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1.  Prediction of Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer Patients with Sentinel Lymph Node Metastases: Evaluation of the Tenon Score 
Introduction
Current guidelines recommend completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) in case of a sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis larger than 0.2 mm. However, in 50%–65% of these patients, the non-SLNs contain no further metastases and cALND provides no benefit. Several nomograms and scoring systems have been suggested to predict the risk of metastases in non-SLNs. We have evaluated the Tenon score.
Patients and Methods
In a retrospective review of the Swedish Sentinel Node Multicentre Cohort Study, risk factors for additional metastases were analysed in 869 SLN-positive patients who underwent cALND, using uni- and multivariate logistic regression models. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn on the basis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Tenon score, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated.
Results
Non-SLN metastases were identified in 270/869 (31.1%) patients. Tumour size and grade, SLN status and ratio between number of positive SLNs and total number of SLNs were significantly associated with non-SLN status in multivariate analyses. The area under the curve for the Tenon score was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61–0.69). In 102 patients with a primary tumour <2 cm, Elston grade 1–2 and SLN metastases ≤2 mm, the risk of non SLN metastasis was less than 10%.
Conclusion
The Tenon score performed inadequately in our material and we could, based on tumour and SLN characteristics, only define a very small group of patients in which negative non-sentinel nodes could be predicted.
doi:10.4137/BCBCR.S8642
PMCID: PMC3273320  PMID: 22346360
breast cancer; sentinel node; metastases
2.  Synergistic anti-cancer effects of immunotoxin and cyclosporin in vitro and in vivo 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;101(8):1307-1315.
Background:
The clinical use of immunotoxins (ITs) has been hampered by hepatotoxicity, and the induction of a strong human-anti-IT response. The human-anti-IT response results in neutralisation of the immunoconjugates, rendering repetitive treatment inefficacious.
Methods:
We evaluated the combination of cyclosporin A (CsA) with various Pseudomonas exotoxin A-based ITs in human breast, cervical, and prostate cancer cell lines measured by protein synthesis, cell viability, and TUNEL assay. Furthermore, expression of essential proteins were analysed by western blot. We used cervical cancer model in nude rats to evaluate the anti-metastatic effect of the combination. The anti-immunogenic response by the CsA treatment was investigated in immunocompetent rats.
Results:
The combination of CsA with ITs caused remarkable synergistic cytotoxicity, in several cancer cell lines, characterised by protein synthesis inhibition, decreased cell viability, and an increased apoptotic index. Furthermore, the combination strongly inhibited formation of metastases in a cervical cancer model in nude rats with a statistically significant increase in median survival time of the combination-treated animals, as compared with those receiving a suboptimal dose of IT alone. Notably, we found in immunocompetent rats that the anti-IT immunoresponse elicited by repeated administration of IT was efficiently abrogated by CsA; notably the antibody responds towards the highly immunogenic PE was shown to be prevented.
Conclusion:
The combination of ITs and CsA might constitute a significant improvement in the clinical potential of systemic IT treatment of cancer patients.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605312
PMCID: PMC2768448  PMID: 19773757
immunotoxin; apoptosis; cyclosporin; breast cancer; metastasis model
3.  Genetic Characterization and Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Meats, Water, and Humans in Sweden 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(2):700-706.
The incidence of Campylobacter jejuni has increased during the last decade, and today it is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in most developed countries. Still, there is a lack of knowledge about infection routes and to what extent identified sources are responsible for spreading the bacterium to humans. The major objective of this work was to explore the genetic similarity between C. jejuni isolated from different sources. C. jejuni isolated from patients (n = 95), five types of meat (n = 71), and raw water (n = 11) during the year 2000 were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The pulsotypes obtained after digestion with SmaI revealed not only that C. jejuni is genetically diverse but also that specific pulsotypes occur frequently. Five clusters comprising 88 of the 162 SmaI-digested isolates were obtained. After digestion with KpnI most isolates in four of the five clusters were still indistinguishable, while the fifth cluster was strongly dissolved. The clusters comprised high frequencies of human and meat isolates, while only one of nine water isolates belonged to a cluster. The largest cluster comprised 21 human isolates, one raw water isolate, and seven chicken meat isolates, originating from at least six different broiler flocks. Low frequencies of antibiotic resistance were revealed when the meat and water isolates were tested for sensitivity to six antibiotics. Interestingly, the five isolates resistant to quinolones displayed similar or identical pulsotypes. The results showed that PFGE has proved useful in identifying clones and will be used in future work focusing on identification and eradication of the major reservoirs for common clones.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.2.700-706.2004
PMCID: PMC344482  PMID: 14766839
4.  A one-year study of foodborne illnesses in the municipality of Uppsala, Sweden. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2001;7(3 Suppl):588-592.
Surveillance was enhanced and a retrospective interview study performed in 1998-99 to determine incidence, causes, and costs of foodborne illnesses in Uppsala, Sweden. Sixty-eight percent of the detected foodborne illness incidents were single cases, and 32% were outbreaks. Most (85%) of the incidents came to the attention of the municipal authorities through telephone calls from affected persons. Calicivirus, Campylobacter spp., and Staphyloccocus aureus were the most common etiological agents; meat, meat products, and mixed dishes were the most implicated food categories. The incidence of foodborne illness was estimated to be 38 cases per 1,000 inhabitants per year. The estimated average costs per illness were 2,164 Swedish Krona (SEK) ($246) to society and 500 SEK ($57) to the patient. The annual cost of foodborne illnesses in Sweden was estimated to be 1,082 million SEK ($123 million).
PMCID: PMC2631855  PMID: 11485680
5.  Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection traced to imported iceberg lettuce. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(3):609-614.
In the period from May through June 1994, an increase in the number of domestic cases of Shigella sonnei infection was detected in several European countries, including Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In all three countries epidemiological evidence incriminated imported iceberg lettuce of Spanish origin as the vehicle of transmission. The outbreaks shared a number of common features: a predominance of adults among the case patients, the presence of double infections with other enteropathogens, and the finding of two dominant phage types among the bacterial isolates. In Norway 110 culture-confirmed cases of infection were recorded; more than two-thirds (73%) were adults aged 30 to 60 years. A nationwide case-control study comprising 47 case patients and 155 matched control individuals showed that the consumption of imported iceberg lettuce was independently associated with an increased risk of shigellosis. Epidemiological investigation of a local outbreak incriminated iceberg lettuce from Spain, consumed from a salad bar, as the source. The presence of shigellae in the suspected food source could not be documented retrospectively. However, high numbers of fecal coliforms were detected in iceberg lettuce from patients' homes. Three lettuce specimens yielded salmonellae. The imported iceberg lettuce harbored Escherichia coli strains showing resistance to several antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. During the outbreak it is likely that thousands of Norwegians and an unknown number of consumers in other countries were exposed to coliforms containing antibiotic resistance genes.
PMCID: PMC227998  PMID: 7751364

Results 1-6 (6)