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1.  Particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein expression in colorectal adenocarcinomas 
AIM: To study the relationship between particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein (PINCH) expression and clinicopathological factors in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.
METHODS: The expression of PINCH was examined by immumohistochemistry in 141 samples of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma and 92 normal samples of colorectal mucosa. Eighty of the cases had both primary tumour and normal mucosa from the same patients.
RESULTS: PINCH was expressed in the stroma of normal mucosa and tumours. PINCH expression in tumour-associated stroma was increased compared to normal mucosa in both unmatched cases (n = 141, X2 = 85.79, df = 3, P  < 0.0001) and matched cases (n  = 80, X2 = 45.86, df = 3, P  < 0.0001). Among 135 tumours with visible invasive margin, 86 (64%) showed stronger PINCH expression at the invasive margin than in the intratumoural stroma. The frequency of PINCH strong expression in mucinous and signet-ring cell carcinomas was higher (52%) compared to non-mucinous carcinomas (29%, X2 = 5.13, P  = 0.02). We did not find that PINCH expression was related to patient’s gender, age, tumour location, tumour size, gross status, histological type, differentiation, invasion depth, lymph node status and Dukes’ stage (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The expression of PINCH was upregulated in colorectal cancers, and especially at the margin of tumours, and further was related to mucinous and signet-ring cell carcinomas. The results suggest that expression of PINCH may be involved in the tumourigenesis and aggressiveness of colorectal cancers.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i2.298
PMCID: PMC4066042  PMID: 16482633
PINCH; Stroma; Colorectal cancer; Immunohistochemistry
2.  Impaired social decision making in patients with major depressive disorder 
Brain and Behavior  2012;2(4):415-423.
Research on how depression influences social decision making has been scarce. This study investigated how people with depression make decisions in an interpersonal trust-reciprocity game. Fifty female patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDDs) and 49 healthy women participated in this study. The experiment was conducted on a one-to-one basis. Participants were asked to play the role of a trustee responsible for investing money given to them by an anonymous female investor playing on another computer station. In each trial, the investor would send to a participant (the trustee) a request for a certain percentage of the appreciated investment (repayment proportion). Since only the participant knew the exact amount of the appreciated investment, she could decide to pay more (altruistic act), the same, or less (deceptive act) than the requested amount. The participant's money acquired in the trial would be confiscated if her deceptive act was caught. The frequency of deceptive or altruistic decisions and relative monetary gain in each decision choice were examined. People with depression made fewer deceptive and fewer altruistic responses than healthy controls in all conditions. Moreover, the specific behavioral pattern presented by people with depression was modulated by the task factors, including the risk of deception detection and others’ intentions (benevolence vs. malevolence). Findings of this study contribute to furthering our understanding of the specific pattern of social behavioral changes associated with depression.
doi:10.1002/brb3.62
PMCID: PMC3432964  PMID: 22950045
Affective disorders; altruism; deception; depression; risky decision making; trust
3.  NAC is associated with additional alleviation of lung injury induced by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a neutropenic model 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2009;30(7):980-986.
Aim:
Neutropenic individuals are at high risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), a life-threatening infection. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of antioxidants, IPA was induced in neutropenic mice and the effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) on oxidative stress levels and lung injury was analyzed.
Methods:
Mice were pretreated with three daily intraperitoneal injections of 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, followed by intratracheal inoculation with 4.5×106 conidia of Asperǵillus fumiǵatus. The infected mice were then randomly assigned to an amphotericin B (AMB) group, an AMB plus NAC group, or an untreated control (C) group. In each group, the duration of treatment was 24, 48, or 72 h, and activities such as appearance, feeding, and dermal temperature were observed throughout the experiment. Sera and lung tissues were collected and analyzed by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. The wet/dry weight ratio of the lung was also calculated and lung sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for pathological examination and with methenamine silver stain for fungus detection.
Results:
Compared with the mice untreated with NAC, mice in the AMB plus NAC group had increased SOD and reduced MDA levels both systemically and locally at 24, 48, and 72 h after inoculation with conidia. NAC treatment also decreased the pulmonary protein content at 48 and 72 h and the lung wet/dry weight ratio at 24 and 48 h. Additionally, NAC enhanced pulmonary production of TNF-α and IL-10 at 24 h and 48 h.
Conclusion:
In combination with antifungal therapy, NAC treatment can alleviate oxidative stress and lung injury associated with IPA in neutropenic mice.
doi:10.1038/aps.2009.83
PMCID: PMC4006662  PMID: 19575001
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; neutropenia; amphotericin B; N-acetyl-l-cysteine; oxidant/antioxidant therapy

Results 1-3 (3)