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1.  Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources Reveals Different Network Connectivity Underlying the Generation and Perpetuation of Epileptic Seizures 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e78422.
The concept of focal epilepsies includes a seizure origin in brain regions with hyper synchronous activity (epileptogenic zone and seizure onset zone) and a complex epileptic network of different brain areas involved in the generation, propagation, and modulation of seizures. The purpose of this work was to study functional and effective connectivity between regions involved in networks of epileptic seizures. The beginning and middle part of focal seizures from ictal surface EEG data were analyzed using dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS), an inverse solution in the frequency domain which describes neuronal networks and coherences of oscillatory brain activities. The information flow (effective connectivity) between coherent sources was investigated using the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC) method. In 8/11 patients, the first and second source of epileptic activity as found by DICS were concordant with the operative resection site; these patients became seizure free after epilepsy surgery. In the remaining 3 patients, the results of DICS / RPDC calculations and the resection site were discordant; these patients had a poorer post-operative outcome. The first sources as found by DICS were located predominantly in cortical structures; subsequent sources included some subcortical structures: thalamus, Nucl. Subthalamicus and cerebellum. DICS seems to be a powerful tool to define the seizure onset zone and the epileptic networks involved. Seizure generation seems to be related to the propagation of epileptic activity from the primary source in the seizure onset zone, and maintenance of seizures is attributed to the perpetuation of epileptic activity between nodes in the epileptic network. Despite of these promising results, this proof of principle study needs further confirmation prior to the use of the described methods in the clinical praxis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078422
PMCID: PMC3806832  PMID: 24194931
2.  Variability of the hemodynamic response as a function of age and frequency of epileptic discharge in children with epilepsy 
NeuroImage  2007;40(2):601-614.
EEG-fMRI is a non-invasive tool to investigate epileptogenic networks in patients with epilepsy. Different patterns of BOLD responses have been observed in children as compared to adults. A high intra- and intersubject variability of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) to epileptic discharges has been observed in adults. The actual HRF to epileptic discharges in children and its dependence on age are unknown. We analyzed 64 EEG-fMRI event types in 37 children (3 months to 18 years), 92% showing a significant BOLD response. HRFs were calculated for each BOLD cluster using a Fourier basis set. After excluding HRFs with a low signal-to-noise ratio, 126 positive and 98 negative HRFs were analyzed. We evaluated age-dependent changes as well as the effect of increasing numbers of spikes. Peak time, amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio of the HRF and the t-statistic score of the cluster were used as dependent variables. We observed significantly longer peak times of the HRF in the youngest children (0 to 2 years), suggesting that the use of multiple HRFs might be important in this group. A different coupling between neuronal activity and metabolism or blood flow in young children may cause this phenomenon. Even if the t-value increased with frequent spikes, the amplitude of the HRF decreased significantly with spike frequency. This reflects a violation of the assumptions of the General Linear Model and therefore the use of alternative analysis techniques may be more appropriate with high spiking rates, a common situation in children.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.11.056
PMCID: PMC3793956  PMID: 18221891 CAMSID: cams3474
Hemodynamic response function; fMRI; Spike; Age
3.  Absence seizures: Individual patterns revealed by EEG-fMRI 
Epilepsia  2010;51(10):2000-2010.
Summary
Purpose
Absences are characterized by an abrupt onset and end of generalized 3–4 Hz spike and wave discharges (GSWs), accompanied by unresponsiveness. Although previous electroencephalography–functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG–fMRI) studies showed that thalamus, default mode areas, and caudate nuclei are involved in absence seizures, the contribution of these regions throughout the ictal evolution of absences remains unclear. Furthermore, animal models provide evidence that absences are initiated by a cortical focus with a secondary involvement of the thalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic changes during absences.
Methods
Seventeen absences from nine patients with absence epilepsy and classical pattern of 3–4 Hz GSWs during EEG-fMRI recording were included in the study. The absences were studied in a sliding window analysis, providing a temporal sequence of blood oxygen–level dependent (BOLD) response maps.
Results
Thalamic activation was found in 16 absences (94%), deactivation in default mode areas in 15 (88%), deactivation of the caudate nuclei in 10 (59%), and cortical activation in patient-specific areas in 10 (59%) of the absences. Cortical activations and deactivations in default mode areas and caudate nucleus occurred significantly earlier than thalamic responses.
Discussion
Like a fingerprint, patient-specific BOLD signal changes were remarkably consistent in space and time across different absences of one patient but were quite different from patient to patient, despite having similar EEG pattern and clinical semiology. Early frontal activations could support the cortical focus theory, but with an addition: This early activation is patient specific.
doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2010.02698.x
PMCID: PMC3769289  PMID: 20726875 CAMSID: cams3390
EEG-fMRI; Absence epilepsy; BOLD response; Thalamus; Cortical focus
4.  Absence Seizures with Intellectual Disability as a phenotype of the 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome 
Epilepsia  2011;52(12):e194-e198.
SUMMARY
15q13.3 microdeletions are the most common genetic findings in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsies identified to date, present in up to 1% of patients. In addition, 15q13.3 microdeletions have been described in patients with epilepsy as part of a complex neurodevelopmental phenotype. We analyzed a cohort of 570 patients with various pediatric epilepsies for 15q13.3 microdeletions. Screening was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, deletions were confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization. We carried out detailed phenotyping of deletion carriers. In total, we identified four pediatric patients with 15q13.3 microdeletions including one previously described patient. 2/4 deletions were de novo, 1 deletion was inherited from an unaffected parent, and in one patient, inheritance is unknown. All four patients had absence epilepsy with various degrees of intellectual disability. We suggest that absence epilepsy accompanied by intellectual disability may represent a common phenotype of the 15q13.3 microdeletion in pediatric epilepsy patients.
doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03301.x
PMCID: PMC3270691  PMID: 22050399
Intellectual disability; IGE
5.  MIPAS-Family—evaluation of a new multi-modal behavioral training program for pediatric headaches: clinical effects and the impact on quality of life 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2010;11(3):215-225.
Several meta-analyses have demonstrated that the combination of electrical muscle activity and Temperature Biofeedback could be regarded as gold standard in chronic pediatric headaches. However, these techniques seem to be uneconomical and furthermore they are not directed to improve the social competence as well as resolve possible impairments in daily activities of the child. Therefore, multi-modal behavioral techniques have been proposed, but no studies comparing these with the gold standard were conducted. The present study compared the impact of a new multi-modal behavioral education and training program—MIPAS-Family—with a combined Biofeedback treatment, evaluating clinical efficacy as well as the effect on the quality of life (QoL) of children with chronic headaches. Thirty-four children and adolescents with recurrent headache, ranging from 7 to 16 years, were randomly assigned to the MIPAS-Family (N = 19) or the Biofeedback (N = 15) condition. All patients were diagnosed by the criteria of the International Headache Society. The children and their parents completed headache diaries, diaries of daily living activities and a QoL questionnaire (KINDL®). Both groups showed significant improvements concerning the headache intensity and headache duration. We found no significant differences in the main headache parameters between both treatments. After the treatments, the children were less disturbed by their headaches in the domains school, homework, and leisure time. In conclusion, MIPAS-Family is as effective as Biofeedback but it is more cost-effective and addresses the whole family and the daily activities.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0192-5
PMCID: PMC3451914  PMID: 20376520
Pediatric headaches; Biofeedback; MIPAS-Family Program; Education; Behavioral medicine
6.  Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation in Epilepsy: Novel Susceptibility Loci in Idiopathic Generalized and Focal Epilepsies 
PLoS Genetics  2010;6(5):e1000962.
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in humans with a prevalence of 1% and a lifetime incidence of 3%. Several genes have been identified in rare autosomal dominant and severe sporadic forms of epilepsy, but the genetic cause is unknown in the vast majority of cases. Copy number variants (CNVs) are known to play an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID), autism, and schizophrenia. Genome-wide studies of copy number variation in epilepsy have not been performed. We have applied whole-genome oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization to a cohort of 517 individuals with various idiopathic, non-lesional epilepsies. We detected one or more rare genic CNVs in 8.9% of affected individuals that are not present in 2,493 controls; five individuals had two rare CNVs. We identified CNVs in genes previously implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders, including two deletions in AUTS2 and one deletion in CNTNAP2. Therefore, our findings indicate that rare CNVs are likely to contribute to a broad range of generalized and focal epilepsies. In addition, we find that 2.9% of patients carry deletions at 15q11.2, 15q13.3, or 16p13.11, genomic hotspots previously associated with ID, autism, or schizophrenia. In summary, our findings suggest common etiological factors for seemingly diverse diseases such as ID, autism, schizophrenia, and epilepsy.
Author Summary
Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, affects up to 3% of the population. In some cases, the epilepsy has a clear cause such as an abnormality in the brain or a head injury. However, in many cases there is no obvious cause. Numerous studies have shown that genetic factors are important in these types of epilepsy, but although several epilepsy genes are known, we can still only identify the genetic cause in a very small fraction of cases. In order to identify new genes that contribute to the genetic causes of epilepsy, we searched the human genome for deletions (missing copies) and duplications (extra copies) of genes in ∼500 patients with epilepsy that are not found in control individuals. Using this approach, we identified several large deletions that are important in at least 3% of epilepsy cases. Furthermore, we found new candidate genes, some of which are also thought to play a role in other related disorders such as autism and intellectual disability. These genes are candidates for further studies in patients with epilepsy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000962
PMCID: PMC2873910  PMID: 20502679
7.  Developmental changes of the contingent negative variation in migraine and healthy children 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2009;11(2):105-113.
It has been hypothesized that abnormalities of information processing in migraine may be attributed to impairment of cerebral maturation. However, the most evidences for this hypothesis have come from cross-sectional studies during childhood. We performed a longitudinal study and recorded contingent negative variation (CNV), an event-related slow cortical potential, in migraine children (n = 27) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 23) in 1998 and 8 years later (2006). Amplitudes of all CNV components were reduced and habituation of the initial CNV (iCNV) increased in the observed time. However, the reduction of the iCNV amplitude was more pronounced in migraine patients who were in remission in 2006 and in healthy subjects and less pronounced in migraineurs with persisting headaches. Patients with the worsened migraine demonstrated the most pronounced loss of iCNV habituation in 1998 and significantly increased iCNV amplitudes in 2006. This longitudinal study supports the hypothesis of impaired cerebral maturation in migraine and shows that migraine manifestation is a key factor interfering with the natural maturation process of central information processing.
doi:10.1007/s10194-009-0180-9
PMCID: PMC3452294  PMID: 20013021
Migraine; Contingent negative variation; Habituation; Maturation
8.  A data-driven model of the generation of human EEG based on a spatially distributed stochastic wave equation 
Cognitive Neurodynamics  2008;2(2):101-113.
We discuss a model for the dynamics of the primary current density vector field within the grey matter of human brain. The model is based on a linear damped wave equation, driven by a stochastic term. By employing a realistically shaped average brain model and an estimate of the matrix which maps the primary currents distributed over grey matter to the electric potentials at the surface of the head, the model can be put into relation with recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Through this step it becomes possible to employ EEG recordings for the purpose of estimating the primary current density vector field, i.e. finding a solution of the inverse problem of EEG generation. As a technique for inferring the unobserved high-dimensional primary current density field from EEG data of much lower dimension, a linear state space modelling approach is suggested, based on a generalisation of Kalman filtering, in combination with maximum-likelihood parameter estimation. The resulting algorithm for estimating dynamical solutions of the EEG inverse problem is applied to the task of localising the source of an epileptic spike from a clinical EEG data set; for comparison, we apply to the same task also a non-dynamical standard algorithm.
doi:10.1007/s11571-008-9049-x
PMCID: PMC2427060  PMID: 19003477
EEG; Source localization; Inverse problem
9.  Absence seizures with intellectual disability as a phenotype of the 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome 
Epilepsia  2011;52(12):e194-e198.
Summary
15q13.3 microdeletions are the most common genetic findings identified in idiopathic generalized epilepsies to date, and they are present in up to 1% of patients. In addition, 15q13.3 microdeletions have been described in patients with epilepsy as part of a complex neurodevelopmental phenotype. We analyzed a cohort of 570 patients with various pediatric epilepsies for 15q13.3 microdeletions. Screening was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; deletions were confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We carried out detailed phenotyping of deletion carriers. In total, we identified four pediatric patients with 15q13.3 microdeletions, including one previously described patient. Two of four deletions were de novo, one deletion was inherited from an unaffected parent, and for one patient the inheritance is unknown. All four patients had absence epilepsy with various degrees of intellectual disability. We suggest that absence epilepsy accompanied by intellectual disability may represent a common phenotype of the 15q13.3 microdeletion in pediatric patients with epilepsy.
doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03301.x
PMCID: PMC3270691  PMID: 22050399
Intellectual disability; Idiopathic generalized epilepsy

Results 1-9 (9)