighty-two percent of respondents reported having seen patients with menorrhagia caused by a bleeding disorder. Seventy-seven percent of physicians reported they would be likely or very likely to consider a bleeding disorder as causing menorrhagia in adolescent patients; however, only 38.8% would consider bleeding disorders in reproductive age women.
The current data demonstrate that obstetrician-gynecologists seem to have a relatively high awareness of bleeding disorders as a potential underlying cause of menorrhagia.
PMCID: PMC4410699  PMID: 22901979
bleeding disorder; menorrhagia; physician survey; practice patterns; von Willebrand disease
7.  Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy and Postpartum: Practice Patterns Among Obstetrician-Gynecologists 
Journal of addiction medicine  2014;8(1):14-24.
To assess current obstetrician-gynecologist (ob-gyn) practice patterns related to the management of and barriers to smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum.
A smoking cessation questionnaire was mailed to 1024 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Fellows in 2012. χ2 analyses were used to assess for categorical differences between groups, Pearson r was used to conduct correlational analysis, and analysis of variance was used to assess for mean differences between groups.
The analyses included 252 practicing ob-gyns who see pregnant patients who returned a completed survey. Ob-gyns estimated that 23% of their patients smoke before pregnancy, 18% smoke during first trimester, 12% during second trimester, and 11% during third trimester. They approximated that 32% quit during pregnancy, but 50% return to smoking postpartum. A large majority of ob-gyns feel that it is important for pregnant and postpartum women to quit smoking, and report asking all pregnant patients about tobacco use at the initial prenatal visit. Fewer ob-gyns follow-up on tobacco use at subsequent visits when the patient has admitted to use at a prior visit. The primary barrier to intervention was reported as time limitations, though other barriers were noted that may be addressable through the provision of additional training and resources offered to physicians.
Compared with findings from a similar study conducted in 1998, physicians are less likely to adhere to the 5 As smoking cessation guideline at present. As we know that brief intervention is effective, it is imperative that we work toward addressing practice gaps and providing additional resources to address the important public health issue of smoking during pregnancy and postpartum.
PMCID: PMC4346356  PMID: 24317354
obstetrician-gynecologists; pregnancy; practice patterns; smoking cessation
8.  A First Look at Chorioamnionitis Management Practice Variation among US Obstetricians 
Objective. To examine practice patterns for diagnosis and treatment of chorioamnionitis among US obstetricians. Study Design. We distributed a mail-based survey to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, querying demographics, practice setting, and chorioamnionitis management strategies. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses. Results. Of 500 surveys distributed, 53.8% were returned, and 212 met study criteria and were analyzed. Most respondents work in group practice (66.0%), perform >100 deliveries per year (60.0%), have been in practice >10 years (77.3%), and work in a nonuniversity setting (85.1%). Temperature plus one additional criterion (61.3%) was the most common diagnostic strategy. Over 25 different primary antibiotic regimens were reported, including use of a single agent by 30.0% of respondents. A wide range of postpartum antibiotic duration was reported from no postpartum treatment (34.5% after vaginal delivery, 11.3% after cesarean delivery) to 48 hours of postpartum treatment (24.7% after vaginal delivery, 32.1% after cesarean delivery). No practitioner characteristic was independently associated with diagnostic or therapeutic strategies in multivariable analysis. Conclusion. There is a wide variation in contemporary clinical practices for the management of chorioamnionitis. This may represent a dearth of level I evidence. Future prospective clinical trials may provide more evidence-based practice recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of chorioamnionitis.
PMCID: PMC3540735  PMID: 23319852
9.  Practice patterns and attitudes about treating abnormal uterine bleeding: A national survey of obstetricians and gynecologists 
To examine the practice patterns and attitudes of obstetricians and gynecologists surrounding treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).
Study Design
We conducted a cross-sectional study of members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Surveys, which were distributed using a sequential mixed method (both web-based and mail-based) approach, included questions about practice characteristics, practice patterns, and knowledge about treatment options for AUB.
Four hundred seventeen out of 802 questionnaires were returned (52%). The most commonly selected first line choice for AUB treatment was combined oral contraceptives (97% anovulatory, 98% ovulatory). The levonorgestrel intrauterine system was the next most frequently selected option (63% anovulatory, 53% ovulatory). Respondents did not score high on questions about the effectiveness of treatments for AUB. Only 25% (n=86) answered at least two out of the three questions correctly.
Continued education is necessary to increase the utilization of the most effective treatment options for AUB.
PMCID: PMC3217110  PMID: 21737060
Abnormal uterine bleeding; evidence; attitudes; physician survey; treatment preferences
10.  Surveying ourselves: Examining the use of a web-based approach for a physician survey 
A survey was distributed, using a sequential mixed-mode approach, to a national sample of obstetrician-gynecologists. Differences between responses to the web-based mode and the on-paper mode were compared to determine if there were systematic differences between respondents. Only two differences in respondents between the two modes were identified. University-based physicians were more likely to complete the web-based mode than private practice physicians. Mail respondents reported a greater volume of endometrial ablations compared to online respondents. The web-based mode had better data quality than the paper-based mailed mode in terms of less missing and inappropriate responses. Together, these findings suggest that, although a few differences were identified, the web-based survey mode attained adequate representativeness and improved data quality. Given the metrics examined for this study, exclusive use of web-based data collection may be appropriate for physician surveys with a minimal reduction in sample coverage and without a reduction in data quality.
PMCID: PMC3108008  PMID: 21190952
survey; online; physician; distribution mode; web-based; internet; questionnaire
11.  Attitudes of Obstetrician-Gynecologists towards the Evidence from the WHI HT Trials Remain Generally Skeptical 
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)  2009;16(3):500-508.
To examine the opinions of obstetrician-gynecologists regarding hormone therapy (HT) and the results from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI).
Separate surveys were sent to two groups of practicing obstetrician-gynecologists: 1) respondents to a 2004–2005 survey (Follow-up #1), 2) members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (Follow-up #2 CARN). These studies complete a longitudinal study investigating obstetrician-gynecologists’ opinions of the evidence from WHI.
Response rates were 64.5% and 58.8%, respectively. Responses from both surveys were generally consistent with the results from the 2004–2005 survey. A majority of physicians from both survey populations were skeptical of the combined HT results. Respondents were more likely to find the results of the unopposed estrogen trial convincing. Similar to the results from the 2004–2005 study CARN physicians generally disagreed with the decision to end the WHI trials. Unlike the 2004–2005 study there was no consistent effect of either age or year residency was completed on physician opinions. Similar to the 2004–2005 study physicians that considered alternative therapies viable treatment options were more likely to report they found the trial results convincing. The results from Follow-up #2 CARN indicate that physicians in the south were most likely to prescribe and physicians in the east were least likely, suggesting that unmeasured socio-cultural parameters might influence HT prescribing practice.
Obstetrician-gynecologists remain generally skeptical of the WHI results, though less so of the estrogen only trial. The early end to the trials may have contributed to their skepticism.
PMCID: PMC2762611  PMID: 19169162

Results 1-11 (11)