A high performance liquid chromatographic method using macrocyclic glycopeptide chiral stationary phases (CSPs) was used to separate enantiomers of seven ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes. Among the five different CSPs, the Chirobiotic T2 was most effective and baseline separated all complexes. All complexes show the same elution order with the Δ-enantiomer being retained longer than the Λ-enantiomer. The mobile phase composition, including organic modifier type, organic modifier percent, salt type, and salt concentration, produced significant effects on the enantioresolution.
chiral stationary phase; HPLC; macrocyclic glycopeptide; enantioresolution
Although the stomach is the most common location for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with co-primary tumors, the synchronous appearance of a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) and GIST in the stomach is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of gastric GIST coexisting with gastric NEC to be reported in the literature. The current study reports the case of a 71-year-old male with gastric poorly differentiated NEC and GIST discovered incidentally during surgical treatment of the NEC. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the NEC tumor cells were positive for CK (cytokeratin), CD57, synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD117 (KIT protein), Dog-1 (discovered on GIST-1 protein) and CD34. The synchronous GIST immunophenotype showed positivity for CD117, Dog-1 and CD34 (100%), whereas staining for CK, SMA, desmin and S100 was negative. Ki-67 labeling of proliferating cells was 90% in NEC and 1% in GIST. An accurate diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical findings. Furthermore, genetic analysis using PCR direct sequencing identified no mutations in the KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. The patient developed lymph node metastases and underwent cisplatin-based chemotherapy after the operation. This is the first documented case of synchronous gastric GIST and NEC with the examination of protein expression and gene mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, which will help to further understand the etiology and pathogenesis of NEC coexisting with GIST in a gastric location.
Snchronous tumor; neuroendocrine; carcinoma; GIST; gastric
The protein β-catenin exhibits a dual function in cells, by acting as a major structural component of cell-cell adherens junctions and as a central signaling molecule in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, how the regulation of β-catenin expression during tumor metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies according to histological type remains unclear. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of β-catenin on tumor metastasis, the present study compared the expression of Wnt1, β-catenin and E-cadherin in 41 primary NSCLC tumors and their corresponding metastatic lesions by immunohistochemistry. Altered expression of β-catenin was more frequent in the metastatic tumors (34/41, 82.9%) than in the corresponding primary tumors (24/41, 58.5%; P<0.05). There were 12 cases [nine of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and three of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC)] that revealed discordant β-catenin expression between the primary tumors and the corresponding metastatic lesions. Of these, 11 cases (11/12, 91.7%; nine ADCs and two SqCCs) demonstrated acquired β-catenin alterations in the metastatic lesions. Subgroup analysis of these nine ADCs revealed that six cases (6/9, 66.7%) were accompanied by E-cadherin loss but no Wnt1 overexpression. Subgroup analysis of the three SqCCs revealed discordant β-catenin expression. Two cases (2/3, 66.7%) demonstrated acquired β-catenin expression during metastatic progression with Wnt1 overexpression but no change in E-cadherin expression. One case of SqCC revealed normal β-catenin expression in the metastasis although the expression was aberrant in the primary tumor. The results of the present study revealed that the changes in β-catenin expression occurred during tumor metastasis by different mechanisms, depending on histological type. The alterations in β-catenin expression may be regulated by a cadherin-catenin system in ADCs with reduced membranous expression of E-cadherin, but mediated by Wnt1 overexpression in SqCCs with cytoplasmic or nuclear transition types.
β-catenin; wnt1; E-cadherin; lung cancer
Vorticella includes more than 100 currently recognized species and represents one of the most taxonomically challenging genera of ciliates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Vorticella has been performed so far with only sequences coding for small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA); only a few of its species have been investigated using other genetic markers owing to a lack of similar sequences for comparison. Consequently, phylogenetic relationships within the genus remain unclear, and molecular discrimination between morphospecies is often difficult because most regions of the SSU rRNA gene are too highly conserved to be helpful. In this paper, we move molecular systematics for this group of ciliates to the infrageneric level by sequencing additional molecular markers—fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions—in a broad sample of 66 individual samples of 28 morphospecies of Vorticella collected from Asia, North America and Europe. Our phylogenies all featured two strongly supported, highly divergent, paraphyletic clades (I, II) comprising the morphologically defined genus Vorticella. Three major lineages made up clade I, with a relatively well-resolved branching order in each one. The marked divergence of clade II from clade I confirms that the former should be recognized as a separate taxonomic unit as indicated by SSU rRNA phylogenies. We made the first attempt to elucidate relationships between species in clade II using both morphological and multi-gene approaches, and our data supported a close relationship between some morphospecies of Vorticella and Opisthonecta, indicating that relationships between species in the clade are far more complex than would be expected from their morphology. Different patterns of helix III of ITS2 secondary structure were clearly specific to clades and subclades of Vorticella and, therefore, may prove useful for resolving phylogenetic relationships in other groups of ciliates.
ciliate; multi-gene; morphology; phylogeny; peritrich
AIM: To report the outcome of patients with ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated at a single center during a 5-year period.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients who presented with ruptured HCC at Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University between 2008 and 2013.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 53 years (range 39-71 years). Of these patients, 22 received surgical management, 10 underwent transarterial embolization (TAE) or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and 12 received sorafenib after surgery, TAE or TACE. Cumulative survival rates at 4, 8 and 12 mo were 72.9%, 50.0% and 33.3%, respectively, in the surgery only group and were 90.0%, 80.6% and 64.1%, respectively, in the surgery plus sorafenib group. Cumulative survival rates at 4, 8 and 12 mo were 68.4%, 43.6% and 19.4%, respectively, in the surgery only or TAE/TACE only groups, and were 91.7%, 75.0% and 60.2%, respectively, in the sorafenib combination groups (P = 0.04). No unexpected side effects due to sorafenib were observed. The most common side effect was hand-foot skin reaction. To date, 5 patients have died. Median follow-up from the start of sorafenib therapy for the remaining 7 patients is 12.7 mo (range 5.8-32.2 mo).
CONCLUSION: Sorafenib can be used in patients with ruptured HCC as it has interesting activity and is well tolerated; dose adjustment is generally not required. However, a larger prospective study is necessary to determine the efficacy of sorafenib in this group of patients.
Sorafenib; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Spontaneous rupture; Efficacy; Safety
Our former studies have suggested that TongLuoJiuNao (TLJN) is clinically efficacious in the treatment of dementia and improving learning and memory in AD models. When Aβ aggregated with oligomer, it is known to be able to induce cellular toxicity as well as cognitive impairment. We tested the possibility that TLJN affects the formation of Aβ oligomers. In our experiment, TLJN improved cell viability, inhibited LDH release, and promoted the outgrowth of neurites of neurons treated with Aβ. Geniposide, the main component of TLJN, could increase the cell viability of SY5Y-APP695sw cells. The cytotoxicity of pretreated Aβ with geniposide was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed that geniposide and TLJN stimulated Aβ oligomer assembly. Compared with the control, more and longer fibrils of Aβ in the presence of geniposide were observed under electron microscope though the fibrils became less sensitive to thioflavin T staining. In sum, geniposide is able to protect neurons from Aβ-induced damage by remodeling Aβ.
The current study examines the influence of contextual and provider-level factors on the implementation fidelity of a research-based substance abuse prevention program. Also, it investigates whether two provider-level factors, self-efficacy and beliefs about the value of the program, statistically moderate and mediate the effects of a provider training intervention on implementation fidelity.
Using generalized mixed-linear modeling, we examine relationships between program provider-, organizational, and community-level factors and implementation fidelity in a sample of 50 high school teachers from 43 high schools in 8 states across the U.S. Fidelity of implementation was assessed utilizing an observation procedure.
Implementation fidelity was negatively associated with the urbanicity of the community and the level of teachers’ beliefs about the value of the program, and positively predicted by the organizational capacity of the school. Comprehensive training significantly increased teachers’ self-efficacy, which resulted in an increase in implementation fidelity.
School-based prevention program implementation is influenced by a variety of contextual factors occurring at multiple ecological levels. Future effectiveness and dissemination studies need to account for the complex nature of schools in analyses of implementation fidelity and outcomes.
Our findings suggest that both provider- and organizational-level factors are influential in promoting implementation fidelity. Before implementation begins, as well as throughout the implementation process, training and ongoing technical assistance should be conducted to increase teachers’ skills, self-efficacy, and comfort with prevention curricula.
The present study is one of the few to examine contextual and provider-level correlates of implementation fidelity and use mediation analyses to explore whether provider-level factors mediate the effects of a provider training intervention on implementation fidelity.
Physicians are often approached by young women with a BRCA mutation and a recent history of breast cancer who wish to have a baby. They wish to know if pregnancy impacts upon their future risks of cancer recurrence and survival. To date, there is little information on the survival experience of women who carry a mutation in one of the BRCA genes and who become pregnant. From an international multi-center cohort study of 12,084 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, we identified 128 case subjects who were diagnosed with breast cancer while pregnant or who became pregnant after a diagnosis of breast cancer. These women were age-matched to 269 mutation carriers with breast cancer who did not become pregnant (controls). Subjects were followed from the date of breast cancer diagnosis until the date of last follow-up or death from breast cancer. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate 15-year survival rates. The hazard ratio for survival associated with pregnancy was calculated using a left-truncated Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for other prognostic factors. Among women who were diagnosed with breast cancer when pregnant or who became pregnant thereafter, the 15-year survival rate was 91.5 %, compared to a survival of 88.6 % for women who did not become pregnant (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.76; 95 % CI 0.31–1.91; p = 0.56). Pregnancy concurrent with or after a diagnosis of breast cancer does not appear to adversely affect survival among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
BRCA1; BRCA2; Breast cancer; Pregnancy; Survival
To determine the likelihood of long-term amenorrhea after treatment with chemotherapy in women with breast cancer who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.
Patients and Methods
We conducted a multicenter survey of 1,954 young women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation who were treated for breast cancer. We included premenopausal women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 26 and 47 years of age. We determined the age of onset of amenorrhea after breast cancer for women who were and were not treated with chemotherapy, alone or with tamoxifen. We considered chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea to have occurred when the patient experienced ≥ 2 years of amenorrhea, commencing within 2 years of initiating chemotherapy, with no resumption of menses.
Of the 1,426 women who received chemotherapy, 35% experienced long-term amenorrhea. Of the 528 women who did not receive chemotherapy, 5.3% developed long-term amenorrhea. The probabilities of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea were 7.2% for women diagnosed before age 30 years, 33% for women age 31 to 44 years, and 79% for women diagnosed after age 45 years (P trend < .001). The probability of induced amenorrhea was higher for women who received tamoxifen than for those who did not (52% v 29%; P < .001).
Age at treatment and use of tamoxifen are important predictors of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in women who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The risk of induced long-term amenorrhea does not seem to be greater among mutation carriers than among women who do not carry a mutation.
We studied the diel expression pattern of PAX6 (a structural gene that is commonly involved in the eye development and photoreception of eye forming animals) and the effects of light and covering behavior on PAX6 expression in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. We confirmed that aphotic condition significantly reduced covering behavior in S. intermedius. The diel expression pattern of PAX6 was significantly different in S. intermedius under photic and aphotic conditions. The gene expression of PAX6 significantly deceased in covered S. intermedius both under natural light and in darkness. The present finding provides valuable insight into the probable link between covering and PAX6 expression of sea urchins. Further studies are required to investigate the detailed expression network of light detection involved genes in order to fully reveal the molecular mechanism of the light-induced covering behavior of sea urchins.
Self reported cross-sectional data gathered in 2002 from 12,449 middle and high school students from seven major cities in China were examined to explore the association of self-perceived relative income inequality (SPRII) with general health status, depression, stress, and cigarette smoking. Two types of self-perceived relative income were evaluated: household income relative to peers (SPRII-S) and relative to their own past (SPRII-P). SPRII-S and SPRII-P were coded as three-level categorical variables: lower, equal, and higher. As hypothesized, the youth in the “Lower” SPRII-S or SPRII-P groups reported the worst general health and the highest levels of depression and stress; the youth in the “Higher” groups reported the best general health. Unexpectedly, the youth in the “Higher” groups did not report the lowest levels of depression and stress, and the relationship between SPRII and cigarette smoking was even less straightforward. The expected positive relationship between SPRII and the general health status is consistent with previous research, but the relationships between SPRII and depression, stress, and cigarette smoking behavior are not. Further studies are needed to elucidate the complex associations between SPRII and health outcomes in rapidly transforming economies such as China.
Income inequality; Relative deprivation; Affluence; Health behavior; Youth; Mental health; China; Self-reported health
We examined whether a bidirectional, longitudinal relationship exists between future time perspective (FTP), measured with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and any past 30-day use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or hard drugs among continuation high school students (N = 1,310, mean age 16.8 years) in a large urban area. We found increased FTP to be protective against drug use for all substances except alcohol. While any baseline use of substances did not predict changes in FTP 1 year later. The discussion explores why alcohol findings may differ from other substances. Future consideration of FTP as a mediator of program effects is explored.
future time perspective; future orientation; continuation high school; tobacco; alcohol; marijuana; hard drugs; adolescent; toward no drug abuse; substance use
It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents’ substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents’ level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents’ extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents’ self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming.
acculturation; social self-control; substance use
Seventeen acylides bearing an aryl-tetrazolyl alkyl-substituted side chain were synthesized, starting from clarithromycin, via several reactions including hydrolysis, acetylating, esterification, carbamylation, and Michael addition. The structures of all new compounds were confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. All these synthesized acylides were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activities against gram-positive pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli), using the broth microdilution method. Results showed that compounds 10e, 10f, 10g, 10 h, 10o have good antibacterial activities.
acylide; clarithromycin; synthesis; antibacterial activity
Sorcin is a soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein, which is expressed in normal mammalian tissues, such as the liver, lungs and heart. It has been observed to be elevated in a number of cancer types, including colorectal, gastric and breast cancer. Its upregulation is usually associated with the development of chemotherapeutic drug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sorcin expression levels in human serum samples of breast cancer subjects at various stages, and subsequently compare the outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the sorcin levels fluctuated. In total, 50 subjects were recruited from patients who were admitted to Yantai Yuhunagding Hospital (Yantai, China) and diagnosed with breast cancer. Blood samples prior to and following chemotherapy were assessed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and western blot analysis. The 2-DE analysis of the serum samples revealed that sorcin was upregulated in six out of 29 neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)-sensitive patients and, in those who developed multidrug resistance, sorcin was upregulated in 15 out of 21 patients (P<0.01). The differential expression levels of sorcin were confirmed by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In conclusion, sorcin expression in the human serum of breast cancer patients who are resistant to NAC was elevated when compared with that of NAC-sensitive patients.
sorcin; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; breast cancer
Graphene has attracted much attention since it was firstly stripped from graphite by two physicists in 2004, and the supercapacitor based on graphene has obtained wide attention and much investment as well. For practical applications of graphene-based supercapacitors, however, there are still many challenges to solve, for instance, to simplify the technological process, to lower the fabrication cost, and to improve the electrochemical performance. In this work, graphene/MnO2 composites are prepared by a microwave sintering method, and we report here a relatively simple method for the supercapacitor packaging, i.e., dipping Ni-foam into a graphene/MnO2 composite solution directly for a period of time to coat the active material on a current collector. It is found that the microwave reaction time has a significant effect on the microstructure of graphene/MnO2 composites, and consequently, the electrochemical properties of the supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 composites are strongly microstructure dependent. An appropriately longer microwave reaction time, namely, 15 min, facilitates a very dense and homogeneous microstructure of the graphene/MnO2 composites, and thus, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved in the supercapacitor device, including a high specific capacitance of 296 F/g and a high capacitance retention of 93% after 3,000 times of charging/discharging cycles.
81.05.ue; 78.67.Sc; 88.80.fh
Graphene; Manganese dioxide; Composite; Microstructure; Electrochemical properties; Supercapacitors
Primary penile lymphoma presenting with priapism as the initial symptom is extremely rare. In total, <10 cases have been previously reported. The diagnosis can be difficult and patients often develop metastasis. The current study reports the case of a 48-year-old male, who presented with a one-month history of painless priapism. On admission to Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University (Yantai, China), examination revealed an erect penis, enlarged lymph nodes in the bilateral inguinal and swelling in the thighs. A biopsy was taken from the right inguinal lymph node and the pathological diagnosis confirmed a diffuse large B-cell type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, while an enhanced computed tomography scan of the chest revealed evidence of the invasion of malignant lymphoma cells. Priapism disappeared two days following the completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy with the E-CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, epirubicin and etoposide); however, evidence of brain metastases was observed one month later, which was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient received cranial radiotheraphy and systemic treatment for cerebral edema. The patient did not respond well to treatment and succumbed to the disease three months following the initial diagnosis of lymphoma. Lymphoma may be difficult to diagnose, depending on the initial symptoms; therefore, the patient history must be carefully assessed so as to determine an early diagnosis and prevent metastasis, thus improving the prognostic outcome.
priapism; primary penile lymphoma; metastasis
This study evaluates the performance of the Project EX tobacco use cessation program in Russian summer recreational camps. An eight-session clinic-based tobacco use cessation program for adolescents was tested during the summer of 2011 in an experimental pilot trial that involved different youth that rotated through camps. Conditions were nested within camps. Two rotations of unique subject groups of smokers (program and standard care control) through each of five camps provided the means of controlling for campsite by condition. Assignment of condition by rotation was random (by a flip of a coin), achieving reasonable baseline comparability (total n=164 smokers at baseline, 76 program group, 88 standard care control group). Evaluation involved an immediate pretest and posttest and a six-month telephone follow-up. At immediate posttest, Project EX was moderately well-received, significantly reduced future smoking expectation (46% reduction in EX Program Condition versus 8% in Control, p<.0001), decreased intention to not quit smoking (−5.2% in EX versus +1.4% in Control, p<.05), and increased motivation to quit smoking (0.72 versus −0.04, p<.0001). At the six-month follow-up, program subjects reported a higher intent-to-treat quit rate during the last 30 days (7.5% versus 0.1%, p<.05). For the subjects who remained monthly smokers at the six-month follow-up, Project EX reduced subjects’ level of nicotine dependence (−0.53 versus +0.15, p<.001). The results were quite promising for this program, which included motivation enhancement, coping skill, and alternative medicine material. However, further research on teen tobacco use cessation programming in Russia with larger sample sizes, involving other locations of the country, and with stronger research designs is needed.
Project EX; tobacco use cessation; experimental pilot design; summer camps; Russian Federation; Bashkortostan
The benefit of nucleot(s)ide analogues (NA) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative treatment has been widely debated due to the relatively weak evidence. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of NA on recurrence and survival after curative treatment of HBV-HCC.
A systematic electronic search was performed. All controlled trials comparing NA versus placebo or no treatment were considered for inclusion. Results were expressed as Hazard Ratio for recurrence and survival with 95% confidence intervals using RevMan 5.2.
We included 13 trials with 6350 patients. There were significant improvements for recurrence-free survival (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54–0.80; p<0.0001) and overall survival (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43–0.73; p<0.0001) in the adjuvant NA group compared with the control group. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. There were no serious adverse effects being reported. Lamivudine resistance was from 28.6% to 37.5% but could be rescued by other types of NA or combination therapy.
Our study suggested benefits of adjuvant NA therapy following curative treatment of HBV-HCC. Since the great proven efficacy of NA in improving clinical and viral parameters besides HCC, further studies should be focused on broadening the indications for NA therapy after curative treatment of HBV-HCC.
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment.
XAF1; Hepatocellular cancer; Apoptosis; Angiogenesis; VEGF
This study evaluated the efficacy of a version of Project EX that was adapted for implementation in the classroom context (Project EX-4). This paper reports the program outcomes based on pretest, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up surveys.
An 8 session classroom-based curriculum was tested with a clustered randomized controlled trial that involved a total of 1097 students in 6 program and 6 control alternative high schools. Weekly and monthly smoking was assessed at the three time points. Outcome effects were analyzed with multi-level random coefficients models.
Students in the program condition experienced a greater reduction in weekly smoking and monthly smoking, at 6-and-12-month follow-ups. The net change varied between −5.1% and −7.6%, comparing the program condition to the control condition.
The implementation of Project EX in a classroom setting produced decreases in smoking among students in the program, relative to those in the standard care control condition. It is likely that a classroom-based smoking prevention/cessation program can lead to lower overall smoking prevalence than a cessation program that is implemented in a school-based smoking cessation clinic format.
teen smoking; prevention; cessation
Human serum albumin (HSA) nanometer or micron particles represent promising drug-carrier systems. The azimuthal and radial variations of a linear polarization-sensitive backscattering Mueller matrix were experimentally studied in two cases: the scattering particle was smaller or larger in size to the probing wavelength of 780 nm. The results show that the twofold and fourfold structures are characteristic of small particle size suspension, whereas the eightfold structure is characteristic of large particle size suspension. Moreover, for both particle size suspensions, the element patterns have strong radial dependence when the suspension concentration and the incident power of laser change. In addition, for both particle size suspensions, the rotational symmetry of each element is lost in the case of oblique incidence but the multifold structure is maintained. Some suggestions for applications of Mueller matrix imaging in biomedical optics are provided.
Backscattering; Linear polarization; Mueller matrix; Turbid media; Human serum albumin
Predation is a complex process among predator, prey and environment. Juvenile sea urchins are more susceptible to predators than adults, which affects community structure. Behavior is involved in anti-predator responses by changes in the expression of anti-predator responsive genes. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to a predatory crab Charybdis japonica and covering behavior on survival and HSP70 expression of juvenile sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius. C. japonica consumed large numbers of juvenile S. intermedius in 12 hours with a mortality of 34.17±11.43%. Covering behavior did not significantly reduce predation. Exposure to C. japonica did not significantly upregulate HSP70 expression of juvenile S. intermedius in 12 hours. Covering behavior showed no significant regulative effect on the gene expression of HSP70 of juvenile S. intermedius exposed to C. japonica for 12 hours. The results indicate that the anti-predator function of covering behavior is limited and that HSP70 expression does not appear to play an important role in the anti-predator process of S. intermedius.
Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review the literature in efforts to highlight recent studies on intraneural perineurioma and heighten and awareness for the possible presentations of this disorder.
Intraneural perineurioma; neuropathology; pseudo-onion bulbs; MR
Capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), also known as anthrax toxin receptor 2, has been indicated in the formation of new vasculature and in the internalisation of the anthrax toxin. Anti-angiogenesis therapy that targets this molecule has been investigated. However, our recent studies of this molecule have indicated that this gene may also play certain roles in cancer cells. The present study aimed to examine the expression of CMG2 in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines, and also its impact on cellular functions. The expression of CMG2 was detectable in normal and prostate cancer tissues. The prostate cancer cell lines appeared to have relatively high expression compared with the prostatic epithelial cells. Knockdown of CMG2 impaired the adherence of the prostate cancer cells. CMG2 overexpression resulted in decreasing invasiveness, while the knockdown of CMG2 contrastingly enhanced this ability. The altered expression of CMG2 in the prostate cancer cells did not affect the in vitro or in vivo growth of the cells. Taken together, these results show that CMG2 is expressed in prostatic epithelia and cancer cells. In addition to its role in the angiogenesis and the internalisation of anthrax toxin, CMG2 also plays an important role in regulating the adhesion and invasion of prostate cancer cells.
capillary morphogenesis gene 2; anthrax toxin receptor 2; prostate cancer; adhesion; invasion