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author:("faili, mehrad")
1.  Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 4-Benzamidobenzoic Acid Hydrazide Derivatives as Novel Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors  
Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) represent one of the novel pharmaceutical approaches for treating hypertension, vascular inflammation, pain and other cardiovascular related diseases. Most of the potent sEH inhibitors reported in literature often suffer from poor solubility and bioavailability. Toward improving pharmacokinetic profile beside favorable potency, two series of 4-benzamidobenzoic acid hydrazide derivatives with hydrazide group as a novel secondary pharmacophore against sEH enzyme were developed. The designed compounds were synthesized in acceptable yield and their in vitro assay was determined. Most of the synthesized compounds have appropriate physical properties and exhibited considerable in-vitro sEH inhibitory activity in comparison with 12-(3-Adamantan-1-yl-ureido)- dodecanoicacid (AUDA), a potent urea-based sEH inhibitor. 4-(2-(4-(4-chlorobenzamido) benzoyl)hydrazinyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid 6c was found to be the most potent inhibitor with inhibitory activity of 72% targeting sEH enzyme.
PMCID: PMC3977053  PMID: 24711829
Synthesis; Docking; Benzamidobenzoic acid hydrazide; Soluble epoxide hydrolase; Physical properties
2.  Optimum Conditions of Radioligand Receptor Binding Assay of Ligands of Benzodiazepine Receptors  
To obtain drugs which are more selective at benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors, design and synthesis of functionally selective ligands for BZD receptors is the current strategy of our pharmaceutical chemistry department. The affinity of newly synthesized ligands is assessed by radioligand receptor binding assays. Based on our previous studies, 2-phenyl-5-oxo-7-methyl-1,3, 4-oxadiazolo[a,2,3]-pyrimidine (compound A) was chosen for design and synthesis of new triazole derivatives as GABAA BZD receptor agonist. The cortical membrane of male Sprague-Dawley rats was prepared as the source of the BZD receptors. Different concentrations of membrane protein and [3H]-flumazenil were incubated at room temperature at different time periods to reach the steady-state. To saturate the receptors, increased amounts of radioligand were incubated with membrane protein. The bound and un-bound ligands were separated by centrifugation. The affinity of compound A was measured in competition studies at optimum conditions by displacement of [3H]-Flumazenil from rat cortical membrane. Based on results, the optimum conditions of radioligand receptor binding assay of benzodiazepines were 35 min incubation of ligands with 100 μg cortical membrane protein and 8.6 × 10-5 nmole 3H-flumazenil in a final volume of 0.5 mL Tris-HCl buffer (50 mM, pH 7.4) at 30 °C. The binding parameters of [3H]-flumazenil, Bmax and Kd were determined through saturation studies as 0.638 ± 0.099 pmol/mg and 1.35 ± 0.316 nM respectively. The affinity of compound A was 1.9 nM comparable with diazepam (1.53nM). This finding makes the compound an interesting lead for further optimization. Starting from this compound, new ligands were synthesized and screened in-vitro by competitive binding assays.
PMCID: PMC3977056  PMID: 24711832
Radioligand receptor binding assay;; [3H]-flumazenil; liquid scintillation; Benzodiazepine
3.  Schizophrenia Induces Oxidative Stress and Cytochrome C Release in Isolated Rat Brain Mitochondria: a Possible Pathway for Induction of Apoptosis and Neurodegeneration  
Schizophrenia is a chronic and often debilitating illness which affects about 1% of the world population. Some reagents have been used to simulate schizophrenic disorders in laboratory animals, such as amphetamine and ketamine. Previous studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced levels of ATP, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis are involved in the pathophysiology and etiology of schizophrenia. In this study we divided Wistar rats in to 2 groups; control group received normal saline and test group received ketamine 30 mg/Kg daily for five consecutive days. Then, locomotor activity including side to side head rocking and arcing of neck, proved schizophrenia in the test group rats. Rats in both control and test groups were then decapitated and brain mitochondria were isolated. Our results showed increased ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release in mitochondria of schizophrenic test group. Our findings suggested that mitochondrial ROS formation and apoptosis signaling are likely involved in cellular pathology of Schizophrenia. To our knowledge this is the first report that provides a mechanistic justification between mitochondrial events and neuodegeneration in the Schizophrenia.
PMCID: PMC3977058  PMID: 24711834
Apoptosis; Ketamine; Mitochondria; ROS formation; Schizophrenia
4.  Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Defatted Fruit Extract of Olea europaea  
Fruits of Olea europaea L. have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat many inflammatory diseases. In order to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of defatted fruits of O. europaea, formalin test was used and for evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of the extract, the volume of paw edema was measured. The results revealed that both extracts did not exhibit significant analgesic activity in the first phase of formalin test, whereas methanolic extract at the 600 mg/Kg dose and aqueous extract at the 450 and 600 mg/Kg doses could inhibit induced pain in the second phase of formalin test. Furthermore, the results of paw edema volume measurement indicated that the aqueous extract has anti-inflammatory effects at dose of 600 mg/Kg. Induced anti-nociception by aqueous olive extract was not reversed by naloxone, which indicates that the opioid receptors are not involved in the analgesic effects of the extracts. The present data pointed out that the extracts of olive defatted fruit have anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rats but further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action and active components which are involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.
PMCID: PMC3977061  PMID: 24711837
Olea europaea; Anti-nociceptive; Anti-inflammatory
5.  Zolpidem-induced suicide attempt: a case report 
Zolpidem is a popular drug indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem. Herein we describe an Iranian 27-year-old man with no known mood disorder or neuropsychological disease who attempted suicide upon taking zolpidem. There are two interesting facts about this case: Firstly, the patient had not history of suicide attempt or thinking. Secondly, this case had experienced suicide ideation after taking 20 mg of zolpidem, suggesting a possible correlation between zolpidem psychological effects and dangerous psychological behaviors.
PMCID: PMC3878174  PMID: 24359886
Zolpidem; Suicide attempt; Insomnia
7.  Comprehensive Behavioral Phenotyping of Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome: Activation of β1-Adrenergic Receptor by Xamoterol as a Potential Cognitive Enhancer 
Neurobiology of disease  2011;43(2):397-413.
Down Syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent form of mental retardation caused by genetic abnormalities in humans. This has been successfully modeled in mice to generate the Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS. This transgenic mouse model shares a number of physical and functional abnormalities with people with DS, including changes in the structure and function of neuronal circuits. Significant abnormalities in noradrenergic (NE-ergic) afferents from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus, as well as deficits in NE-ergic neurotransmission are detected in these animals.
In the current study we characterized in detail the behavioral phenotype of Ts65Dn mice, in addition to using pharmacological tools for identification of target receptors mediating the learning and memory deficits observed in this model of DS. We undertook a comprehensive approach to mouse phenotyping using a battery of standard and novel tests encompassing: i) locomotion (Activity Chamber, PhenoTyper, and CatWalk), ii) learning and memory (spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, fear conditioning, and Intellicage), and iii) social behavior.
Ts65Dn mice showed increased locomotor activity in novel and home cage environments. There were significant and reproducible deficits in learning and memory tests including spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, Intellicage place avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. Although Ts65Dn mice showed no deficit in sociability in the 3-chamber test, a marked impairment in social memory was detected. Xamoterol, a β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-ADR) agonist, effectively restored the memory deficit in contextual fear conditioning, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition. These behavioral improvements were reversed by betaxolol, a selective β1-ADR antagonist.
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that this mouse model of Down Syndrome display cognitive deficits which is mediated by imbalance in noradrenergic system. In this experimental model of Down Syndrome a selective activation of β1-ADR does restore some of these behavioral deficits. Further mechanistic studies will be needed to investigate the failure of noradrenergic system and the role of β1-ADR in cognitive deficit and pathogenesis of DS in people. Restoring NE neurotransmission or a selective activation of β1-ADR need to be further investigated for development of any potential therapeutic strategies for symptomatic relieve of memory deficit in DS. Furthermore, due to the significant involvement of noradrenergic system in the cardiovascular function further safety and translational studies will be needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of this approach.
PMCID: PMC3539757  PMID: 21527343
Down Syndrome; behavior; Ts65Dn mouse; memory; social interaction; xamoterol; betaxolol; noradrenergic system; neurodegenerative disorder
8.  Evaluation of Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Novel Chalcone Derivatives 
Chalcone (1,3-diarylprop-2-en-1-one) derivatives have been introduced as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. In the present study, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of eight novel compounds were evaluated in male mice and Wistar rats by using the writhing and formalin-induced paw edema tests respectively. The activities of the compounds were compared with celecoxib as a reference drug. Then, novel compounds were divided into two regioisomeric groups based on the position of the methylsulfonyl substitution. Compounds with substituents such as: 1) H, 2) Me, 3) F and 4) Cl at para position of the phenyl ring of (E)-3-(4-Methanesulfonylphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2 en-1-one were selected in the first group. The regioisomer compounds with 5) H, 6) Me, 7) F and 8) OMe substitutions at C-4 of phenyl ring of (E)-1-(4-Methanesulfonylphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one were chosen as second group. All compounds showed dose-dependent anti-nociceptive activity in writhing test. Interestingly, the potency of anti-nociceptive effect of compounds 1, 2, 5 and 6 were significantly higher than celecoxib. The regioisomeric compounds 1 and 5 with high anti-nociceptive effects, showed a significant dose-dependent anti inflammatory activity in the paw edema test as well. The results showed that compounds with no substituent or small size substituents at para position of the phenyl ring are the most potent compound in writhing test. Our results revealed that the introduction of a bulky group such as methoxy or chlorine at the vicinal aromatic chain of the derivatives decreases the anti-inflammatory/ anti-nociceptive effects. The comparison of estimated ED50 of each pair of the regioisomeric compounds indicates that the relative position of SO2Me to carbonyl moiety did not affect the potency.
PMCID: PMC3813361  PMID: 24250683
Chalcone; Cyclooxygenase; Anti-nociceptive activity; Anti-inflammatory activity; Writhing test; Paw edema test
9.  Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+ mouse model of Alzheimer's disease displays broad behavioral deficits in sensorimotor, cognitive and social function 
Brain and Behavior  2012;2(2):142-154.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is an age-dependent progressive neurodegenerative disorder. β-amyloid, a metabolic product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. The Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+ (line 41) transgenic mouse overexpresses human APP751 and contains the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations. Here, we used a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, cognition, and social behavior in six-month-old male Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+ mice. We found hyperactivity in a novel environment as well as significant deficits in spontaneous alternation behavior. In fear conditioning (FC), Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+ mice did not display deficits in acquisition or in memory retrieval in novel context of tone-cued FC, but they showed significant memory retrieval impairment during contextual testing in an identical environment. Surprisingly, in a standard hidden platform water maze, no significant deficit was detected in mutant mice. However, a delayed-matching-to-place paradigm revealed a significant deficit in Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+ mice. Lastly, in the social novelty session of a three-chamber test, Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+ mice exhibited a significantly decreased interest in a novel versus a familiar stranger compared to control mice. This could possibly be explained by decreased social memory or discrimination and may parallel disturbances in social functioning in human AD patients. In conclusion, the Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe+ mouse model of AD displayed a behavioral phenotype that resembles, in part, the cognitive and psychiatric symptoms experienced in AD patients.
PMCID: PMC3345358  PMID: 22574282
Alzheimer's disease; amyloid precursor protein; behavior; learning and memory; neurodegenerative disorder; social interaction
10.  Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel 2-[2-(2-Chlorophenoxy) phenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole Derivatives as Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists 
New derivatives of 2-[2-(2-Chlorophenoxy)phenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole as candidates for agonistic effect on benzodiazepine receptors were synthesized. Conformational analysis and superimposition of energy minima conformers of the novel compounds on estazolam, a known benzodiazepine agonist, revealed that the main proposed benzodiazepine pharmacophores were well matched. In pharmacological evaluation, anticonvulsant activity of the compounds determined by pentylenetetrazole-induced lethal convulsion and maximal electroshock tests. The results showed that the introduction of an amino substituent in position 5 of 1,3,4- oxadiazole ring generates compound 6 that has a considerable effect. Compound 8 with a hydroxyl substituent on position 5 of 1,3,4- oxadiazole ring showed a relatively mild anticonvulsant activity, which was significantly weaker than that of diazepam and compound 6. Anticonvulsant effects of active compounds were antagonized by flumazenil, an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors, indicating the involvement of benzodiazepine receptors in these effects.
PMCID: PMC3876560  PMID: 25317188
Anticonvulsant; Benzodiazepine receptors; Synthesis; 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles; Conformational analysis

Results 1-10 (10)