Stem cell transplantation has been investigated for repairing damaged tissues in various injury models. Monitoring the safety and fate of transplanted cells using noninvasive methods is important to advance this technique into clinical applications.
In this study, lower-limb ischemia models were generated in nude mice by femoral artery ligation. As negative-contrast agents, positively charged magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (aminopropyltriethoxysilane-coated Fe2O3) were investigated in terms of in vitro labeling efficiency, effects on human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) proliferation, and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualization. Ultimately, the mice were sacrificed for histological analysis three weeks after transplantation.
With efficient labeling, aminopropyltriethoxysilane-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (APTS-MNPs) did not significantly affect hMSC proliferation. In vivo, APTS-MNP-labeled hMSCs could be monitored by clinical 3 Tesla MRI for at least three weeks. Histological examination detected numerous migrated Prussian blue-positive cells, which was consistent with the magnetic resonance images. Some migrated Prussian blue-positive cells were positive for mature endothelial cell markers of von Willebrand factor and anti-human proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In the test groups, Prussian blue-positive nanoparticles, which could not be found in other organs, were detected in the spleen.
APTS-MNPs could efficiently label hMSCs, and clinical 3 Tesla MRI could monitor the labeled stem cells in vivo, which may provide a new approach for the in vivo monitoring of implanted cells.
hind-limb ischemia; magnetic resonance imaging; iron oxide particles; stem cell implant
One of the most significant evolutionary changes underlying the highly developed cognitive abilities of humans is the greatly enlarged brain volume. In addition to being far greater than in most other species, the volume of the human brain exhibits extensive variation and distinct sexual dimorphism in the general population. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying normal variation as well as the observed sex difference in human brain volume. Here we show that interleukin-3 (IL3) is strongly associated with brain volume variation in four genetically divergent populations. We identified a sequence polymorphism (rs31480) in the IL3 promoter which alters the expression of IL3 by affecting the binding affinity of transcription factor SP1. Further analysis indicated that IL3 and its receptors are continuously expressed in the developing mouse brain, reaching highest levels at postnatal day 1–4. Furthermore, we found IL3 receptor alpha (IL3RA) was mainly expressed in neural progenitors and neurons, and IL3 could promote proliferation and survival of the neural progenitors. The expression level of IL3 thus played pivotal roles in the expansion and maintenance of the neural progenitor pool and the number of surviving neurons. Moreover, we found that IL3 activated both estrogen receptors, but estrogen didn’t directly regulate the expression of IL3. Our results demonstrate that genetic variation in the IL3 promoter regulates human brain volume and reveals novel roles of IL3 in regulating brain development.
Stem cell therapy has shown great promise for regenerative repair of injured or diseased tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have become increasingly attractive candidates for cellular therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging has been proven to be effective in tracking magnetic-labeled cells and evaluating their clinical relevance after cell transplantation. This study investigated the feasibility of imaging green fluorescent protein-expressing ADSCs (GFP-ADSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, and tracked them in vivo with noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging after cell transplantation in a model of mouse carotid artery injury.
GFP-ADSCs were isolated from the adipose tissues of GFP mice and labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. Intracellular stability, proliferation, and viability of the labeled cells were evaluated in vitro. Next, the cells were transplanted into a mouse carotid artery injury model. Clinical 3 T magnetic resonance imaging was performed immediately before and 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days after cell transplantation. Prussian blue staining and histological analysis were performed 7 and 30 days after transplantation.
GFP-ADSCs were found to be efficiently labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, with no effect on viability and proliferation. Homing of the labeled cells into the injured carotid artery tissue could be monitored by magnetic resonance imaging.
Magnetically labeled ADSCs with expression of GFP can home into sites of vascular injury, and may provide new insights into understanding of cell-based therapy for cardiovascular lesions.
adipose-derived stem cells; carotid artery injury; magnetic resonance imaging; iron oxide particles; cell therapy
Serum uric acid (SUA) is a cardiovascular risk marker associated with inflammation. The serum amyloid A protein (SAA) is an inflammatory factor and is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of SAA and SUA levels has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA levels and SAA genetic polymorphisms.
All participants were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12218 of the SAA1 gene was genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The association of SUA levels with genotypes was assessed by using the general liner mode.
The SNP rs12218 was associated with SUA levels by analyses of a dominate model (P = 0.002) and additive model (P = 0.005), and the difference remained significant after adjustment of sex, age, obesity, ethnicity, HDL-C, alcohol intake, smoking, and creatinine (P = 0.006 and P = 0.023, respectively). The TT genotype was associated with an increased SUA concentration of 39.34 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.61–75.06, P = 0.031) compared with the CC genotype, and the TT genotype was associated with an increased SUA concentration of 2.48 mmol/L (95% CI, 6.86–38.10; P = 0.005) compared with the CT genotype.
The rs12218 SNP in the SAA1 gene was associated with SUA levels in Chinese subjects, indicating that carriers of the T allele of rs12218 have a high risk of hyperuricemia.
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of type 2 diabetes and to determine the status of type 2 diabetes awareness, treatment, and control in Xinjiang, China. Our data came from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Xinjiang from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14 122 persons (5583 Hans, 4620 Uygurs, and 3919 Kazaks) completed the survey and examination. Diabetes was defined by the American Diabetes Association 2009 criteria.
Overall, 9.26% of the Han, 6.23% of the Uygur, and 3.65% of the Kazak adults aged ≥35 years had diabetes. Among diabetes patients, only 53.0% were aware of their blood glucose level, 26.7% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 10.4% achieved blood glucose control in Han, 35.8% were aware of their blood glucose level, 7.3% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 3.13% achieved blood glucose control in Uygur, and 23.8% were aware of their blood glucose level, 6.3% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 1.4% achieved blood glucose control in Kazak, respectively.
Our results indicate that diabetes is highly prevalent in Xinjiang. The percentages of those with diabetes who are aware, treated, and controlled are unacceptably low. These results underscore the urgent need to develop national strategies to improve prevention, detection, and treatment of diabetes in Xinjiang, the west China.
IgE has a key role in the pathogenesis of allergic responses through its ability to activate mast cells via the receptor FcεR1. In addition to mast cells, many cell types implicated in atherogenesis express FcεR1, but whether IgE has a role in this disease has not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that serum IgE levels are elevated in patients with myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris. We found that IgE and the FcεR1 subunit FcεR1α were present in human atherosclerotic lesions and that they localized particularly to macrophage-rich areas. In mice, absence of FcεR1α reduced inflammation and apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques and reduced the burden of disease. In cultured macrophages, the presence of TLR4 was required for FcεR1 activity. IgE stimulated the interaction between FcεR1 and TLR4, thereby inducing macrophage signal transduction, inflammatory molecule expression, and apoptosis. These IgE activities were reduced in the absence of FcεR1 or TLR4. Furthermore, IgE activated macrophages by enhancing Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) activity. Inactivation of NHE1 blocked IgE-induced macrophage production of inflammatory molecules and apoptosis. Cultured human aortic SMCs (HuSMCs) and ECs also exhibited IgE-induced signal transduction, cytokine expression, and apoptosis. In human atherosclerotic lesions, SMCs and ECs colocalized with IgE and TUNEL staining. This study reveals what we believe to be several previously unrecognized IgE activities that affect arterial cell biology and likely other IgE-associated pathologies in human diseases.
Streptomyces bingchenggensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium producing the commercially important anthelmintic macrolide milbemycins. Besides milbemycins, the insecticidal polyether antibiotic nanchangmycin and some other antibiotics have also been isolated from this strain. Here we report the complete genome sequence of S. bingchenggensis. The availability of the genome sequence of S. bingchenggensis should enable us to understand the biosynthesis of these structurally intricate antibiotics better and facilitate rational improvement of this strain to increase their titers.
In the crystal structure of the title 1:1 adduct, C12H8N2·C14H6O7, the carboxyl groups are involved in intermolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are further linked by intermolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. C—H⋯O interactions also occur between the 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 4,5-dicarboxynaphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic anhydride (H2NTC) molecules. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits π–π interactions of the phen⋯phen and H2NTC⋯H2NTC types with centroid–centroid distances of 3.579 (3) and 3.774 (3) Å, respectively.
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem. It is mainly characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and/or low-trauma osteoporotic fractures (OF), both of which have strong genetic determination. The specific genes influencing these phenotypic traits, however, are largely unknown. Using the Affymetrix 500K array set, we performed a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 700 elderly Chinese Han subjects (350 with hip OF and 350 healthy matched controls). A follow-up replication study was conducted to validate our major GWAS findings in an independent Chinese sample containing 390 cases with hip OF and 516 controls. We found that a SNP, rs13182402 within the ALDH7A1 gene on chromosome 5q31, was strongly associated with OF with evidence combined GWAS and replication studies (P = 2.08×10−9, odds ratio = 2.25). In order to explore the target risk factors and potential mechanism underlying hip OF risk, we further examined this candidate SNP's relevance to hip BMD both in Chinese and Caucasian populations involving 9,962 additional subjects. This SNP was confirmed as consistently associated with hip BMD even across ethnic boundaries, in both Chinese and Caucasians (combined P = 6.39×10−6), further attesting to its potential effect on osteoporosis. ALDH7A1 degrades and detoxifies acetaldehyde, which inhibits osteoblast proliferation and results in decreased bone formation. Our findings may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a major health concern worldwide. It is a highly heritable disease characterized mainly by low bone mineral density (BMD) and/or osteoporotic fractures. However, the specific genetic variants determining risk for low BMD or OF are largely unknown. Here, taking advantage of recent technological advances in human genetics, we performed a genome-wide association study and follow-up validation studies to identify genetic variants for osteoporosis. By examining a total of 11,568 individuals from Chinese and Caucasian populations, we discovered a susceptibility gene, ALDH7A1, which is associated with hip osteoporotic fracture and BMD. ALDH7A1 might inhibit osteoblast proliferation and decrease bone formation. Our finding opens a new avenue for exploring the pathophysiology of osteoporosis.
Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate transcripts may contribute to the excellent cold-hardiness of V. amurensis.
Little is known about the role of the host defensive protein short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) in the carcinogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here we report that SPLUNC1 plays a role at a very early stage of NPC carcinogenesis. SPLUNC1 regulates NPC cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis through miR-141, which in turn regulates PTEN and p27 expression. This signaling axis is negatively regulated by the EBV-coded gene LMP1. Therefore we propose that SPLUNC1 suppresses NPC tumor formation and its inhibition by LMP1 provides a route for NPC tumorigenesis.
Neaumycin, a new 30-membered macrolide featuring an internal diester bridge, a molecular architecture that is unprecedented among known macrolide natural products, was isolated from a soil actinomycete strain Streptomyces sp. neau-x211. The structure of neaumycin was elucidated on the basis of comprehensive mass and NMR spectroscopic interpretation, including the relative stereochemistry of four independent coupling systems.
Aberrant expression of C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) contributes to the progression of various cancers. This study analyzed the clinical significance of serum CXCL5 (sCXCL5) levels of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, with the goal of building a novel prognostic score model.
Serum samples were collected prior to treatment from 290 NPC patients for the detection of sCXCL5 with ELISA. Half of the patients (n = 145) were randomly assigned to the training set to generate the sCXCL5 cutoff point using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, while the other half (n = 145) were assigned to the testing set for validation. Associations between sCXCL5 levels and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A prognostic score model was built using independent predictors derived from multivariate analysis. A concordance index (C-Index) was used to evaluate prognostic ability.
The sCXCL5 cutoff point was 0.805 ng/ml. Sex, age, histology, T classification, clinical classification and local recurrence were not associated with sCXCL5 levels. However, sCXCL5 levels were positively associated with N classification, distant metastasis and disease progression (P<0.05). A high sCXCL5 level predicted poor 6-year overall survival (OS), poor 6-year distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and poor 6-year progression-free survival (PFS). A prognostic score model was subsequently constructed based on sCXCL5 levels and clinical classification (C-C model), which are independent predictors of OS, DMFS, and PFS, as confirmed by the multivariate analysis. Furthermore, this novel model successfully divided the patients into four risk subgroups in the training set, the testing set and the entire set of patients. The C-Indices were 0.751 and 0.762 for the training set and the testing set, respectively.
sCXCL5 level was determined to be an independent prognostic factor for NPC patients. The novel statistical C-C model, which includes sCXCL5 levels and clinical classification, could be helpful in predicting the prognosis of NPC patients.
There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C21H21N5O2. In each molecule, the indolizine ring system is essentially planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.030 and 0.028 Å. The dihedral angles between the indolizine ring system and the pyrazole rings are 54.7 (3) and 8.6 (3)° in one molecule and 54.4 (3) and 6.6 (3)° in the other. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link molecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (100).
Since the KCNB1 encoding Kv2.1 channel accounts for the majority of Kv currents modulating insulin secretion by pancreatic islet beta-cells, we postulated that KCNB1 is a plausible candidate gene for genetic variation contributing to the variable compensatory secretory function of beta-cells in type-2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted two studies, a case-control study and a cross-section study, to investigate the association of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCNB1 with T2D and its linking traits. In the case-control study, we first examined the association of 20 tag SNPs of KCNB1 with T2D in a population with 226 T2D patients and non-diabetic subjects (screening study). We then identified the association in an enlarged population of 412 T2D patients and non-diabetic subjects (replication study). In the cross-sectional study, we investigated the linkage between the candidate SNP rs1051295 and T2D by comparing beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity among rs1051295 genotypes in a general population of 1051 subjects at fasting and after glucose loading (oral glucose tolerance tests, OGTT) in 84 fasting glucose impaired subjects, and several T2D-related traits. We found that among the 19 available tag SNPs, only the KCNB1 rs1051295 was associated with T2D (P = 0.027), with the rs1051295 TT genotype associated with an increased risk of T2D compared with genotypes CC (P = 0.009). At fasting, rs1051295 genotype TT was associated with a 9.8% reduction in insulin sensitivity compared to CC (P = 0.008); along with increased plasma triglycerides (TG) levels (TT/CC: P = 0.046) and increased waist/hip (W/H) ratio (TT/CC: P = 0.013; TT/TC: P = 0.002). OGTT confirmed that genotype TT exhibited reduced insulin sensitivity by 16.3% (P = 0.030) compared with genotype TC+CC in a fasting glucose impaired population. The KCNB1 rs1051295 genotype TT in the Chinese Han population is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased plasma TG and W/H ratio, which together contribute to an increased risk for T2D.
Serum phosphorus control is critical for chronic kidney disease (CKD) 5D patients. Currently, clinical profile for an oral phosphorus binder in the mainland Chinese population is not available.
To establish the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of lanthanum carbonate in CKD 5D patients.
Multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. A central randomization center used computer generated tables to allocate treatments.
Twelve tertiary teaching hospitals and medical university affiliated hospitals in mainland China.
Overall, 258 hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) adult patients were enrolled.
After a 0–3-week washout period and a 4-week lanthanum carbonate dose-titration period, 230 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive lanthanum carbonate (1500 mg-3000 mg) or placebo for a further 4-week maintenance phase.
Main outcome measures
Efficacy and safety of lanthanum carbonate to achieve and maintain target serum phosphorus concentrations were assessed.
In the titration phase, serum phosphorus concentrations of all patients decreased significantly. About three-fifths achieved target levels without significantly disturbing serum calcium levels. At the end of the maintenance period, the mean difference in serum phosphorus was significantly different between the lanthanum carbonate and placebo-treated groups (0.63±0.62 mmol/L vs. 0.15±0.52 mmol/L, P < 0.001). The drug-related adverse effects were mild and mostly gastrointestinal in nature.
Lanthanum carbonate is an efficacious and well-tolerated oral phosphate binder with a mild AE profile in hemodialysis and CAPD patients. This agent may provide an alternative for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in CKD 5D patients in mainland China.
Lanthanum carbonate; Hyperphosphatemia; Chronic kidney disease 5D; Hemodialysis; Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
A synthetic approach to stable enols was introduced and series of acyclic aliphatic solid enols were obtained and characterized. Relationship between the structure and the stability of these enols was discussed. Gaussian 09 calculations had been carried out to rationalize the stability of the enols. These enol structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, IR, partly by single crystal X-ray structure analysis and the protons exchange experiments. This work showed that very stable acyclic aliphatic enols can be synthesized efficiently without any purification.
AIM: To investigate the impact of renal and graft function on post-transplant hyperlipidemia (PTHL) in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).
METHODS: A total of 115 adult patients undergoing LDLT from January 2007 to May 2009 at a single center were enrolled. Data were collected and analyzed by the China Liver Transplant Registry retrospectively. PTHL was defined as serum triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL or serum cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL or the need for pharmacologic treatment at the sixth month after LDLT. Early renal dysfunction (ERD) was defined as serum creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dL and/or the need for renal replacement therapy in the first post-transplant week.
RESULTS: In 115 eligible patients, the incidence of PTHL was 24.3%. Recipients with PTHL showed a higher incidence of post-transplant cardiovascular events compared to those without PTHL (17.9% vs 4.6%, P = 0.037). Serum creatinine showed significant positive correlations with total serum triglycerides, both at post-transplant month 1 and 3 (P < 0.01). Patients with ERD had much higher pre-transplant serum creatinine levels (P < 0.001) and longer duration of pre-transplant renal insufficiency (P < 0.001) than those without ERD. Pre-transplant serum creatinine, graft-to-recipient weight ratio, graft volume/standard liver volume ratio, body mass index (BMI) and ERD were identified as risk factors for PTHL by univariate analysis. Furthermore, ERD [odds ratio (OR) = 9.593, P < 0.001] and BMI (OR = 6.358, P = 0.002) were identified as independent risk factors for PTHL by multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: Renal function is closely associated with the development of PTHL in LDLT. Post-transplant renal dysfunction, which mainly results from pre-transplant renal insufficiency, contributes to PTHL.
Hyperlipidemia; Liver transplantation; Renal insufficiency; Graft function; Risk factors; Prognosis
Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF.
A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens.
We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress.
Abdominal fat; Selection signature; Extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurred in pre-microRNAs or targets of microRNAs (miRs) may contribute to cancer risks. Since 2007, many studies have investigated the association between common SNPs located on hsa-miR-499 (rs3746444) and cancer risks; however, the results were inconclusive.
We conducted a meta-analysis of 12 studies that included 5765 cases and 7076 controls to identify the strength of association. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the strength of association. Overall, individuals with the variant AG (OR = 1.215, 95% CI: 1.027, 1.437; Pheterogeneity<0.01) and AG/GG (OR = 1.227, 95% CI: 1.046, 1.439; Pheterogeneity<0.01) genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer than those with wild AA genotype. Sub-group analysis revealed that the variant AG (OR = 1.411, 95% CI: 1.142, 1.745; Pheterogeneity = 0.01) and AG/GG (OR = 1.413, 95% CI: 1.163, 1.717, Pheterogeneity = 0.01) genotypes still showed an increased risk of cancer in Asians; however, a trend of reduced risk of cancer was observed in Caucasians (AG vs. AA: OR = 0.948, 955 CI: 0.851, 1.057, Pheterogeneity = 0.12; AG/GG vs. AA: OR = 0.959, 95% CI: 0.865, 1.064; Pheterogeneity = 0.19). Meta-regression showed that ethnicity (p = 0.048) and sample size (p = 0.02) but not cancer types (p = 0.89) or source of control (p = 0.97) were the sources of heterogeneity.
These meta-analysis results suggest that hsa-miR-499 polymorphism rs3746444 is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer, especially in Asian populations.
In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls drawn from 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones from DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of size >2 Mb were observed in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%) with abnormal cell proportions between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, the frequency increased with age; 0.23% under 50 and 1.91% between 75 and 79 (p=4.8×10−8). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid-tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals, OR=1.25, p=0.016), with a stronger association for cases who had DNA collected prior to diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.45, p=0.0005). Detectable clonal mosaicism was common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least one year prior to diagnosis of leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR=35.4, p=3.8×10−11). These findings underscore the importance of the role and time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and other late-onset diseases.
This study investigated characteristics and trends of hospitalized abuse-related traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated at a large pediatric medical center in Wuhan, China during the past 10 years. De-identified hospital discharge data for patients 0–4 years old hospitalized at the Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children were analyzed, and ICD-10 codes were used to identify cases of TBI. Medical notes provided by doctors in the medical record were used to identify TBI cases in which suspected child abuse was the cause. From 2002 to 2011, 3,061 pediatric TBI patients were hospitalized and 4.6% (140) of these cases were suspected child abuse-related. The majority of suspected child abuse cases involved children younger than 1 year of age (68.6%) and usually affected males (63.6%). Children with non-Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) were more likely to have full recovery outcome (68.4%, 95% CI: 66.6%–70.0%) than children with suspected AHT (44.3%, 95% CI: 36.1%–52.5%). The proportion of all childhood TBI attributable to abuse did not appear to have increased in the 10-year period at this medical center. This is the first comprehensive study highlighting the important role of suspected child abuse in causing TBIs among Chinese children. Child abuse as a major cause of TBIs among infants in China should be studied further, and there should be greater awareness of this important social and medical problem in China.
abusive head trauma; child abuse; children; China
Acid-sensing ion channel-1a (ASIC1a) is a potential therapeutic target for multiple neurological diseases. We studied here ASIC1a glycosylation and trafficking, two poorly understood processes that are pivotal in determining the functional outcome of an ion channel. We found that most ASIC1a in the mouse brain was fully glycosylated. Inhibiting glycosylation with Tunicamycin reduced ASIC1a surface trafficking, dendritic targeting and acid-activated current density. N-glycosylation of the two glycosylation sites, Asn393 and Asn366, has differential effects on ASIC1a biogenesis. Maturation of Asn393 increased ASIC1a surface and dendritic trafficking, pH sensitivity and current density. In contrast, glycosylation of Asn366 was dispensable for ASIC1a function and may be a rate-limiting step in ASIC1a biogenesis. Lastly, we revealed that acidosis reduced the density and length of dendritic spines in a time- and ASIC1a-dependent manner. ASIC1a N366Q, which showed increased glycosylation and dendritic targeting, potentiated acidosis-induced spine loss. Conversely, ASIC1a N393Q, which had diminished dendritic targeting and inhibited ASIC1a current dominant-negatively, had the opposite effect. These data tie N-glycosylation of ASIC1a with its trafficking. More importantly, revealing a site-specific effect of acidosis on dendritic spines suggests an important role of these processes in regulating synaptic plasticity and long-term consequences in diseases that generate acidosis.
ASIC1a; acidosis; glycosylation; trafficking; surface expression; dendritic spine remodeling
The tumor suppressor candidate gene RASSF1A encodes a microtubule-associated protein that is implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Several studies indicate that down-regulation of RASSF1A resulting from promoter hypermethylation is a frequent epigenetic abnormality in malignant melanoma. In this study, we report that compared with melanocytes in normal skins or benign skin lesions, RASSF1A is down-regulated in melanoma tissues as well as cell lines, and its expression negatively correlates with lymph node metastasis. Following ectopic expression in RASSF1A–deficient melanoma A375 cell line, RASSF1A reduces cell viability, suppresses cell cycle progression but enhances apoptotic cell death. In vivo, RASSF1A expression inhibits the tumorigenic potential of A375 cells in nude mice, which also correlates with decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. On the molecular level, ectopic RASSF1A expression leads to differential expression of 209 genes, including 26 down-regulated and 183 up-regulated ones. Among different signaling pathways, activation of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/p38 MAP kinase signaling is essential for RASSF1A-induced mitochondrial apoptosis, and the inhibition of the Akt/p70S6 kinase/eIF4E signaling is also important for RASSF1A-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. This is the first study exploring the biological functions and the underlying mechanisms of RASSF1A during melanoma development. It also identifies potential targets for further diagnosis and clinical therapy.
RASSF1A; tumor suppressor gene; melanoma; apoptosis; cell cycle
Cataract and geographic atrophy (GA, also called advanced “dry” age-related macular degeneration) are the two major causes of visual impairment in the developed world. The association between cataract surgery and the development of GA was controversial in previous studies.
We performed a meta-analysis by pooling the current evidence in literature and found that cataract is associated with an increased risk of geographic atrophy with a summary odds ratio (OR) of 3.75 (95% CI: 95% CI: 1.84–7.62). However, cataract surgery is not associated with the risk of geographic atrophy (polled OR = 3.23, 95% CI: 0.63–16.47). Further experiments were performed to analyze how the αA-crystallin, the major component of the lens, influences the development of GA in a mouse model. We found that theαA-crystallin mRNA and protein expression increased after oxidative stress induced by NaIO3 in immunohistochemistry of retinal section and western blot of posterior eyecups. Both functional and histopathological evidence confirmed that GA is more severe in αA-crystallin knockout mice compared to wild-type mice.
Therefore, αA-crystallin may protect against geographic atrophy. This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between cataract, cataract surgery, and GA.