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author:("Yue, bindin")
1.  Progranulin (GP88) tumor tissue expression is associated with increased risk of recurrence in breast cancer patients diagnosed with estrogen receptor positive invasive ductal carcinoma 
Introduction
GP88 (progranulin) has been implicated in tumorigenesis and resistance to anti-estrogen therapies for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Previous pathological studies showed that GP88 is expressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), but not in normal mammary epithelial tissue, benign lesions or lobular carcinoma. Based on these results, the present study examines GP88 prognostic significance in association with recurrence and death risks for ER+ IDC patients.
Methods
Two retrospective multi-site clinical studies examined GP88 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of paraffin-embedded breast tumor tissue sections from ER+ IDC patients (lymph node positive and negative, stage 1 to 3) in correlation with patients' survival outcomes. The training study established a GP88 cut-off value associated with decreased disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survivals. The validation study verified the GP88 cut-off value and compared GP88 prognostic information with other prognostic factors, particularly tumor size, grade, disease stage and lymph node status in multivariate analysis.
Results
GP88 expression is associated with a statistically significant increase in recurrence risk for ER+ IDC patients. The training study established that GP88 3+ score was associated with decreased DFS (P = 0.0004) and OS (P = 0.0036). The independent validation study verified that GP88 3+ score was associated with a 5.9-fold higher hazard of disease recurrence and a 2.5-fold higher mortality hazard compared to patients with tumor GP88 < 3+. GP88 remained an independent risk predictor after considering age, ethnicity, nodal status, tumor size, tumor grade, disease stage, progesterone receptor expression and treatments.
Conclusions
The survival factor GP88 is a novel prognostic biomarker, predictive of recurrence risk and increased mortality for non-metastatic ER+ IDC patients. Of importance, our data show that GP88 continues to be a prognostic factor even after five years. These results also provide evidence that GP88 provides prognostic information independent of tumor and clinical characteristics and would support prospective study to examine whether GP88 expression could help stratify patients with ER+ tumors for adjuvant therapy.
doi:10.1186/bcr3111
PMCID: PMC3496144  PMID: 22316048
2.  Increased Circulating Level of the Survival Factor GP88 (Progranulin) in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients When Compared to Healthy Subjects 
Introduction:
GP88 (PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor, progranulin) is a glycoprotein overexpressed in breast tumors and involved in their proliferation and survival. Since GP88 is secreted, an exploratory study was established to compare serum GP88 level between breast cancer patients (BC) and healthy volunteers (HV).
Methods:
An IRB approved prospective study enrolled 189 stage 1–4 BC patients and 18 HV. GP88 serum concentration was determined by immunoassay.
Results:
Serum GP88 level was 28.7 + 5.8 ng/ml in HV and increased to 40.7 + 16.0 ng/ml (P = 0.007) for stage 1–3 and 45.3 + 23.3 ng/ml (P = 0.0007) for stage 4 BC patients. There was no correlation between the GP88 level and BC characteristics such as age, race, tumor grade, ER, PR and HER-2 expression.
Conclusion:
These data suggest that serial testing of serum GP88 levels may have value as a circulating biomarker for detection, monitoring and follow up of BC.
doi:10.4137/BCBCR.S7224
PMCID: PMC3140268  PMID: 21792312
progranulin; GP88; breast cancer; biomarker
3.  GP88 (PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor, progranulin) stimulates proliferation and confers letrozole resistance to aromatase overexpressing breast cancer cells 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:231.
Background
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) that inhibit breast cancer cell growth by blocking estrogen synthesis have become the treatment of choice for post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. However, some patients display de novo or acquired resistance to AI. Interactions between estrogen and growth factor signaling pathways have been identified in estrogen-responsive cells as one possible reason for acquisition of resistance. Our laboratory has characterized an autocrine growth factor overexpressed in invasive ductal carcinoma named PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor (GP88), also known as progranulin. In the present study, we investigated the role GP88 on the acquisition of resistance to letrozole in ER+ breast cancer cells
Methods
We used two aromatase overexpressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7-CA cells and AC1 cells and their letrozole resistant counterparts as study models. Effect of stimulating or inhibiting GP88 expression on proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, survival and letrozole responsiveness was examined.
Results
GP88 induced cell proliferation and conferred letrozole resistance in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Conversely, naturally letrozole resistant breast cancer cells displayed a 10-fold increase in GP88 expression when compared to letrozole sensitive cells. GP88 overexpression, or exogenous addition blocked the inhibitory effect of letrozole on proliferation, and stimulated survival and soft agar colony formation. In letrozole resistant cells, silencing GP88 by siRNA inhibited cell proliferation and restored their sensitivity to letrozole.
Conclusion
Our findings provide information on the role of an alternate growth and survival factor on the acquisition of aromatase inhibitor resistance in ER+ breast cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-231
PMCID: PMC3129588  PMID: 21658239
4.  Comparison of bacterial enriched-broth culture, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and broth culture-polymerase chain reaction techniques for identifying asymptomatic infections with Salmonella in swine 
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was combined with a broth-culture enrichment system to detect Salmonella shed in feces from subclinically infected swine. The effectiveness of the broth culture-polymerase chain reaction (BC-PCR) assay to identify pigs shedding Salmonella in feces was compared with a microbiological culture and a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit to detect Salmonella-specific serum antibody. A total of 67 pigs were tested by each of the 3 methodologies. Forty-one pigs tested positive for Salmonella by BC-PCR and ELISA identified 6 positives and 23 suspicious samples. It was shown that the BC-PCR assay is a rapid diagnostic tool for detecting of Salmonella shed by asymptomatic swine compared with current diagnostic technologies.
PMCID: PMC227056  PMID: 12889729

Results 1-4 (4)