To presents nationally representative data on the lifetime independent association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychiatric comorbidity, correlates, quality of life and treatment-seeking in the United States.
Data were derived from a large national sample of the US population. Face-to-face surveys of more than 34,000 adults ages 18 years and older residing in households were conducted during the 2004-2005 period. Diagnoses of ADHD, axis I and II disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version.
ADHD was associated independently of the effects of other psychiatric comorbidity with increased risk of bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specific phobia and, narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders. A lifetime history of ADHD was also associated with increased risk of engaging in behaviors reflecting lack of planning and deficient inhibitory control, with high rates of adverse events, lower perceived health, social support and higher perceived stress. Fewer than half of individuals with ADHD had ever sought treatment, and about one quarter had ever received medication. The average age of first treatment contact was 18.40 years.
ADHD is common and associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders, impulsive behaviors, greater number of number of traumas, lower quality of life, perceived social support and social functioning, even after adjusting for additional comorbidity. When treatment is sought, it is often in late adolescence or early adulthood, suggesting the need to improve diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.