PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-16 (16)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Recommendations for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Testing in Breast Cancer 
Purpose
To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing and its utility as a predictive marker in invasive breast cancer.
Methods
ASCO/CAP convened an Update Committee that included coauthors of the 2007 guideline to conduct a systematic literature review and update recommendations for optimal HER2 testing.
Results
The Update Committee identified criteria and areas requiring clarification to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH). The guideline was reviewed and approved by both organizations.
Recommendations
The Update Committee recommends that HER2 status (HER2 negative or positive) be determined in all patients with invasive (early stage or recurrence) breast cancer on the basis of one or more HER2 test results (negative, equivocal, or positive). Testing criteria define HER2-positive status when (on observing within an area of tumor that amounts to >10% of contiguous and homogeneous tumor cells) there is evidence of protein overexpression (IHC) or gene amplification (HER2 copy number or HER2/CEP17 ratio by ISH based on counting at least 20 cells within the area). If results are equivocal (revised criteria), reflex testing should be performed using an alternative assay (IHC or ISH). Repeat testing should be considered if results seem discordant with other histopathologic findings. Laboratories should demonstrate high concordance with a validated HER2 test on a sufficiently large and representative set of specimens. Testing must be performed in a laboratory accredited by CAP or another accrediting entity. The Update Committee urges providers and health systems to cooperate to ensure the highest quality testing.
doi:10.5858/arpa.2013-0953-SA
PMCID: PMC4086638  PMID: 24099077
2.  Quantitative Assessment of Effect of Preanalytic Cold Ischemic Time on Protein Expression in Breast Cancer Tissues 
Background
Companion diagnostic tests can depend on accurate measurement of protein expression in tissues. Preanalytic variables, especially cold ischemic time (time from tissue removal to fixation in formalin) can affect the measurement and may cause false-negative results. We examined 23 proteins, including four commonly used breast cancer biomarker proteins, to quantify their sensitivity to cold ischemia in breast cancer tissues.
Methods
A series of 93 breast cancer specimens with known time-to-fixation represented in a tissue microarray and a second series of 25 matched pairs of core needle biopsies and breast cancer resections were used to evaluate changes in antigenicity as a function of cold ischemic time. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2 or Ki67, and 19 other antigens were tested. Each antigen was measured using the AQUA method of quantitative immunofluorescence on at least one series. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
We found no evidence for loss of antigenicity with time-to-fixation for ER, PgR, HER2, or Ki67 in a 4-hour time window. However, with a bootstrapping analysis, we observed a trend toward loss for ER and PgR, a statistically significant loss of antigenicity for phosphorylated tyrosine (P = .0048), and trends toward loss for other proteins. There was evidence of increased antigenicity in acetylated lysine, AKAP13 (P = .009), and HIF1A (P = .046), which are proteins known to be expressed in conditions of hypoxia. The loss of antigenicity for phosphorylated tyrosine and increase in expression of AKAP13, and HIF1A were confirmed in the biopsy/resection series.
Conclusions
Key breast cancer biomarkers show no evidence of loss of antigenicity, although this dataset assesses the relatively short time beyond the 1-hour limit in recent guidelines. Other proteins show changes in antigenicity in both directions. Future studies that extend the time range and normalize for heterogeneity will provide more comprehensive information on preanalytic variation due to cold ischemic time.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djs438
PMCID: PMC3514166  PMID: 23090068
3.  Regulation of Human Osteoclast Development by Dendritic Cell-Specific Transmembrane Protein (DC-STAMP) 
Osteoclasts (OC) are bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells that are generated via fusion of OC precursors (OCP). The frequency of OCP is elevated in patients with erosive inflammatory arthritis and metabolic bone diseases. Although many cytokines and cell surface receptors are known to participate in osteoclastogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this cellular transformation are poorly understood. Herein, we focused our studies on the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a seven-pass-transmembrane receptor-like protein known to be essential for cell-to-cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis. We identified an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in the cytoplasmic tail of DC-STAMP, and developed an anti-DC-STAMP monoclonal antibody 1A2 that detected DC-STAMP expression on human tumor giant cells, blocked OC formation in vitro, and distinguished four patterns of human PBMC with a positive correlation to OC potential. In freshly isolated monocytes, DC-STAMPhigh cells produced a higher number of OC in culture than DC-STAMPlow cells and the surface expression of DC-STAMP gradually declined during osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, we showed that DC-STAMP is phosphorylated on its tyrosine residues and physically interacts with SHP-1 and CD16, an SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase and an ITAM-associated protein, respectively. Taken together, these data show that DC-STAMP is a potential OCP biomarker in inflammatory arthritis. Moreover, in addition to its effect on cell fusion, DC-STAMP dynamically regulates cell signaling during osteoclastogenesis.
doi:10.1002/jbmr.531
PMCID: PMC3304467  PMID: 21987375
DC-STAMP; osteoclast; signaling; ITIM; ITAM; SHP-1; OCP; biomarker; Ps; PsA; CD16
4.  Expression of the Androgen Receptor and its Correlation with Molecular Subtypes in 980 Chinese Breast Cancer Patients 
Background
Recent studies have shown that androgen displays an inhibitory effect on breast cancer cell lines that express androgen receptor (AR) but not estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). We have previously reported that approximately 1/3 of ER negative high grade invasive ductal carcinomas express AR. Thus, AR can serve as a potential therapeutic target for this group of patients.
Aim
Here we investigated AR expression patterns in 980 consecutive breast carcinomas.
Results
We found that (1) AR was expressed more frequently (77%) than ER (61%) and PR (60%) in breast carcinomas; (2) AR expression was associated with ER and PR expression (P < 0.0001), small tumor size (P = 0.0324) and lower Ki-67 expression (P = 0.0013); (3) AR expression was found in 65% of ER negative tumors; (4) AR expression was associated with PR and Ki-67 in ER negative tumors, but not in ER positive tumors; (5) AR expression was higher in ER positive subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B and Luminal HER2 subtypes, 80%–86%) and lower in ER negative subtypes [HER2, triple negative (TN), and TN EFGR positive subtypes; 52%–66%], with over 50% of TN tumors expressing AR.
Conclusion
More breast carcinomas express AR than ER and PR, including significant numbers of ER negative and TN tumors, for which AR could serve as a potential therapeutic target.
doi:10.4137/BCBCR.S8323
PMCID: PMC3256731  PMID: 22259247
androgen receptor; breast cancer; estrogen receptor; HER2; Ki-67; molecular classification; progesterone receptor
5.  Predictors of Nipple–Areolar Complex Involvement by Breast Carcinoma: Histopathologic Analysis of 787 Consecutive Therapeutic Mastectomy Specimens 
Annals of Surgical Oncology  2011;19(4):1174-1180.
Background
Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is an accepted therapeutic option for most breast cancer patients. However, mastectomy is still performed in 30–50% of patients undergoing surgeries. There is increasing interest in preservation of the nipple and/or areola in hopes of achieving improved cosmetic and functional outcomes; however, the oncologic safety of nipple–areolar complex (NAC) preservation is a major concern. We sought to identify the predictive factors for NAC involvement in breast cancer patients.
Methods
We analyzed the rates and types of NAC involvement by breast carcinoma, and its association with other clinicopathologic features of the tumors in 787 consecutive therapeutic mastectomies performed at our institution between 1997 and 2009.
Results
Among these, 75 cases (9.5%) demonstrated NAC involvement. Only 21 (28%) of 75 of cases with NAC involvement could be identified grossly by inspection of the surgical specimen (seven of these had been clinically identified). NAC involvement was most significantly associated with tumors located in all four quadrants (P < 0.0001), tumors >5 cm in size (P = 0.0014 for invasive carcinoma and P = 0.0032 for in-situ carcinoma), grade 3 tumors (P = 0.0192), tumors with higher nuclear grades (P = 0.0184), and tumors with HER2 overexpression (P = 0.0137).
Conclusions
On the basis of our findings, we have developed a mathematical model that is based on the extent and location of the tumor, HER2 expression, and nuclear grade that predicts the probability of NAC involvement by breast cancer. This model may aid in preoperative planning in selecting appropriate surgical procedures based on an individual patient’s relative risk of NAC involvement.
doi:10.1245/s10434-011-2107-3
PMCID: PMC3309146  PMID: 22006374
6.  HER2 amplification, overexpression and score criteria in esophageal adenocarcinoma 
The HER2 oncogene was recently reported to be amplified and overexpressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the relationship of HER2 amplification in esophageal adenocarcinoma with prognosis has not been well defined. The scoring systems for clinically evaluating HER2 in esophageal adenocarcinoma are not established. The aims of the study were to establish a HER2 scoring system and comprehensively investigate HER2 amplification and overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesion. Using a tissue microarray, containing 116 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 34 cases of BE, 18 cases of low grade dysplasia and 15 cases of high grade dysplasia, HER2 amplification and overexpression were analyzed by HercepTest and CISH methods. The amplification frequency in an independent series of 116 esophageal adenocarcinoma samples was also analyzed using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. In our studies, we have found that HER2 amplification does not associate with poor prognosis in total 232 esophageal adenocarcinoma patients by CISH and high density microarrays. We further confirm the similar frequency of HER2 amplification by CISH (18.10%; 21/116) and SNP 6.0 microarrays (16.4%, 19/116) in esophageal adenocarcinoma. HER2 protein overexpression was observed in 12.1 % (14/116) of esophageal adenocarcinoma and 6.67% (1/15) of HGD. No HER2 amplification or overexpression was identified in BE or LGD. All HER2 protein overexpression cases showed HER2 gene amplification. Gene amplification was found to be more frequent by CISH than protein overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma (18.10% vs 12.9%). A modified two-step model for esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 testing is recommend for clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 trial.
doi:10.1038/modpathol.2011.47
PMCID: PMC3138485  PMID: 21460800
Barrett’s esophagus; dysplasia; adenocarcinoma; HER2; immunohistochemistry; DNA microarray; tissue microarray; CISH; overexpression; amplification; prognosis
7.  American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Guideline Recommendations for Immunohistochemical Testing of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Breast Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(16):2784-2795.
Purpose
To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers.
Methods
The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an international Expert Panel that conducted a systematic review and evaluation of the literature in partnership with Cancer Care Ontario and developed recommendations for optimal IHC ER/PgR testing performance.
Results
Up to 20% of current IHC determinations of ER and PgR testing worldwide may be inaccurate (false negative or false positive). Most of the issues with testing have occurred because of variation in preanalytic variables, thresholds for positivity, and interpretation criteria.
Recommendations
The Panel recommends that ER and PgR status be determined on all invasive breast cancers and breast cancer recurrences. A testing algorithm that relies on accurate, reproducible assay performance is proposed. Elements to reliably reduce assay variation are specified. It is recommended that ER and PgR assays be considered positive if there are at least 1% positive tumor nuclei in the sample on testing in the presence of expected reactivity of internal (normal epithelial elements) and external controls. The absence of benefit from endocrine therapy for women with ER-negative invasive breast cancers has been confirmed in large overviews of randomized clinical trials.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.25.6529
PMCID: PMC2881855  PMID: 20404251
8.  American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Guideline Recommendations for Immunohistochemical Testing of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Breast Cancer 
Purpose
To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers.
Methods
The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an international Expert Panel that conducted a systematic review and evaluation of the literature in partnership with Cancer Care Ontario and developed recommendations for optimal IHC ER/PgR testing performance.
Results
Up to 20% of current IHC determinations of ER and PgR testing worldwide may be inaccurate (false negative or false positive). Most of the issues with testing have occurred because of variation in preanalytic variables, thresholds for positivity, and interpretation criteria.
Recommendations
The Panel recommends that ER and PgR status be determined on all invasive breast cancers and breast cancer recurrences. A testing algorithm that relies on accurate, reproducible assay performance is proposed. Elements to reliably reduce assay variation are specified. It is recommended that ER and PgR assays be considered positive if there are at least 1% positive tumor nuclei in the sample on testing in the presence of expected reactivity of internal (normal epithelial elements) and external controls. The absence of benefit from endocrine therapy for women with ER-negative invasive breast cancers has been confirmed in large overviews of randomized clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC3073033  PMID: 20524868
9.  Invasive Lobular Carcinomas Do Not Express Basal Cytokeratin Markers CK5/6, CK14 and CK17 
The expression of basal cytokeratin markers CK5/6 in breast carcinomas has been associated with high histological grade and poor clinical outcome. A previous study has shown that CK5/6 can be detected in up to 17% of invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC). Here we study the expression of three basal cytokeratin markers (CK5/6, CK14, and CK17) in 53 ILC cases diagnosed by histology and lack of E-cadherin expression. Among them, 42 were classic lobular carcinomas, 6 were tubular-lobular carcinoma, and 5 were pleomorphic lobular carcinomas. There was no significant difference among these three groups in patients’ age, tumor size, uni- and multi-focality, expression of ER and PR, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion and lymph node metastasis. The only statistically different factor was HER2 over-expression, which was observed only in pleomorphic ILC (P = 0.0073). None of the 53 cases expressed CK5/6, CK14 or CK17; and 51/53 cases expressed luminal markers CK8 and CK18, and the two negative cases were both classic lobular carcinoma, with positivity for ER and PR. In conclusion, all 53 cases of ILC failed to show expression by any of the three basal CK markers, suggesting that very few ILC will demonstrate a basal phenotype when assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). More studies are needed to investigate molecular classification in lobular carcinoma of the breast.
doi:10.4137/BCBCR.S5037
PMCID: PMC2999514  PMID: 21151863
lobular carcinoma of the breast; CK5; CK14 and CK17
10.  The Expression Patterns of ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR, Ki-67 and AR by Immunohistochemical Analysis in Breast Cancer Cell Lines 
The molecular classification for breast carcinomas has been used in clinical studies with a simple surrogate panel of immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers. The objective of this current project was to study the molecular classification of commonly used breast cancer cell lines by IHC analysis. Seventeen breast cancer cell lines were harvested, fixed in formalin and made into cell blocks. IHC analyses were performed on each cell block with antibodies to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, EGFR, CK5/6, Ki-67 and androgen receptor (AR). Among the 17 cell lines, MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 fell to Luminal A subtype; BT-474 to Luminal B subtype; SKBR-3, MDA-MD-435 and AU 565 to HER2 over-expression subtype; MDA-MB-231, MCF-12A, HBL 101, HS 598 T, MCF-10A, MCF-10F, BT-20, 468 and BT-483 to basal subtype. MDA-MB-453 belonged to Unclassified subtype. Since each subtype defined by this IHC-based molecular classification does show a distinct clinical outcome, attention should be paid when choosing a cell line for any study.
PMCID: PMC2914277  PMID: 20697531
molecular classification; breast cancer; cell lines; immunohistochemistry
11.  The expression of TRMT2A, a novel cell cycle regulated protein, identifies a subset of breast cancer patients with HER2 over-expression that are at an increased risk of recurrence 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:108.
Background
Over-expression of HER2 in a subset of breast cancers (HER2+) is associated with high histological grade and aggressive clinical course. Despite these distinctive features, the differences in response of HER2+ patients to both adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (e.g. trastuzumab) suggests that unrecognized biologic and clinical diversity is confounding treatment strategies. Furthermore, the small but established risk of cardiac morbidity with trastuzumab therapy compels efforts towards the identification of biomarkers that might help stratify patients.
Methods
A single institution tissue array cohort assembled at the Clearview Cancer Institute of Huntsville (CCIH) was screened by immunohistochemistry staining using a large number of novel and commercially available antibodies to identify those with a univariate association with clinical outcome in HER2+ patients. Staining with antibody directed at TRMT2A was found to be strongly associated with outcome in HER2+ patients. This association with outcome was tested in two independent validation cohorts; an existing staining dataset derived from tissue assembled at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF), and in a new retrospective study performed by staining archived paraffin blocks available at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI).
Results
TRMT2A staining showed a strong correlation with likelihood of recurrence at five years in 67 HER2+ patients from the CCIH discovery cohort (HR 7.0; 95% CI 2.4 to 20.1, p < 0.0004). This association with outcome was confirmed using 75 HER2+ patients from the CCF cohort (HR 3.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 10.2, p < 0.02) and 64 patients from the RPCI cohort (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-8.9, p < 0.02). In bivariable analysis the association with outcome was independent of grade, tumor size, nodal status and the administration of conventional adjuvant chemotherapy in the CCIH and RPCI cohorts.
Conclusions
Studies from three independent single institution cohorts support TRMT2A protein expression as a biomarker of increased risk of recurrence in HER2+ breast cancer patients. These results suggest that TRMT2A expression should be further studied in the clinical trial setting to explore its predictive power for response to adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy in combination with HER2 targeted therapy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-108
PMCID: PMC2859753  PMID: 20307320
12.  Prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF) downregulates survivin expression and inhibits breast cancer cell growth in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo 
Previous studies using immunohistochemistry suggest that loss of the expression of the prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF) is a strong indicator for cancer cell malignancy. However, the underlying mechanism for this has not been well elucidated. We determined the role of PDEF in breast cancer cell growth and tumor formation using a series of experiments including Western blotting, promoter-luciferase reporter assay, RNA interference technology and a mouse xenograft model. We also determined the relationship between PDEF expression in human breast tumor specimen and cancer patient survivability. These studies revealed that PDEF expression is inversely associated with survivin expression and breast cancer cell xenograft tumor formation. PDEF-specific shRNA-mediated silencing of PDEF expression resulted in the upregulation of survivin expression in MCF-7 cells, which was associated with increased cell growth and resistance to drug-induced DNA fragmentation (apoptosis). In contrast, survivin-specific siRNA-mediated silencing of survivin expression decreased MCF-7 cell growth. Ectopic expression of PDEF inhibited both survivin promoter activity and endogenous survivin expression. Importantly, shRNA-mediated silencing of PDEF expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells enhanced survivin expression and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. Furthermore, loss of PDEF expression in breast cancer tissues tends to be associated with unfavorable prognosis. These studies provide new information for the role of PDEF and survivin in breast cancer cell growth and tumor formation.
doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9314-9
PMCID: PMC2821803  PMID: 16897429
PDEF; Survivin; MCF-7; Breast cancer tissues; Xenograft tumor formation
13.  TLE3 as a candidate biomarker of response to taxane therapy 
Introduction
The addition of taxanes (Ts) to chemotherapeutic regimens has not demonstrated a consistent benefit in early-stage breast cancer. To date, no clinically relevant biomarkers that predict T response have been identified.
Methods
A dataset of immunohistochemistry stains in 411 patients was mined to identify potential markers of response. TLE3 emerged as a candidate marker for T response. To test the association with T sensitivity, an independent 'triple-negative' (TN) validation cohort was stained with anti-TLE3 antibody.
Results
TLE3 staining was associated with improved 5-year disease-free interval (DFI) in the overall cohort (n = 441, P < 0.004), in patients treated with cyclophosphamide (C), methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (n = 72, P < 0.02), and in those treated with regimens containing doxorubicin (A) and a T (n = 65, P < 0.04). However, no association was shown with outcome in untreated patients (n = 203, P = 0.49) or those treated with a regimen containing A only (n = 66, P = 0.97). In the TN cohort, TLE3 staining was significantly associated with improved 5-year DFI in all patients (n = 81, P < 0.015), in patients treated with AC + T (n = 45, P < 0.02), but not in patients treated with AC (n = 17, P = 0.81). TLE3 was independent of tumor size, nodal status, and grade by bivariable analysis in both cohorts.
Conclusions
TLE3 staining is associated with improved DFI in T-treated patients in two independent cohorts. Since the validation study was performed in a TN cohort, TLE3 is not serving as a surrogate for estrogen receptor or HER2 expression. TLE3 should be studied in large clinical trial cohorts to establish its role in T chemotherapy selection.
doi:10.1186/bcr2241
PMCID: PMC2688945  PMID: 19309506
14.  Loss of Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 Protein Expression Predicts Reduced Disease-Free Survival in Some Breast Cancer Patients 
Purpose
This study aims to determine the effect of loss of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) protein expression on disease-free survival in breast cancer patients stratified by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or HER2 status, and to determine whether loss of BRMS1 protein expression correlated with genomic copy number changes.
Experimental Design
A tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis was done on tumors of 238 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who underwent surgery at the Cleveland Clinic between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 1996, and a comparison was made with 5-year clinical follow-up data. Genomic copy number changes were determined by array-based comparative genomic hybridization in 47 breast cancer cases from this population and compared with BRMS1 staining.
Results
BRMS1 protein expression was lost in nearly 25% of cases. Patients with tumors that were PR negative (P = 0.006) or HER2 positive (P = 0.039) and <50 years old at diagnosis (P = 0.02) were more likely to be BRMS1 negative. No overall correlation between BRMS1 staining and disease-free survival was observed; however, a significant correlation was seen between loss of BRMS1 protein expression and reduced disease-free survival when stratified by either loss of ER (P = 0.008) or PR (P = 0.029) or HER2 overexpression (P = 0.026). Overall, there was poor correlation between BRMS1 protein staining and copy number status.
Conclusions
These data suggest a mechanistic relationship between BRMS1 expression, hormone receptor status, and HER2 growth factor. BRMS1 staining could potentially be used in patient stratification in conjunction with other prognostic markers. Further, mechanisms other than genomic deletion account for loss of BRMS1 gene expression in breast tumors.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0635
PMCID: PMC1661839  PMID: 17121889
15.  Mechanisms of TNF-α– and RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in psoriatic arthritis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2003;111(6):821-831.
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory joint disease characterized by extensive bone resorption. The mechanisms underlying this matrix loss have not been elucidated. We report here that blood samples from PsA patients, particularly those with bone erosions visible on plain radiographs, exhibit a marked increase in osteoclast precursors (OCPs) compared with those from healthy controls. Moreover, PsA PBMCs readily formed osteoclasts in vitro without exogenous receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) or MCSF. Both osteoprotegerin (OPG) and anti-TNF antibodies inhibited osteoclast formation. Additionally, cultured PsA PBMCs spontaneously secreted higher levels of TNF-α than did healthy controls. In vivo, OCP frequency declined substantially in PsA patients following treatment with anti-TNF agents. Immunohistochemical analysis of subchondral bone and synovium revealed RANK-positive perivascular mononuclear cells and osteoclasts in PsA specimens. RANKL expression was dramatically upregulated in the synovial lining layer, while OPG immunostaining was restricted to the endothelium. These results suggest a model for understanding the pathogenesis of aggressive bone erosions in PsA. OCPs arise from TNF-α–activated PBMCs that migrate to the inflamed synovium and subchondral bone, where they are exposed to unopposed RANKL and TNF-α. This leads to osteoclastogenesis at the erosion front and in subchondral bone, resulting in a bidirectional assault on psoriatic bone.
doi:10.1172/JCI200316069
PMCID: PMC153764  PMID: 12639988
16.  Phase II Study of Ifosfamide+Doxorubicin in Patients With Advanced Synovial Sarcomas (E1793): A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 
Sarcoma  2003;7(1):9-11.
Purpose Because we had observed in the synovial sarcoma subgroup of a broad phase III advanced soft tissue sarcoma study a significantly greater objective regression rate from ifosfamide+doxorubicin (88%) than from doxorubicin alone (20%) (P = 0.02), the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) decided to further assess this two drug combination in a subsequent Phase II study.
Patients Between 1994 and 1999, twelve adult patients with advanced synovial sarcomas were enrolled to receive, as their initial chemotherapy, ifosfamide 7.5 gm/m2 plus doxorubicin 60 mg/m2, given intravenously over two consecutive days every 3 weeks.
Methods Each day for 2 days doxorubicin 30 mg/m2 was infused over 5 min through a running i.v., followed by ifosfamide 3750 mg/m2 over 4 h. Continuous i.v. fluid was infused at 300 mL/h for 3 h on day 1, before chemotherapy was begun; then the infusion was continued at 100 mL/h for a total of 3 days. Mesna 750 mg/m2 was given 15 min before ifosfamide and at 4 and 8 h after ifosfamide on days 1 and 2 of each treatment cycle. Filgrastim (G-CSF) 5 μg/kg was given subcutaneously each day for 14 days beginning on day 3 of each treatment cycle to limit the severity of neutropenia.
Results Five of our 12 patients (42%) experienced partial regression of their advanced synovial sarcomas; however, this first stage result was borderline for proceeding to the second planned stage of accrual and our case accrual was quite poor. Thus, the study was closed after stage one accrual. Our patients received a median of four cycles of chemotherapy (range: 1 to 6). All patients experienced at least grade 3 neutropenia (grade 4 in nine of them), and one patient died of treatment-related sepsis following the initial cycle of chemotherapy. Median survival was 11 months.
doi:10.1080/1357714031000114156
PMCID: PMC2395511  PMID: 18521363

Results 1-16 (16)