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Chen, Gourong (1)
Chen, Yongmei (1)
Furusawa, Shuichi (1)
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Notch-1 signalling is activated in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans
Lawton, Michael T.
Young, William L.
Greenberg, David A.
A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that, compared with control brain vascular tissue, Notch-1 signalling was activated in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of the lesional tissue. Western blotting showed an activated form of Notch-1 in brain arteriovenous malformations, irrespective of clinical presentation and with or without preoperative embolization, but not in normal cerebral vessels from controls. In addition, the Notch-1 ligands Jagged-1 and Delta-like-4 and the downstream Notch-1 target Hes-1 were increased in abundance and activated in human brain arteriovenous malformations. Finally, increased angiogenesis was found in adult rats treated with a Notch-1 activator. Our findings suggest that activation of Notch-1 signalling is a phenotypic feature of brain arteriovenous malformations, and that activation of Notch-1 in normal vasculature induces a pro-angiogenic state, which may contribute to the development of vascular malformations.
Notch-1; AVM; human; brain; signalling; angiogenesis
A sensitive non-radioactive in situ hybridization method for the detection of chicken IgG γ-chain mRNA: a technique suitable for detecting of variety of mRNAs in tissue sections
Biological Procedures Online
We established a sensitive non-radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) method for the detection of chicken IgG γ-chain mRNA in paraffin sections. RNA probes were transcribed in vitro from cloned chicken IgG CH1 nucleotide sequences with SP6/T7 RNA polymerases in the presence of DIG-UTP. These probes were used for hybridization and were immunodetected using anti-DIG antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. The immunoreactive products were visualized with DAB-H2O2. IgG γ-chain mRNA-expressing cells were localized in both the spleen and oviductal tissues. This method demonstrated an excellent sensitivity since the ISH signal was clear and the background was negligible. We found that in the spleen IgG γ-chain mRNA-expressing cells were present mainly in the red pulp, whereas in the oviduct they appeared mainly in the mucosal stroma and not in the mucosal epithelium.
in situ hybridization; IgG; mRNA; chicken
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