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Magnetic resonance imaging (1)
Perlbarg, Vincent (3)
Bellec, Pierre (1)
Benali, Habib (1)
Boly, Melanie (1)
Boveroux, Pierre (1)
Brichant, Jean-François (1)
Bruno, Marie-Aurelie (1)
Coynel, David (1)
Doyon, Julien (1)
Evans, Alan C. (1)
Greicius, Michael D. (1)
Laureys, Steven (1)
Ledoux, Didier (1)
Lehéricy, Stéphane (1)
Maquet, Pierre (1)
Marrelec, Guillaume (1)
Moonen, Gustave (1)
Noirhomme, Quentin (1)
Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie (1)
Schnakers, Caroline (1)
Soddu, Andrea (1)
Tshibanda, Luaba J.-F. (1)
Ugurbil, Kamil (1)
Van de Moortele, Pierre-François (1)
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey (1)
Year of Publication
Dynamics of motor-related functional integration during motor sequence learning
Van de Moortele, Pierre-François
Motor skill learning is associated with profound changes in brain activation patterns over time. Associative and rostral premotor cortical and subcortical regions are mostly recruited during the early phase of explicit motor learning, while sensorimotor regions may increase their activity during the late learning phases. Distinct brain networks are therefore engaged during the early and late phases of motor skill learning. How these regions interact with one another and how information is transferred from one circuit to the other has been less extensively studied. In this study, we used functional MRI (fMRI) at 3T to follow the changes in functional connectivity in the associative/premotor and the sensorimotor networks, during extended practice (four weeks) of an explicitly known sequence of finger movements. Evolution of functional connectivity was assessed using integration, a measure that quantifies the total amout of interaction within a network. When comparing the integration associated with a complex finger movement sequence to that associated with a simple sequence, we observed two patterns of decrease during the four weeks of practice. One was not specific as it was observed for all sequences, whereas a specific decrease was observed only for the execution of the learned sequence. This second decrease was a consequence of a relative decrease in associative/premotor network integration, together with a relative increase in between-network integration. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that information is transferred from the associative/premotor circuit to the sensorimotor circuit during the course of motor learning.
fMRI; functional connectivity; functional networks; integration; motor learning; motor associative network; sensorimotor network
Default network connectivity reflects the level of consciousness in non-communicative brain-damaged patients
Tshibanda, Luaba J.-F.
Greicius, Michael D.
The ‘default network’ is defined as a set of areas, encompassing posterior-cingulate/precuneus, anterior cingulate/mesiofrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junctions, that show more activity at rest than during attention-demanding tasks. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to reliably identify this network in the absence of any task, by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity analyses in healthy volunteers. However, the functional significance of these spontaneous brain activity fluctuations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test if the integrity of this resting-state connectivity pattern in the default network would differ in different pathological alterations of consciousness. Fourteen non-communicative brain-damaged patients and 14 healthy controls participated in the study. Connectivity was investigated using probabilistic independent component analysis, and an automated template-matching component selection approach. Connectivity in all default network areas was found to be negatively correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative then coma patients. Furthermore, precuneus connectivity was found to be significantly stronger in minimally conscious patients as compared with unconscious patients. Locked-in syndrome patient’s default network connectivity was not significantly different from controls. Our results show that default network connectivity is decreased in severely brain-damaged patients, in proportion to their degree of consciousness impairment. Future prospective studies in a larger patient population are needed in order to evaluate the prognostic value of the presented methodology.
Default mode; fMRI; coma; vegetative state; minimally conscious state
Bootstrap generation and evaluation of an fMRI simulation database
Evans, Alan C.
Magnetic resonance imaging
Computer simulations have played a critical role in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research, notably in the validation of new data analysis methods. Many approaches have been used to generate fMRI simulations, but there is currently no generic framework to assess how realistic each one of these approaches may be. In this paper, a statistical technique called parametric bootstrap was used to generate a simulation database that mimicked the parameters found in a real database, which comprised 40 subjects and 5 tasks. The simulations were evaluated by comparing the distributions of a battery of stastical measures between the real and simulated databases. Two popular simulation models were evaluated for the first time by applying the bootstrap framework. The first model was an additive mixture of multiple components and the second one implemented a non-linear motion process. In both models, the simulated components included the following brain dynamics : a baseline, physiological noise, neural activation and random noise. These models were found to successfully reproduce the relative variance of the components and the temporal autocorrelation of the fMRI time series. By contrast, the level of spatial autocorrelation was found to be drastically low using the additive model. Interestingly, the motion process in the second model intrisically generated some slow time drifts and increased the level of spatial autocorrelations. These experiments demonstrated that the bootstrap framework is a powerful new tool that can pinpoint the respective strengths and limitations of simulation models.
bootstrap; evaluation; fMRI; motion; parametric model; simulation
Results 1-3 (3)
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