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author:("carthami, N.")
1.  The Possible Impact of Obesity on Androgen, Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors (ERα and ERβ) Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients 
Background
Obesity has been associated with increased mortality from hormone dependant cancers such as breast cancer which is the most prevalent cancer in women. The link between obesity and breast cancer can be attributed to excess estrogen produced through aromatization in adipose tissue. The role of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer development is well studied but how obesity can affect the expression pattern of steroid hormones in patients with different grades of breast cancer was the aim of this study.
Methods
In this case-control study, 70 women with breast cancer participated with different grades of obesity (36 none obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and 34 obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). The mean age of participants was 44.53 ± 1.79 yr (21–70 yr). The serum level of estrogen, progesterone and androgen determined by ELISA. Following quantitative expression of steroid hormone receptors mRNA in tumor tissues evaluated by Real-time PCR. Patients with previous history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy were excluded. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 considered statistically significant.
Results
The difference in ERα, ERβ and PR mRNA level between normal and obese patients was significant (P < 0.001). In addition, the expression of AR mRNA was found to be higher than other steroid receptors. There was no significant relation between ERβ gene expression in two groups (P = 0.68). We observed a significant relationship between ERα and AR mRNA with tumor stage and tumor grade, respectively (P = 0.023, P = 0.015).
Conclusion
According to the obtained results, it is speculated that obesity could paly a significant role in estrogen receptors gene expression and also could affect progression and proliferation of breast cancer cells.
doi:10.4137/BCBCR.S7707
PMCID: PMC3235995  PMID: 22174584
obesity; breast cancer; steroid receptors; steroid hormones
2.  Steroid hormone regulation of prostate-specific antigen gene expression in breast cancer. 
British Journal of Cancer  1997;75(4):579-588.
We have recently reported that about 30-40% of female breast tumours produce prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and that PSA production is associated with the presence of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. We have now developed a tissue culture system to study the regulation of the PSA gene in breast cancer. The breast carcinoma cell line T-47D produces PSA when stimulated by androgens, progestins and glucocorticoids/mineralocorticoids but not oestrogens. PSA mRNA appears approximately 2 h after stimulation; PSA protein appears after 4-8 h. Among 38 compounds tested, only androgens and progestins were able to stimulate PSA production at concentrations below 10(-9) M. Evidence that the progesterone and androgen receptors can regulate the PSA gene independently was provided as follows: (a) the progestin norgestimate, which does not bind to the androgen receptor, up-regulates the PSA gene at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M; (b) triamicinolone acetonide, which does not bind to the androgen receptor (AR) but binds to the PR, acts similarly to norgestimate; (c) the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate, which blocks the androgen receptor but has progestational activity, up-regulates the PSA gene at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M; (d) the antiprogestine mifepristone completely blocks the stimulation of the specific progestin norgestimate. Our tissue culture system identified androgen-progestin agonist activities of 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol, the antioestrogen RU56, 187 and the antiprogestin mifepristone. Our data suggest that the expression of the PSA gene in the female breast is under the control of androgens and progestins. Our tissue culture system is a highly sensitive in vitro method for evaluating the biological activity of candidate compounds having agonist and antagonist steroid hormone activity.
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PMCID: PMC2063307  PMID: 9052414
3.  Creatine kinase BB isoenzyme levels in tumour cytosols and survival of breast cancer patients. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;73(3):386-390.
Creatinine kinase BB (CK-BB) is elevated in many tumours including those of the breast. We have recently described a new, highly sensitive and specific method for measuring CK-BB, based on monoclonal antibodies and time-resolved fluorometry. Using this method, we quantitated CK-BB in 172 breast tumour cytosols and examined the associations between CK-BB and other clinicopathological variables and patient survival. High CK-BB levels were seen more frequently in tumours from patients who were younger (age < 50 years), patients who qualified for chemotherapy and patients with oestrogen receptor-positive tumours. No association was seen between CK-BB and tumour stage, grade, size, histological type or the progesterone receptor. In univariate analysis, the risk of relapse or death was higher in the group with tumours containing high CK-BB levels but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In multivariate analysis, the risk of death was statistically significantly higher in the high-CK-BB group. Analysis of subsets of patients revealed that patients with oestrogen receptor-negative cancer have higher risk of death if their tumours contain high levels of CK-BB. Our data suggest that, in general, CK-BB is associated with more aggressive tumours but its value as a prognostic indicator is limited. CK-BB content of breast tumours may be more useful as an aid in selecting therapy directed at inhibiting this enzyme activity and thus depriving tumour cells of their energy source.
PMCID: PMC2074443  PMID: 8562347

Results 1-3 (3)