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1.  The Emerging Role of D-2-Hydroxyglutarate as an Oncometabolite in Hematolymphoid and Central Nervous System Neoplasms 
Frontiers in Oncology  2013;3:169.
Approximately 20% of unselected cases and 30% cytogenetically diploid cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 80% of grade II–III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas carry mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. IDH1/2 mutations prevent oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and modulate the function of IDH (neomorphic activity) thereby facilitating reduction of α-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), a putative oncometabolite. D-2HG is thought to act as a competitive inhibitor of α-KG-dependent dioxygenases that include prolyl hydroxylases and chromatin-modifying enzymes. The end result is a global increase of cellular DNA hypermethylation and alterations of the cellular epigenetic state, which has been proposed to play a role in the development of a variety of tumors. In this review, we provide an update on potential molecular mechanisms linking IDH1/2 mutations and the resulting oncometabolite, D-2HG, with malignant transformation. In addition, in patients with AML and glioma we focus on the associations between IDH1/2 mutations and clinical, morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics.
doi:10.3389/fonc.2013.00169
PMCID: PMC3698461  PMID: 23847760
IDH mutation; NPM1 mutation; acute myeloid leukemia; glioma
2.  Unusual Presentation of Multiple Fibroadenomas in Bilateral Breasts and Axillary Accessory Breast 
We report an extremely rare case with a total of 50 fibroadenomas simultaneously presented in bilateral breasts and left axillary accessory breast, up to 8 cm in size, in a 20 year-old Chinese woman. The histopathologic and immunophenotypic features of the fibroadenomas are described and possible underlying pathogenesis is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first case with such a large number of bilateral multiple breast fibroadenomas in a young female reported in the literature.
doi:10.4137/BCBCR.S9512
PMCID: PMC3337783  PMID: 22553423
multiple fibroadenoma; bilateral breasts; axillary accessory breast

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