Alteration of the extracellular matrix in tumor stroma influences efficiency of cell locomotion away from the primary tumor into surrounding tissues and vasculature, thereby affecting metastatic potential. We study matrix changes in breast cancer through the use of second harmonic generation (SHG) of collagen in order to improve the current understanding of breast tumor stromal development. Specifically, we utilize a quantitative analysis of the ratio of forward to backward propagating SHG signal (F/B ratio) to monitor collagen throughout ductal and lobular carcinoma development. After detection of a significant decrease in the F/B ratio of invasive but not in situ ductal carcinoma compared with healthy tissue, the collagen F/B ratio is investigated to determine the evolution of fibrillar collagen changes throughout tumor progression. Results are compared with the progression of lobular carcinoma, whose F/B signature also underwent significant evolution during progression, albeit in a different manner, which offers insight into varying methods of tissue penetration and collagen manipulation between the carcinomas. This research provides insights into trends of stromal reorganization throughout breast tumor development.
second harmonic generation; forward to backward ratio; breast cancer; tumor stage; tumor grade
The ectoenzyme CD39 hydrolyzes extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), which possesses pro-inflammatory properties. However, the role of CD39 in allergic asthma has not been fully elucidated. A total of 18 patients with persistent asthma who were allergic to house dust mites and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The expression of CD39, GATA3, RAR-related orphan receptor γ (ROR-γt) and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by SYBR-Green I quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17A, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and DP.sIgE were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our data demonstrated that the expression of CD39 mRNA in PBMCs from asthmatic patients was significantly lower compared to that in normal controls [(1.49±0.59)×10−3 vs. (2.17±0.77)×10−3, respectively; P<0.01]. CD39 mRNA was negatively correlated with serum IL-4, IL-17A and GATA3 expression (r=−0.468, P<0.05; r=−0.550, P<0.05; and r=−0.424, P<0.01, respectively) and positively correlated with FoxP3 and TGF-β expression (r=0.373, P<0.05; and r=0.425, P<0.05, respectively). There was no obvious correlation between CD39 and ROR-γt expression (r=−0.259, P=0.122). These data suggested that CD39 mRNA expression was downregulated in allergic asthma, which was positively correlated with serum IL-4, IL-17A and GATA3 expression and negatively correlated with serum TGF-β and FoxP3 expression, whereas there was no correlation with ROR-γt. Therefore, it was hypothesized that CD39 may participate in the occurrence and progression of allergic asthma.
allergic asthma; CD39; inflammatory factors
Extracellular adenosine (Ade) interacts with cells by two pathways: by activating cell surface receptors at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations; and by interfering with the homeostasis of the intracellular nucleotide pool at millimolar concentrations. Ade shows both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of adenosine-mediated ATP on cell viability were investigated. Adenosine treatment was found to be cytoprotective in the low intracellular ATP state, but cytotoxic under the normal ATP state. Adenosine-mediated cytotoxicity and cytoprotection rely on adenosine-derived ATP formation, but not via the adenosine receptor pathway. Ade enhanced proteasome inhibition-induced cell death mediated by ATP generation. These data provide a new pathway by which adenosine exerts dual biological effects on cell viability, suggesting an important role for adenosine as an ATP precursor besides the adenosine receptor pathway.
To assess whether a change in myopia related oculometric parameters of primary school children in Beijing was associated with indoors and outdoors activity.
The longitudinal school-based study included school children who were examined in 2011 and who were re-examined in 2012. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including ocular biometry by optical low-coherence reflectometry and non-cycloplegic refractometry. Parents and children had a detailed interview including questions on time spent indoors and outdoors.
Out of 681 students examined at baseline, 643 (94.4%) returned for follow-up examination. Within the one-year period, mean time spent daily outdoors increased by 0.4±0.9 hours, mean axial length by 0.26±0.49 mm, the ratio of axial length divided by anterior corneal curvature (AL/CC) by 0.03±0.06, and myopic refractive error by −0.06±0.89 diopters. In multivariate analysis, elongation of axial length was significantly associated with less total time spent outdoors (P = 0.02; standardized coefficient beta −0.12) and more time spent indoors with studying (P = 0.007; beta: 0.14) after adjustment for maternal myopia (P = 0.02; beta: 0.12). An increase in AL/CC was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors (P = 0.01; beta:−0.12) after adjustment for paternal myopia (P = 0.003; beta: 0.15) and if region of habitation was excludedors for leisure (P = 0.006; beta:−0.13), with less total time spent outdoors (P = 0.04; beta:−0.10), or with more time spent i. An increase in myopic refractive error, after adjustment for age, was significantly associated with less time spent outdo ndoors with studying (P = 0.005; beta: 0.13).
A change in oculometric parameters indicating an increase in myopia was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors and more time spent indoors in school children in Greater Beijing within a study period of one year. Our study provides additional information on the potentially helpful role of outdoors activity in the prevention of myopia. Public health care measures such as school agendas may potentially take it into account.
The embryonic self-renewal factor SALL4 has been implicated in the development of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice expressing the human SALL4B allele develop AML, which indicates that this molecule contributes to leukemia development and maintenance. However, the underlying mechanism of SALL4-dependent AML progression is unknown. Using SALL4B transgenic mice, we observed that HoxA9 was significantly upregulated in SALL4B leukemic cells compared with wild-type controls. Downregulation of HoxA9 in SALL4B leukemic cells led to decreased replating capacity in vitro and delayed AML development in recipient mice. In primary human AML cells, downregulation of SALL4 led to decreased HOXA9 expression and enhanced apoptosis. We found that SALL4 bound a specific region of the HOXA9 promoter in leukemic cells. SALL4 overexpression led to enhanced binding of histone activation markers at the HOXA9 promoter region, as well as increased HOXA9 expression in these cells. Furthermore, we observed that SALL4 interacted with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) and co-occupied the HOXA9 promoter region with MLL in AML leukemic cells, which suggests that a SALL4/MLL pathway may control HOXA9 expression. In summary, our findings revealed a molecular mechanism for SALL4 function in leukemogenesis and suggest that targeting of the SALL4/MLL/HOXA9 pathway would be an innovative approach in treating AML.
The formation of tea cream in the green tea concentrates of different solid concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°Brix) was investigated. The results showed a good positive correlation (γ = 0.98, p ≤ 0.05) between the amount of tea cream and the solid concentrations from 5 to 40°Brix, while the amount of tea cream in the tea concentrates of 50 and 60°Brix decreased acutely. Total sugar, caffeine and catechins were found to be the main chemical components of tea cream in the green tea concentrate. The large decrease of the amount of tea cream in the tea concentrates of 50 and 60°Brix may be induced by a sharp increase of the viscosity of the tea concentrates, which helped to improve the stability of tea concentrate. It may be indicated that the stability of green tea concentrate enhanced when the concentration higher than 50°Brix, which helped to restrain the formation of tea cream.
Cream formation; Green tea concentrate; Solid concentration; Chemical components; Viscosity
AIM: To study the current application situation of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in mainland China.
METHODS: From 12 August, 2011 to 15 February, 2012, draft questionnaires were sent by e-mail to 289 hospital-based GI endoscopy units, including units with three levels (provincial, prefecture and county level) in mainland China. All the surveyed GI endoscopy units were state-owned and hospital-based. Proportions were compared using χ2 tests. Comparisons between groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. A probability of P < 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference.
RESULTS: Based on satisfactory replies, 169/279 (60.6%) of units were enrolled in the survey, which covered 28 provinces (90.3%, 28/31) in mainland China. Compared with published survey data, the number of GI endoscopes per unit has increased by nearly three times (from 2.9 to 9.3) in the past decade. About 33 of 169 (19.5%) endoscopy units possessed an X-ray machine, which was mainly owned by provincial endoscopy units (43.2%, 19/44). Video capsule endoscopes, which were almost unavailable ten years ago, were owned by 20.7% (35/169) of GI endoscopy units. Endoscopic submucosal dissection could be performed by 36.4% (19/44) of the provincial units, which was significantly higher than the prefecture level (9.9%, P < 0.01) and county level (0.0%, P < 0.01) units, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Rapid development in GI endoscopy has been made in mainland China, and major diagnostic endoscopes and therapeutic endoscopy procedures are predominantly used in large endoscopy units.
Application situation; Gastrointestinal endoscopy; Video capsule endoscopy; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
Kras; Pten; Murine model; T-ALL
Prostate volume (PV) has been shown to be associated with prostate cancer (PCa) detection rates in men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the ‘grey zone' (2.0–10.0 ng ml−1). However, the PSA ‘grey zone' in Asian men should be higher because the incidence of PCa in Asian men is relatively low. Therefore, we evaluated the association between PV and PCa detection rates in men with PSAs measuring 10–50 ng ml−1. Men who underwent a 13-core prostatic biopsy with PV documentation participated in the study. A multivariate stepwise regression was used to evaluate whether the PV at time of prostate biopsy could predict the risk of PCa. The rates of PCa among men in different PSA ranges, stratified by PV medians (<60 and ≥60 ml), were calculated. There were 261 men included in the final analysis. PV was the strongest predictor of PCa risk (odds ratio, 0.02; P<0.001) compared to other variables. The PCa rates in men with PVs measuring <60 and ≥60 ml in the 10–19.9 ng ml−1 PSA group were 40.6% and 15.1%, respectively, while the rates for men with PSAs measuring 20–50 ng ml−1 were 65.1% and 26.8%. PV is an independent predictor of PCa in men with PSA measuring 10–50 ng ml−1. In clinical practice, particularly for those countries with lower incidences of PCa, PV should be considered when counselling patients with PSAs measuring 10–50 ng ml−1 regarding their PCa risks.
prostate biopsy; prostate cancer (PCa); prostate-specific antigen (PSA); prostate volume (PV)
Advanced breast cancers preferentially metastasize to bone where cells in the bone microenvironment produce factors that enhance breast cancer cell homing and growth. Expression of the ubiquitin E3 ligase WWP1 is increased in some breast cancers, but its role in bone metastasis has not been investigated. Here, we studied the effects of WWP1 and itch, its closest family member, on breast cancer bone metastasis. First, we immunostained a multi-tumor tissue microarray and a breast cancer tissue microarray and demonstrated that WWP1 and ITCH are expressed in some of breast cancer cases. We then knocked down WWP1 or itch in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells using shRNA and inoculated these cells and control cells into the left ventricle of athymic nude mice. Radiographs showed that mice given shWWP1 cells had more osteolytic lesions than mice given control MDA-MB-231 cells. Histologic analysis confirmed osteolysis and showed significantly increased tumor area in bone marrow of the mice. WWP1 knockdown did not affect cell growth, survival or osteoclastogenic potential, but markedly increased cell migration toward a CXCL12 gradient in vitro. Furthermore, WWP1 knockdown significantly reduced CXCL12-induced CXCR4 lysosomal trafficking and degradation. In contrast, itch knockdown had no effect on MDA-MB-231 cell bone metastasis. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that WWP1 negatively regulates cell migration to CXCL12 by limiting CXCR4 degradation to promote breast cancer metastasis to bone and highlight the potential utility of WWP1 as a prognostic indicator for breast cancer bone metastasis.
WWP1; Breast cancer; Bone metastasis; CXCR4; Degradation
Nomograms for predicting the risk of prostate cancer developed using other populations may introduce sizable bias when applied to a Chinese cohort. In the present study, we sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy in a Chinese population. A total of 535 Chinese men who underwent a prostatic biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in the past decade with complete biopsy data were included. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of a positive initial biopsy. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume (PV), digital rectal examination (DRE) status, % free PSA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings were included in the analysis. A nomogram model was developed that was based on these independent predictors to calculate the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy. A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to assess the accuracy of using the nomogram and PSA levels alone for predicting positive prostate biopsy. The rate for positive initial prostate biopsy was 41.7% (223/535). The independent variables used to predict a positive initial prostate biopsy were age, PSA, PV and DRE status. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for a positive initial prostate biopsy for PSA alone and the nomogram were 79.7% and 84.8%, respectively. Our results indicate that the risk of a positive initial prostate biopsy can be predicted to a satisfactory level in a Chinese population using our nomogram. The nomogram can be used to identify and counsel patients who should consider a prostate biopsy, ultimately enhancing accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer.
nomogram; prediction; prostate biopsy; prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen (PSA); prostate volume (PV); age; digital rectal examination (DRE)
Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC) is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel) was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS, respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein levels were detected by gene microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The effect of Vel on the acetylation of histone H3 associated with the p21cip1 gene promoter was examined by using ChIP assay and proteasome peptidase activity was detected by cell-based chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity assay. Here we report that (i) the combination of LC and Vel synergistically induces cytotoxicity in vitro; (ii) the combination also synergistically inhibits tumor growth in vivo; (iii) two major pathways are involved in the synergistical effects of the combinational treatment: increased p21cip1 expression and histone acetylation in vitro and in vivo and enhanced Vel-induced proteasome inhibition by LC. The synergistic effect of LC and Vel in cancer therapy should have great potential in the future clinical trials.
HearMNPV, a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), which infects the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, comprises multiple rod-shaped nucleocapsids in virion(as detected by electron microscopy). HearMNPV shows a different host range compared with H. armigera single-nucleocapsid NPV (HearSNPV). To better understand HearMNPV, the HearMNPV genome was sequenced and analyzed.
The morphology of HearMNPV was observed by electron microscope. The qPCR was used to determine the replication kinetics of HearMNPV infectious for H. armigera in vivo. A random genomic library of HearMNPV was constructed according to the “partial filling-in” method, the sequence and organization of the HearMNPV genome was analyzed and compared with sequence data from other baculoviruses.
Real time qPCR showed that HearMNPV DNA replication included a decreasing phase, latent phase, exponential phase, and a stationary phase during infection of H. armigera. The HearMNPV genome consists of 154,196 base pairs, with a G + C content of 40.07%. 162 putative ORFs were detected in the HearMNPV genome, which represented 90.16% of the genome. The remaining 9.84% constitute four homologous regions and other non-coding regions. The gene content and gene arrangement in HearMNPV were most similar to those of Mamestra configurata NPV-B (MacoNPV-B), but was different to HearSNPV. Comparison of the genome of HearMNPV and MacoNPV-B suggested that HearMNPV has a deletion of a 5.4-kb fragment containing five ORFs. In addition, HearMNPV orf66, bro genes, and hrs are different to the corresponding parts of the MacoNPV-B genome.
HearMNPV can replicate in vivo in H. armigera and in vitro, and is a new NPV isolate distinguished from HearSNPV. HearMNPV is most closely related to MacoNPV-B, but has a distinct genomic structure, content, and organization.
Baculovirus; Helicoverpa armigera; Multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus; Genome sequence comparison
Recent studies have shown that androgen displays an inhibitory effect on breast cancer cell lines that express androgen receptor (AR) but not estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). We have previously reported that approximately 1/3 of ER negative high grade invasive ductal carcinomas express AR. Thus, AR can serve as a potential therapeutic target for this group of patients.
Here we investigated AR expression patterns in 980 consecutive breast carcinomas.
We found that (1) AR was expressed more frequently (77%) than ER (61%) and PR (60%) in breast carcinomas; (2) AR expression was associated with ER and PR expression (P < 0.0001), small tumor size (P = 0.0324) and lower Ki-67 expression (P = 0.0013); (3) AR expression was found in 65% of ER negative tumors; (4) AR expression was associated with PR and Ki-67 in ER negative tumors, but not in ER positive tumors; (5) AR expression was higher in ER positive subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B and Luminal HER2 subtypes, 80%–86%) and lower in ER negative subtypes [HER2, triple negative (TN), and TN EFGR positive subtypes; 52%–66%], with over 50% of TN tumors expressing AR.
More breast carcinomas express AR than ER and PR, including significant numbers of ER negative and TN tumors, for which AR could serve as a potential therapeutic target.
androgen receptor; breast cancer; estrogen receptor; HER2; Ki-67; molecular classification; progesterone receptor
Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is an accepted therapeutic option for most breast cancer patients. However, mastectomy is still performed in 30–50% of patients undergoing surgeries. There is increasing interest in preservation of the nipple and/or areola in hopes of achieving improved cosmetic and functional outcomes; however, the oncologic safety of nipple–areolar complex (NAC) preservation is a major concern. We sought to identify the predictive factors for NAC involvement in breast cancer patients.
We analyzed the rates and types of NAC involvement by breast carcinoma, and its association with other clinicopathologic features of the tumors in 787 consecutive therapeutic mastectomies performed at our institution between 1997 and 2009.
Among these, 75 cases (9.5%) demonstrated NAC involvement. Only 21 (28%) of 75 of cases with NAC involvement could be identified grossly by inspection of the surgical specimen (seven of these had been clinically identified). NAC involvement was most significantly associated with tumors located in all four quadrants (P < 0.0001), tumors >5 cm in size (P = 0.0014 for invasive carcinoma and P = 0.0032 for in-situ carcinoma), grade 3 tumors (P = 0.0192), tumors with higher nuclear grades (P = 0.0184), and tumors with HER2 overexpression (P = 0.0137).
On the basis of our findings, we have developed a mathematical model that is based on the extent and location of the tumor, HER2 expression, and nuclear grade that predicts the probability of NAC involvement by breast cancer. This model may aid in preoperative planning in selecting appropriate surgical procedures based on an individual patient’s relative risk of NAC involvement.
The expression of basal cytokeratin markers CK5/6 in breast carcinomas has been associated with high histological grade and poor clinical outcome. A previous study has shown that CK5/6 can be detected in up to 17% of invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC). Here we study the expression of three basal cytokeratin markers (CK5/6, CK14, and CK17) in 53 ILC cases diagnosed by histology and lack of E-cadherin expression. Among them, 42 were classic lobular carcinomas, 6 were tubular-lobular carcinoma, and 5 were pleomorphic lobular carcinomas. There was no significant difference among these three groups in patients’ age, tumor size, uni- and multi-focality, expression of ER and PR, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion and lymph node metastasis. The only statistically different factor was HER2 over-expression, which was observed only in pleomorphic ILC (P = 0.0073). None of the 53 cases expressed CK5/6, CK14 or CK17; and 51/53 cases expressed luminal markers CK8 and CK18, and the two negative cases were both classic lobular carcinoma, with positivity for ER and PR. In conclusion, all 53 cases of ILC failed to show expression by any of the three basal CK markers, suggesting that very few ILC will demonstrate a basal phenotype when assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). More studies are needed to investigate molecular classification in lobular carcinoma of the breast.
lobular carcinoma of the breast; CK5; CK14 and CK17
The title compound, [Co(H2O)6](C16H12O6)·H2O, is composed of one 4,4′-(1,2-dihydroxyethane-1,2-diyl)dibenzoate anion lying on an inversion center, one [Co(H2O)6]2+ dicationic complex and a solvent water molecule located on mirror planes. In the crystal, a chain is constructed via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the carboxylate and hydroxyl groups of the organic anion; the chains are further connected into a three-dimensional framework by additional O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the [Co(H2O)6]2+ cations, solvent water molecules and the anions.
The molecular classification for breast carcinomas has been used in clinical studies with a simple surrogate panel of immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers. The objective of this current project was to study the molecular classification of commonly used breast cancer cell lines by IHC analysis. Seventeen breast cancer cell lines were harvested, fixed in formalin and made into cell blocks. IHC analyses were performed on each cell block with antibodies to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, EGFR, CK5/6, Ki-67 and androgen receptor (AR). Among the 17 cell lines, MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 fell to Luminal A subtype; BT-474 to Luminal B subtype; SKBR-3, MDA-MD-435 and AU 565 to HER2 over-expression subtype; MDA-MB-231, MCF-12A, HBL 101, HS 598 T, MCF-10A, MCF-10F, BT-20, 468 and BT-483 to basal subtype. MDA-MB-453 belonged to Unclassified subtype. Since each subtype defined by this IHC-based molecular classification does show a distinct clinical outcome, attention should be paid when choosing a cell line for any study.
molecular classification; breast cancer; cell lines; immunohistochemistry
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer found in American men, other than skin cancer. The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be 186,320 new cases of prostate cancer in the United States in 2008. About 28,660 men will die of this disease this year and PCa remains the second-leading cause of cancer death in men. One in six men will get PCa during his lifetime and one in 35 will die of the disease. Today, more than 2 million men in the United States who have had PCa are still alive. The death rate for PCa continues to decline, chiefly due to early detection and treatment, and improved salvage therapy such as hormone therapy (HT). HT continues to be a mainstay for primary-recurrent PCa and locally-advanced PCa. However, HT is associated with many undesirable side effects including sexual dysfunction, osteoporosis and hot flashes, all of which can lead to decreased quality of life (QOL). These risks are seen in both long- and short-term HT regimens. Additionally, research in recent years has revealed trends related to clinico pathological variables and their predictive ability in HT outcomes. Awareness of the potential adverse effects, the risks associated with HT and the prognostic ability of clinical and pathological variables is important in determining optimal therapy for individual patients. A rigorous evaluation of the current scientific literature associated with HT was conducted with the goal of identifying the most favorable balance of benefits and risks associated with HT.
prostate cancer; recurrence; survival; hormonal therapy; toxicity; risk factors; quality of life