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1.  TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions 
Acta neuropathologica  2014;127(3):407-418.
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) have recently been linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and may be the most common genetic cause of both neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic variants at TMEM106B influence risk for the most common neuropathological subtype of FTLD, characterized by inclusions of TAR DNA binding protein of 43kDa (FTLD-TDP). Previous reports have shown that TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of FTLD-TDP caused by progranulin (GRN) mutations, with the major (risk) allele of rs1990622 associating with earlier age at onset of disease. Here we report that rs1990622 genotype affects age at death in a single-site discovery cohort of FTLD patients with C9orf72 expansions (n=14), with the major allele correlated with later age at death (p=0.024). We replicate this modifier effect in a 30-site international neuropathological cohort of FTLD-TDP patients with C9orf72 expansions (n=75), again finding that the major allele associates with later age at death (p=0.016), as well as later age at onset (p=0.019). In contrast, TMEM106B genotype does not affect age at onset or death in 241 FTLD-TDP cases negative for GRN mutations or C9orf72 expansions. Thus, TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of FTLD with C9orf72 expansions. Intriguingly, the genotype that confers increased risk for developing FTLD-TDP (major, or T, allele of rs1990622) is associated with later age at onset and death in C9orf72 expansion carriers, providing an example of sign epistasis in human neurodegenerative disease.
doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1239-x
PMCID: PMC4003885  PMID: 24442578
TMEM106B; C9orf72; frontotemporal dementia; frontotemporal lobar degeneration; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; genetic modifier
2.  Frequency of the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in ALS and FTD in diverse populations: a cross-sectional study 
Lancet Neurology  2012;11(4):323-330.
Background
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene has recently been shown to cause a large proportion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD).
Methods
We screened 4,448 patients diagnosed with ALS and 1,425 patients diagnosed with FTD drawn from diverse populations for the hexanucleotide expansion using a repeat-primed PCR assay. ALS and FTD were diagnosed according to the El Escorial and Lund-Manchester criteria respectively. Familial status was based on self-reported family history of similar neurodegenerative diseases at the time of sample collection. Haplotype data of 262 patients carrying the expansion were compared with the known Finnish founder risk haplotype across the chromosomal locus. Age-related penetrance was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method using data from 603 individuals carrying the expansion.
Findings
The mutation was observed among 7·0% (n = 236 of 3,377) of Caucasians, 4·1% (n = 2 of 49) of African-Americans, and 8·3% (n = 6 of 72) of Hispanic individuals diagnosed with sporadic ALS, whereas the rate was 6·0% (n = 59 of 981) among Caucasians diagnosed with sporadic FTD. Among Asians, 5·0% (n = 1 of 20) of familial ALS and 66·6% (n = 2 of 3) of familial FTD cases carried the repeat expansion. In contrast, mutations were not observed among patients of Native American (n = 3 sporadic ALS), Indian (n = 31 sporadic ALS, n = 31 sporadic FTD), and Pacific Islander (n = 90 sporadic ALS) ethnicity. All patients with the repeat expansion carried, either partially or fully, the founder haplotype suggesting that the expansion occurred on a single occasion in the past (~1,500 years ago). The pathogenic expansion was non-penetrant below 35 years of age, increasing to 50·0% penetrance by 58 years of age, and was almost fully penetrant by 80 years of age.
Interpretation
We confirm that a common single Mendelian genetic lesion is implicated in a large proportion of sporadic and familial ALS and FTD. Testing for this pathogenic expansion will be important in the management and genetic counseling of patients with these fatal neurodegenerative diseases.
Funding
See Acknowledgements.
doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70043-1
PMCID: PMC3322422  PMID: 22406228
3.  The chromosome 9 ALS and FTD locus is probably derived from a single founder 
Neurobiology of Aging  2011;33(1):209.e3-209.e8.
We and others have recently reported an association between ALS and single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 9p21 in several populations. Here we show that the associated haplotype is the same in all populations and that several families previously shown to have genetic linkage to this region also share this haplotype. The most parsimonious explanation of these data is that there is a single founder for this form of disease.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.08.005
PMCID: PMC3312749  PMID: 21925771
Genetics; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; frontotemporal dementia; Finland
4.  The influence of cerebral small vessel disease on default mode network deactivation in mild cognitive impairment☆ 
NeuroImage : Clinical  2012;2:33-42.
Introduction
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is thought to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The underlying mechanisms, and more specifically, the effects of CSVD on brain functioning in MCI are incompletely understood. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of CSVD on brain functioning, activation and deactivation, in patients with MCI using task-related functional MRI (fMRI).
Methods
We included 16 MCI patients with CSVD, 26 MCI patients without CSVD and 25 controls. All participants underwent a physical and neurological examination, neuropsychological testing, structural MRI, and fMRI during a graded working memory paradigm.
Results
MCI patients with and without CSVD had a similar neuropsychological profile and task performance during fMRI, but differed with respect to underlying (de)activation patterns. MCI patients with CSVD showed impaired deactivation in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, a region known to be involved in the default mode network. In MCI patients without CSVD, brain activation depended on working memory load, as they showed relative ‘hyperactivation’ during vigilance, and ‘hypoactivation’ at a high working memory load condition in working memory related brain regions.
Conclusions
We present evidence that the potential underlying mechanism of CSVD affecting cognition in MCI is through network interference. The observed differences in brain activation and deactivation between MCI patients with and without CSVD, who had a similar ‘clinical phenotype’, support the view that, in patients with MCI, different types of pathology can contribute to cognitive impairment through different pathways.
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2012.11.005
PMCID: PMC3778258  PMID: 24179756
Mild cognitive impairment; Cerebral small vessel disease; Functional MRI; Working memory; Default mode network
5.  Common variants at 12q14 and 12q24 are associated with hippocampal volume 
Bis, Joshua C. | DeCarli, Charles | Smith, Albert Vernon | van der Lijn, Fedde | Crivello, Fabrice | Fornage, Myriam | Debette, Stephanie | Shulman, Joshua M. | Schmidt, Helena | Srikanth, Velandai | Schuur, Maaike | Yu, Lei | Choi, Seung-Hoan | Sigurdsson, Sigurdur | Verhaaren, Benjamin F.J. | DeStefano, Anita L. | Lambert, Jean-Charles | Jack, Clifford R. | Struchalin, Maksim | Stankovich, Jim | Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A. | Fleischman, Debra | Zijdenbos, Alex | den Heijer, Tom | Mazoyer, Bernard | Coker, Laura H. | Enzinger, Christian | Danoy, Patrick | Amin, Najaf | Arfanakis, Konstantinos | van Buchem, Mark A. | de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G. | Beiser, Alexa | Dufouil, Carole | Huang, Juebin | Cavalieri, Margherita | Thomson, Russell | Niessen, Wiro J. | Chibnik, Lori B. | Gislason, Gauti K. | Hofman, Albert | Pikula, Aleksandra | Amouyel, Philippe | Freeman, Kevin B. | Phan, Thanh G. | Oostra, Ben A. | Stein, Jason L. | Medland, Sarah E. | Vasquez, Alejandro Arias | Hibar, Derrek P. | Wright, Margaret J. | Franke, Barbara | Martin, Nicholas G. | Thompson, Paul M. | Nalls, Michael A. | Uitterlinden, Andre G. | Au, Rhoda | Elbaz, Alexis | Beare, Richard J. | van Swieten, John C. | Lopez, Oscar | Harris, Tamara B. | Chouraki, Vincent | Breteler, Monique M.B. | De Jager, Philip L. | Becker, James T. | Vernooij, Meike W. | Knopman, David | Fazekas, Franz | Wolf, Philip A. | van der Lugt, Aad | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Longstreth, W.T. | Brown, Mathew A. | Bennett, David A. | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Mosley, Thomas H. | Schmidt, Reinhold | Tzourio, Christophe | Launer, Lenore J. | Ikram, M. Arfan | Seshadri, Sudha
Nature genetics  2012;44(5):545-551.
Aging is associated with reductions in hippocampal volume (HV) that are accelerated by Alzheimer’s disease and vascular risk factors. Our genome-wide association study of dementia-free persons (n=9,232) identified 46 SNPs at four loci with p-values <4.0×10-7. Two additional samples (n=2,318) replicated associations at 12q24 within MSRB3/WIF1 (discovery + replication, rs17178006; p=5.3×10-11) and at 12q14 near HRK/FBXW8 (rs7294919; p=2.9×10-11). Remaining associations included one 2q24 SNP within DPP4 (rs6741949; p=2.9×10-7) and nine 9p33 SNPs within ASTN2 (rs7852872; p=1.0×10-7) that were also associated with HV (p<0.05) in a third younger, more heterogeneous sample (n=7,794). The ASTN2 SNP was also associated with decline in cognition in a largely independent sample (n=1,563). These associations implicate genes related to apoptosis (HRK), development (WIF1), oxidative stress (MSR3B), ubiquitination (FBXW8), enzymes targeted by new diabetes medications (DPP4), and neuronal migration (ASTN2), indicating novel genetic influences that influence hippocampal size and possibly the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
doi:10.1038/ng.2237
PMCID: PMC3427729  PMID: 22504421
6.  A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the cause of chromosome 9p21-linked ALS-FTD 
Renton, Alan E. | Majounie, Elisa | Waite, Adrian | Simón-Sánchez, Javier | Rollinson, Sara | Gibbs, J. Raphael | Schymick, Jennifer C. | Laaksovirta, Hannu | van Swieten, John C. | Myllykangas, Liisa | Kalimo, Hannu | Paetau, Anders | Abramzon, Yevgeniya | Remes, Anne M. | Kaganovich, Alice | Scholz, Sonja W. | Duckworth, Jamie | Ding, Jinhui | Harmer, Daniel W. | Hernandez, Dena G. | Johnson, Janel O. | Mok, Kin | Ryten, Mina | Trabzuni, Danyah | Guerreiro, Rita J. | Orrell, Richard W. | Neal, James | Murray, Alex | Pearson, Justin | Jansen, Iris E. | Sondervan, David | Seelaar, Harro | Blake, Derek | Young, Kate | Halliwell, Nicola | Callister, Janis | Toulson, Greg | Richardson, Anna | Gerhard, Alex | Snowden, Julie | Mann, David | Neary, David | Nalls, Michael A. | Peuralinna, Terhi | Jansson, Lilja | Isoviita, Veli-Matti | Kaivorinne, Anna-Lotta | Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit | Ikonen, Elina | Sulkava, Raimo | Benatar, Michael | Wuu, Joanne | Chiò, Adriano | Restagno, Gabriella | Borghero, Giuseppe | Sabatelli, Mario | Heckerman, David | Rogaeva, Ekaterina | Zinman, Lorne | Rothstein, Jeffrey | Sendtner, Michael | Drepper, Carsten | Eichler, Evan E. | Alkan, Can | Abdullaev, Zied | Pack, Svetlana D. | Dutra, Amalia | Pak, Evgenia | Hardy, John | Singleton, Andrew | Williams, Nigel M. | Heutink, Peter | Pickering-Brown, Stuart | Morris, Huw R. | Tienari, Pentti J. | Traynor, Bryan J.
Neuron  2011;72(2):257-268.
The chromosome 9p21 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) locus contains one of the last major unidentified autosomal dominant genes underlying these common neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that a founder haplotype, covering the MOBKL2b, IFNK and C9ORF72 genes, is present in the majority of cases linked to this region. Here we show that there is a large hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72 on the affected haplotype. This repeat expansion segregates perfectly with disease in the Finnish population, underlying 46.0% of familial ALS and 21.1% of sporadic ALS in that population. Taken together with the D90A SOD1 mutation, 87% of familial ALS in Finland is now explained by a simple monogenic cause. The repeat expansion is also present in one third of familial ALS cases of outbred European descent making it the most common genetic cause of these fatal neurodegenerative diseases identified to date.
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.09.010
PMCID: PMC3200438  PMID: 21944779
7.  Blood–brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in healthy subjects and Alzheimer's disease patients: effect of polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene 
EJNMMI Research  2012;2:57.
Background
P-glycoprotein is a blood–brain barrier efflux transporter involved in the clearance of amyloid-beta from the brain and, as such, might be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. P-glycoprotein is encoded by the highly polymorphic ABCB1 gene. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene have been associated with altered P-glycoprotein expression and function. P-glycoprotein function at the blood–brain barrier can be quantified in vivo using the P-glycoprotein substrate tracer (R)-[11C]verapamil and positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ABCB1 on blood–brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Methods
Thirty-two healthy subjects and seventeen patients with Alzheimer's disease underwent 60-min dynamic (R)-[11C]verapamil PET scans. The binding potential of (R)-[11C]verapamil was assessed using a previously validated constrained two-tissue plasma input compartment model and used as outcome measure. DNA was isolated from frozen blood samples and C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction.
Results
In healthy controls, binding potential did not differ between subjects without and with one or more T present in C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In contrast, patients with Alzheimer's disease with one or more T in C1236T, G2677T and C3435T had significantly higher binding potential values than patients without a T. In addition, there was a relationship between binding potential and T dose in C1236T and G2677T.
Conclusions
In Alzheimer's disease patients, C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms may be related to changes in P-glycoprotein function at the blood–brain barrier. As such, genetic variations in ABCB1 might contribute to the progression of amyloid-beta deposition in the brain.
doi:10.1186/2191-219X-2-57
PMCID: PMC3483228  PMID: 23067778
Blood–brain barrier; P-glycoprotein; ABCB1; MDR1; Polymorphisms; (R)-[11C]verapamil; PET
8.  Sensitivity of revised diagnostic criteria for the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia 
Brain  2011;134(9):2456-2477.
Based on the recent literature and collective experience, an international consortium developed revised guidelines for the diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. The validation process retrospectively reviewed clinical records and compared the sensitivity of proposed and earlier criteria in a multi-site sample of patients with pathologically verified frontotemporal lobar degeneration. According to the revised criteria, ‘possible’ behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia requires three of six clinically discriminating features (disinhibition, apathy/inertia, loss of sympathy/empathy, perseverative/compulsive behaviours, hyperorality and dysexecutive neuropsychological profile). ‘Probable’ behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia adds functional disability and characteristic neuroimaging, while behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia ‘with definite frontotemporal lobar degeneration’ requires histopathological confirmation or a pathogenic mutation. Sixteen brain banks contributed cases meeting histopathological criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a clinical diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or vascular dementia at presentation. Cases with predominant primary progressive aphasia or extra-pyramidal syndromes were excluded. In these autopsy-confirmed cases, an experienced neurologist or psychiatrist ascertained clinical features necessary for making a diagnosis according to previous and proposed criteria at presentation. Of 137 cases where features were available for both proposed and previously established criteria, 118 (86%) met ‘possible’ criteria, and 104 (76%) met criteria for ‘probable’ behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. In contrast, 72 cases (53%) met previously established criteria for the syndrome (P < 0.001 for comparison with ‘possible’ and ‘probable’ criteria). Patients who failed to meet revised criteria were significantly older and most had atypical presentations with marked memory impairment. In conclusion, the revised criteria for behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia improve diagnostic accuracy compared with previously established criteria in a sample with known frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Greater sensitivity of the proposed criteria may reflect the optimized diagnostic features, less restrictive exclusion features and a flexible structure that accommodates different initial clinical presentations. Future studies will be needed to establish the reliability and specificity of these revised diagnostic guidelines.
doi:10.1093/brain/awr179
PMCID: PMC3170532  PMID: 21810890
behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia; diagnostic criteria; frontotemporal lobar degeneration; FTD; pathology
9.  Genetic and Clinical Features of Progranulin-Associated Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(4):488-497.
Objective
To assess the relative frequency of unique mutations and their associated characteristics in 97 individuals with mutations in progranulin (GRN), an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
Participants and Design
A 46-site International Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Collaboration was formed to collect cases of FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein of 43-kDa (TDP-43)–positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). We identified 97 individuals with FTLD-TDP with pathogenic GRN mutations (GRN+ FTLD-TDP), assessed their genetic and clinical characteristics, and compared them with 453 patients with FTLD-TDP in which GRN mutations were excluded (GRN− FTLD-TDP). No patients were known to be related. Neuropathologic characteristics were confirmed as FTLD-TDP in 79 of the 97 GRN+ FTLDTDP cases and all of the GRN− FTLD-TDP cases.
Results
Age at onset of FTLD was younger in patients with GRN+ FTLD-TDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (median, 58.0 vs 61.0 years; P<.001), as was age at death (median, 65.5 vs 69.0 years; P<.001). Concomitant motor neuron disease was much less common in GRN+ FTLDTDP vs GRN− FTLD-TDP (5.4% vs 26.3%; P<.001). Fifty different GRN mutations were observed, including 2 novel mutations: c.139delG (p.D47TfsX7) and c.378C>A (p.C126X). The 2 most common GRN mutations were c.1477C>T (p.R493X, found in 18 patients, representing 18.6% of GRN cases) and c.26C>A (p.A9D, found in 6 patients, representing 6.2% of cases). Patients with the c.1477C>T mutation shared a haplotype on chromosome 17; clinically, they resembled patients with other GRN mutations. Patients with the c.26C>A mutation appeared to have a younger age at onset of FTLD and at death and more parkinsonian features than those with other GRN mutations.
Conclusion
GRN+ FTLD-TDP differs in key features from GRN− FTLD-TDP.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.53
PMCID: PMC3160280  PMID: 21482928
10.  Frequency of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: a cross-sectional study 
Lancet Neurology  2012;11(4):323-330.
Summary
Background
We aimed to accurately estimate the frequency of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that has been associated with a large proportion of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).
Methods
We screened 4448 patients diagnosed with ALS (El Escorial criteria) and 1425 patients with FTD (Lund-Manchester criteria) from 17 regions worldwide for the GGGGCC hexanucleotide expansion using a repeat-primed PCR assay. We assessed familial disease status on the basis of self-reported family history of similar neurodegenerative diseases at the time of sample collection. We compared haplotype data for 262 patients carrying the expansion with the known Finnish founder risk haplotype across the chromosomal locus. We calculated age-related penetrance using the Kaplan-Meier method with data for 603 individuals with the expansion.
Findings
In patients with sporadic ALS, we identified the repeat expansion in 236 (7·0%) of 3377 white individuals from the USA, Europe, and Australia, two (4·1%) of 49 black individuals from the USA, and six (8·3%) of 72 Hispanic individuals from the USA. The mutation was present in 217 (39·3%) of 552 white individuals with familial ALS from Europe and the USA. 59 (6·0%) of 981 white Europeans with sporadic FTD had the mutation, as did 99 (24·8%) of 400 white Europeans with familial FTD. Data for other ethnic groups were sparse, but we identified one Asian patient with familial ALS (from 20 assessed) and two with familial FTD (from three assessed) who carried the mutation. The mutation was not carried by the three Native Americans or 360 patients from Asia or the Pacific Islands with sporadic ALS who were tested, or by 41 Asian patients with sporadic FTD. All patients with the repeat expansion had (partly or fully) the founder haplotype, suggesting a one-off expansion occurring about 1500 years ago. The pathogenic expansion was non-penetrant in individuals younger than 35 years, 50% penetrant by 58 years, and almost fully penetrant by 80 years.
Interpretation
A common Mendelian genetic lesion in C9orf72 is implicated in many cases of sporadic and familial ALS and FTD. Testing for this pathogenic expansion should be considered in the management and genetic counselling of patients with these fatal neurodegenerative diseases.
Funding
Full funding sources listed at end of paper (see Acknowledgments).
doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70043-1
PMCID: PMC3322422  PMID: 22406228
11.  Fatigue in spinocerebellar ataxia 
Neurology  2011;76(11):953-959.
Objective:
To identify the prevalence and severity of fatigue and predicting factors for severe fatigue in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA).
Methods:
We studied a cross-section of 123 patients with SCA. Six functional scales were used in a self-assessment: the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS); the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); the Rotterdam Handicap Scale (RHS); the Short Form–36 health survey, distinguishing a norm-based physical and mental component score (Nb-PCS and Nb-MCS); the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A subset of 58 patients was clinically evaluated, measuring severity of ataxia with the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and cognitive functioning with the Mini-Mental State Examination.
Results:
Severe fatigue (FSS ≥5) was present in 69% of patients and FSS value correlated with the scores on RHS, Nb-PCS, Nb-MCS, BDI, PSQI, and ESS. There was no relation with disease duration, gender, or medication use. Multivariate analysis revealed that Nb-PCS and BDI were the best independent predictors for severe fatigue. Interestingly, the presence of visual symptoms was related to FSS value in the clinically evaluated subgroup.
Conclusion:
Fatigue is a severe and disabling symptom in adult patients with SCA, even early in the course of disease. Physical functioning and depression are the strongest predictors of fatigue. In treatment strategies, all treatable factors for fatigue should be addressed, especially depression, visual symptoms, and sleeping disorders.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821043a4
PMCID: PMC3059136  PMID: 21403106
12.  Identification of common variants influencing risk of the tauopathy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy 
Nature genetics  2011;43(7):699-705.
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a movement disorder with prominent tau neuropathology. Brain diseases with abnormal tau deposits are called tauopathies, the most common being Alzheimer’s disease. Environmental causes of tauopathies include repetitive head trauma associated with some sports. To identify common genetic variation contributing to risk for tauopathies, we carried out a genome-wide association study of 1,114 PSP cases and 3,247 controls (Stage 1) followed up by a second stage where 1,051 cases and 3,560 controls were genotyped for Stage 1 SNPs that yielded P ≤ 10−3. We found significant novel signals (P < 5 × 10−8) associated with PSP risk at STX6, EIF2AK3, and MOBP. We confirmed two independent variants in MAPT affecting risk for PSP, one of which influences MAPT brain expression. The genes implicated encode proteins for vesicle-membrane fusion at the Golgi-endosomal interface, for the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, and for a myelin structural component.
doi:10.1038/ng.859
PMCID: PMC3125476  PMID: 21685912
13.  The chromosome 9 ALS and FTD locus is probably derived from a single founder 
Neurobiology of Aging  2012;33(1):209.e3-209.e8.
We and others have recently reported an association between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 9p21 in several populations. Here we show that the associated haplotype is the same in all populations and that several families previously shown to have genetic linkage to this region also share this haplotype. The most parsimonious explanation of these data are that there is a single founder for this form of disease.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.08.005
PMCID: PMC3312749  PMID: 21925771
Genetics; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Frontotemporal dementia; Finland
14.  Breakpoint mapping of 13 large parkin deletions/duplications reveals an exon 4 deletion and an exon 7 duplication as founder mutations 
Neurogenetics  2011;12(4):263-271.
Early-onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has been associated with recessive mutations in parkin (PARK2). About half of the mutations found in parkin are genomic rearrangements, i.e., large deletions or duplications. Although many different rearrangements have been found in parkin before, the exact breakpoints involving these rearrangements are rarely mapped. In the present study, the exact breakpoints of 13 different parkin deletions/duplications, detected in 13 patients out of a total screened sample of 116 EOPD patients using Multiple Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis, were mapped using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), long-range PCR and sequence analysis. Deletion/duplication-specific PCR tests were developed as a rapid and low cost tool to confirm MLPA results and to test family members or patients with similar parkin deletions/duplications. Besides several different deletions, an exon 3 deletion, an exon 4 deletion and an exon 7 duplication were found in multiple families. Haplotype analysis in four families showed that a common haplotype of 1.2 Mb could be distinguished for the exon 7 duplication and a common haplotype of 6.3 Mb for the deletion of exon 4. These findings suggest common founder effects for distinct large rearrangements in parkin.
doi:10.1007/s10048-011-0302-9
PMCID: PMC3215878  PMID: 21993715
Parkinson’s disease; parkin; Deletion; Duplication; Common founder; Breakpoint mapping
15.  Symmetrical Corticobasal Syndrome Caused by a Novel c.314dup Progranulin Mutation 
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience  2011;45(3):354-358.
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is characterised by asymmetrical parkinsonism and cognitive impairment. The underlying pathology varies between corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, Alzheimer’s disease, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration sometimes in association with GRN mutations. A 61-year-old male underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological assessment, MRI, and HMPAO-SPECT at our medical centre. After his death at the age of 63, brain autopsy, genetic screening and mRNA expression analysis were performed. The patient presented with slow progressive walking disabilities, non-fluent language problems, behavioural changes and forgetfulness. His family history was negative. He had primitive reflexes, rigidity of his arms and postural instability. Later in the disease course he developed dystonia of his left leg, pathological crying, mutism and dysphagia. Neuropsychological assessment revealed prominent ideomotor and ideational apraxia, executive dysfunction, non-fluent aphasia and memory deficits. Neuroimaging showed symmetrical predominant frontoparietal atrophy and hypoperfusion. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-TDP type 3 pathology was found at autopsy. GRN sequencing revealed a novel frameshift mutation c.314dup, p.Cys105fs and GRN mRNA levels showed a 50% decrease. We found a novel GRN mutation in a patient with an atypical (CBS) presentation with symmetric neuroimaging findings. GRN mutations are an important cause of CBS associated with FTLD-TDP type 3 pathology, sometimes in sporadic cases. Screening for GRN mutations should also be considered in CBS patients without a positive family history.
doi:10.1007/s12031-011-9626-z
PMCID: PMC3207131  PMID: 21863316
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS); Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD); Progranulin (GRN); TDP-43
16.  Common variants at 7p21 are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions 
Van Deerlin, Vivianna M. | Sleiman, Patrick M. A. | Martinez-Lage, Maria | Chen-Plotkin, Alice | Wang, Li-San | Graff-Radford, Neill R | Dickson, Dennis W. | Rademakers, Rosa | Boeve, Bradley F. | Grossman, Murray | Arnold, Steven E. | Mann, David M.A. | Pickering-Brown, Stuart M. | Seelaar, Harro | Heutink, Peter | van Swieten, John C. | Murrell, Jill R. | Ghetti, Bernardino | Spina, Salvatore | Grafman, Jordan | Hodges, John | Spillantini, Maria Grazia | Gilman, Sid' | Lieberman, Andrew P. | Kaye, Jeffrey A. | Woltjer, Randall L. | Bigio, Eileen H | Mesulam, Marsel | al-Sarraj, Safa | Troakes, Claire | Rosenberg, Roger N. | White, Charles L. | Ferrer, Isidro | Lladó, Albert | Neumann, Manuela | Kretzschmar, Hans A. | Hulette, Christine Marie | Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A. | Miller, Bruce L | Alzualde, Ainhoa | de Munain, Adolfo Lopez | McKee, Ann C. | Gearing, Marla | Levey, Allan I. | Lah, James J. | Hardy, John | Rohrer, Jonathan D. | Lashley, Tammaryn | Mackenzie, Ian R.A. | Feldman, Howard H. | Hamilton, Ronald L. | Dekosky, Steven T. | van der Zee, Julie | Kumar-Singh, Samir | Van Broeckhoven, Christine | Mayeux, Richard | Vonsattel, Jean Paul G. | Troncoso, Juan C. | Kril, Jillian J | Kwok, John B.J. | Halliday, Glenda M. | Bird, Thomas D. | Ince, Paul G. | Shaw, Pamela J. | Cairns, Nigel J. | Morris, John C. | McLean, Catriona Ann | DeCarli, Charles | Ellis, William G. | Freeman, Stefanie H. | Frosch, Matthew P. | Growdon, John H. | Perl, Daniel P. | Sano, Mary | Bennett, David A. | Schneider, Julie A. | Beach, Thomas G. | Reiman, Eric M. | Woodruff, Bryan K. | Cummings, Jeffrey | Vinters, Harry V. | Miller, Carol A. | Chui, Helena C. | Alafuzoff, Irina | Hartikainen, Päivi | Seilhean, Danielle | Galasko, Douglas | Masliah, Eliezer | Cotman, Carl W. | Tuñón, M. Teresa | Martínez, M. Cristina Caballero | Munoz, David G. | Carroll, Steven L. | Marson, Daniel | Riederer, Peter F. | Bogdanovic, Nenad | Schellenberg, Gerard D. | Hakonarson, Hakon | Trojanowski, John Q. | Lee, Virginia M.-Y.
Nature genetics  2010;42(3):234-239.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common cause of presenile dementia. The predominant neuropathology is FTLD with TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions (FTLD-TDP)1. FTLD-TDP is frequently familial resulting from progranulin (GRN) mutations. We assembled an international collaboration to identify susceptibility loci for FTLD-TDP, using genome-wide association (GWA). We found that FTLD-TDP associates with multiple SNPs mapping to a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block on 7p21 that contains TMEM106B in a GWA study (GWAS) on 515 FTLD-TDP cases. Three SNPs retained genome-wide significance following Bonferroni correction; top SNP rs1990622 (P=1.08×10−11; odds ratio (OR) minor allele (C) 0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.71). The association replicated in 89 FTLD-TDP cases (rs1990622; P=2×10−4). TMEM106B variants may confer risk by increasing TMEM106B expression. TMEM106B variants also contribute to genetic risk for FTLD-TDP in patients with GRN mutations. Our data implicate TMEM106B as a strong risk factor for FTLD-TDP suggesting an underlying pathogenic mechanism.
doi:10.1038/ng.536
PMCID: PMC2828525  PMID: 20154673
17.  FUS pathology defines the majority of tau- and TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration 
Acta neuropathologica  2010;120(1):33-41.
Through an international consortium, we have collected 37 tau- and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases, and present here the first comprehensive analysis of these cases in terms of neuropathology, genetics, demographics and clinical data. 92% (34/37) had fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein pathology, indicating that FTLD-FUS is an important FTLD subtype. This FTLD-FUS collection specifically focussed on aFTLD-U cases, one of three recently defined subtypes of FTLD-FUS. The aFTLD-U subtype of FTLD-FUS is characterised clinically by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and has a particularly young age of onset with a mean of 41 years. Further, this subtype had a high prevalence of psychotic symptoms (36% of cases) and low prevalence of motor symptoms (3% of cases). We did not find FUS mutations in any aFTLD-U case. To date, the only subtype of cases reported to have ubiquitin-positive but tau-, TDP-43- and FUS-negative pathology, termed FTLD-UPS, is the result of charged multivesicular body protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) mutation. We identified three FTLD-UPS cases, which are negative for CHMP2B mutation, suggesting that the full complement of FTLD pathologies is yet to be elucidated.
doi:10.1007/s00401-010-0698-6
PMCID: PMC2887939  PMID: 20490813
FTLD; FUS; FTLD-UPS; Frontotemporal; FTD
18.  Survival Profiles of Patients With Frontotemporal Dementia and Motor Neuron Disease 
Archives of neurology  2009;66(11):1359-1364.
Background
Frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are neurodegenerative diseases associated with TAR DNA-binding protein 43– and ubiquitin-immunoreactive pathologic lesions.
Objective
To determine whether survival is influenced by symptom of onset in patients with frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Design, Setting, and Patients
Retrospective review of patients with both cognitive impairment and motor neuron disease consecutively evaluated at 4 academic medical centers in 2 countries.
Main Outcome Measures
Clinical phenotypes and survival patterns of patients.
Results
A total of 87 patients were identified, including 60 who developed cognitive symptoms first, 19 who developed motor symptoms first, and 8 who had simultaneous onset of cognitive and motor symptoms. Among the 59 deceased patients, we identified 2 distinct subgroups of patients according to survival. Long-term survivors had cognitive onset and delayed emergence of motor symptoms after a long monosymptomatic phase and had significantly longer survival than the typical survivors (mean, 67.5 months vs 28.2 months, respectively; P<.001). Typical survivors can have simultaneous or discrete onset of cognitive and motor symptoms, and the simultaneous-onset patients had shorter survival (mean, 19.2 months) than those with distinct cognitive or motor onset (mean, 28.6 months) (P=.005).
Conclusions
Distinct patterns of survival profiles exist in patients with frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease, and overall survival may depend on the relative timing of the emergence of secondary symptoms.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.253
PMCID: PMC2881327  PMID: 19901167
19.  FUS pathology defines the majority of tau- and TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration 
Acta Neuropathologica  2010;120(1):33-41.
Through an international consortium, we have collected 37 tau- and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases, and present here the first comprehensive analysis of these cases in terms of neuropathology, genetics, demographics and clinical data. 92% (34/37) had fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein pathology, indicating that FTLD-FUS is an important FTLD subtype. This FTLD-FUS collection specifically focussed on aFTLD-U cases, one of three recently defined subtypes of FTLD-FUS. The aFTLD-U subtype of FTLD-FUS is characterised clinically by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and has a particularly young age of onset with a mean of 41 years. Further, this subtype had a high prevalence of psychotic symptoms (36% of cases) and low prevalence of motor symptoms (3% of cases). We did not find FUS mutations in any aFTLD-U case. To date, the only subtype of cases reported to have ubiquitin-positive but tau-, TDP-43- and FUS-negative pathology, termed FTLD-UPS, is the result of charged multivesicular body protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) mutation. We identified three FTLD-UPS cases, which are negative for CHMP2B mutation, suggesting that the full complement of FTLD pathologies is yet to be elucidated.
doi:10.1007/s00401-010-0698-6
PMCID: PMC2887939  PMID: 20490813
FTLD; FUS; FTLD-UPS; Frontotemporal; FTD
20.  Frequency of ubiquitin and FUS-positive, TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration 
Journal of Neurology  2009;257(5):747-753.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically, genetically and pathologically heterogeneous disorder. Within FTLD with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U), a new pathological subtype named FTLD-FUS was recently found with fused in sarcoma (FUS) positive, TDP-43-negative inclusions, and striking atrophy of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of FTLD-FUS in our pathological FTLD series, and to describe the clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological features of FTLD-FUS, especially caudate atrophy. Demographic and clinical data collected prospectively from 387 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) yielded 74 brain specimens. Immunostaining was carried out using a panel of antibodies, including AT-8, ubiquitin, p62, FUS, and TDP-43. Cortical and caudate atrophy on MRI (n = 136) was rated as normal, mild-moderate or severe. Of the 37 FTLD-U cases, 33 were reclassified as FTLD-TDP and four (0.11, 95%: 0.00–0.21) as FTLD-FUS, with ubiquitin and FUS-positive, p62 and TDP-43-negative neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII). All four FTLD-FUS cases had a negative family history, behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), and three had an age at onset ≤40 years. MRI revealed mild-moderate or severe caudate atrophy in all, with a mean duration from onset till MRI of 63 months (range 16–119 months). In our total clinical FTD cohort, we found 11 patients (0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.05) with bvFTD, negative family history, and age at onset ≤40 years. Caudate atrophy was present in 10 out of 136 MRIs, and included all four FUS-cases. The newly identified FTLD-FUS has a frequency of 11% in FTLD-U, and an estimated frequency of three percent in our clinical FTD cohort. The existence of this pathological subtype can be predicted with reasonable certainty by age at onset ≤40 years, negative family history, bvFTD and caudate atrophy on MRI.
doi:10.1007/s00415-009-5404-z
PMCID: PMC2864899  PMID: 19946779
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD); Ubiquitin; p62; TDP-43; FUS
21.  Prion protein amyloidosis with divergent phenotype associated with two novel nonsense mutations in PRNP 
Acta Neuropathologica  2009;119(2):189-197.
Stop codon mutations in the gene encoding the prion protein (PRNP) are very rare and have thus far only been described in two patients with prion protein cerebral amyloid angiopathy (PrP-CAA). In this report, we describe the clinical, histopathological and pathological prion protein (PrPSc) characteristics of two Dutch patients carrying novel adjacent stop codon mutations in the C-terminal part of PRNP, resulting in either case in hereditary prion protein amyloidoses, but with strikingly different clinicopathological phenotypes. The patient with the shortest disease duration (27 months) carried a Y226X mutation and showed PrP-CAA without any neurofibrillary lesions, whereas the patient with the longest disease duration (72 months) had a Q227X mutation and showed an unusual Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease phenotype with numerous cerebral multicentric amyloid plaques and severe neurofibrillary lesions without PrP-CAA. Western blot analysis in the patient with the Q227X mutation demonstrated the presence of a 7 kDa unglycosylated PrPSc fragment truncated at both the N- and C-terminal ends. Our observations expand the spectrum of clinicopathological phenotypes associated with PRNP mutations and show that a single tyrosine residue difference in the PrP C-terminus may significantly affect the site of amyloid deposition and the overall phenotypic expression of the prion disease. Furthermore, it confirms that the absence of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor in PrP predisposes to amyloid plaque formation.
doi:10.1007/s00401-009-0609-x
PMCID: PMC2808512  PMID: 19911184
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; Prion; Amyloid; Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease; Tau protein; Angiopathy
22.  Variation at GRN 3′-UTR rs5848 Is Not Associated with a Risk of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration in Dutch Population 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(10):e7494.
Background
A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs5848) located in the 3′- untranslated region of GRN has recently been associated with a risk of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in North American population particularly in pathologically confirmed cases with neural inclusions immunoreactive for ubiquitin and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), but negative for tau and alpha-synuclein (FTLD-TDP).
Methodology/Principal Findings
In an effort to replicate these results in a different population, rs5848 was genotyped in 256 FTLD cases and 1695 controls from the Netherlands. Single SNP gender-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between variation at rs5848 and FTLD. Fisher's exact test, failed to find any significant association between rs5848 and a subset of 23 pathology confirmed FTLD-TDP cases.
Conclusions/Significance
The evidence presented here suggests that variation at rs5848 does not contribute to the etiology of FTLD in the Dutch population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007494
PMCID: PMC2761542  PMID: 19847305
23.  Comprehensive mRNA Expression Profiling Distinguishes Tauopathies and Identifies Shared Molecular Pathways 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(8):e6826.
Background
Understanding the aetiologies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease (PiD), Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is often hampered by the considerable clinical and molecular overlap between these diseases and normal ageing. The development of high throughput genomic technologies such as microarrays provide a new molecular tool to gain insight in the complexity and relationships between diseases, as they provide data on the simultaneous activity of multiple genes, gene networks and cellular pathways.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We have constructed genome wide expression profiles from snap frozen post-mortem tissue from the medial temporal lobe of patients with four neurodegenerative disorders (5 AD, 5 PSP, 5 PiD and 5 FTD patients) and 5 control subjects. All patients were matched for age, gender, ApoE-ε and MAPT (tau) haplotype. From all groups a total of 790 probes were shown to be differently expressed when compared to control individuals. The results from these experiments were then used to investigate the correlations between clinical, pathological and molecular findings. From the 790 identified probes we extracted a gene set of 166 probes whose expression could discriminate between these disorders and normal ageing.
Conclusions/Significance
From genome wide expression profiles we extracted a gene set of 166 probes whose expression could discriminate between neurological disorders and normal ageing. This gene set can be further developed into an accurate microarray-based classification test. Furthermore, from this dataset we extracted a disease specific set of genes and identified two aging related transcription factors (FOXO1A and FOXO3A) as possible drug targets related to neurodegenerative disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006826
PMCID: PMC2729393  PMID: 19714246
24.  Structural and functional brain connectivity in presymptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia 
Neurology  2013;80(9):814-823.
Objective:
We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of microtubule-associated protein tau and progranulin mutations.
Methods:
In this case-control study, 75 healthy individuals (aged 20–70 years) with 50% risk for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) underwent DNA screening, neuropsychological assessment, and structural and functional MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics for voxelwise analyses of gray matter volume and diffusion tensor imaging measures. Using resting-state fMRI scans, we assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to frontoinsula, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), and posterior cingulate cortex.
Results:
Although carriers (n = 37) and noncarriers (n = 38) had similar neuropsychological performance, worse performance on Stroop III, Ekman faces, and Happé cartoons correlated with higher age in carriers, but not controls. Reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity throughout frontotemporal white matter tracts were found in carriers and correlated with higher age. Reductions in functional aMCC connectivity were found in carriers compared with controls, and connectivity between frontoinsula and aMCC seeds and several brain regions significantly decreased with higher age in carriers but not controls. We found no significant differences or age correlations in posterior cingulate cortex connectivity. No differences in regional gray matter volume were found.
Conclusions:
This study convincingly demonstrates that alterations in structural and functional connectivity develop before the first symptoms of FTD arise. These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI may have the potential to become sensitive biomarkers for early FTD in future clinical trials.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828407bc
PMCID: PMC3598452  PMID: 23390180

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