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1.  Impact of BRAF Mutation and Microsatellite Instability on the Pattern of Metastatic Spread and Prognosis in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 
Cancer  2011;117(20):4623-4632.
Background
It is hypothesized that BRAF mutant cancers represent a discrete subset of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) defined by poorer survival. This study investigates whether BRAF mutant CRC is further defined by a distinct pattern of metastatic spread and explores the impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability (MSI) on prognosis in metastatic CRC.
Methods
Using prospective clinical data and molecular analyses from two major centers (Royal Melbourne Hospital and MD Anderson Cancer Centre) patients with known BRAF mutation status were analyzed for clinical characteristics, survival and metastatic sites.
Results
We identified 524 metastatic CRC patients where BRAF mutation status was known, 57 (11%) were BRAF mutant tumors. BRAF mutant tumors were significantly associated with right-sided primary tumor, MSI and poorer survival (median 10.4mo v 34.7mo, p<0.001). A distinct pattern of metastatic spread was observed in BRAF mutant tumors, namely higher rates of peritoneal metastases (46% v 24%, p=0.001), distant lymph node metastases (53% v 38%, p=0.008) and lower rates of lung metastases (35% v 49%, p=0.049). In additional survival analyses, MSI tumors had significantly poorer survival compared to micro-satellite stable tumors (22.1mo v 11.1 mo, p=0.017), but this difference was not evident in the BRAF mutant population.
Conclusions
The pattern of metastatic spread observed in this study further defines BRAF mutant CRC as a discrete disease subset. We demonstrate that, unlikely early stage disease, MSI is associated with poorer survival in metastatic CRC, although this is driven by its association with BRAF mutation.
doi:10.1002/cncr.26086
PMCID: PMC4257471  PMID: 21456008
BRAF; MSI; CRC; Metastases; Survival
2.  Environmental stress, ageing and glial cell senescence: a novel mechanistic link to Parkinson’s disease? 
Journal of internal medicine  2013;273(5):429-436.
Exposure to environmental toxins is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. For example, in Parkinson’s disease (PD), chronic environmental exposure to certain toxins has been linked to the age-related development of neuropathology. Neuronal damage is believed to involve the induction of neuroinflammatory events as a consequence of glial cell activation. Cellular senescence is a potent anti-cancer mechanism that occurs in a number of proliferative cell types and causes the arrest of proliferation of cells at risk of malignant transformation following exposure to potentially oncogenic stimuli. With age, senescent cells accumulate and express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP; i.e. the robust secretion of many inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and proteases). Whereas cell senescence in peripheral tissues has been causally linked to a number of age-related pathologies, little is known about the induction of cellular senescence and the SASP in the brain. Based on recently reported findings, we propose that environmental stressors associated with PD may act in part by eliciting senescence and the SASP within non-neuronal glial cells in the ageing brain, thus contributing to the characteristic decline in neuronal integrity that occurs in this disorder.
doi:10.1111/joim.12029
PMCID: PMC3633085  PMID: 23600398
3.  The Association of Alternate VEGF Ligands with Resistance to Anti-VEGF Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77117.
Background
Circulating angiogenic factors are altered in patients with mCRC receiving bevacizumab. Evaluation of alterations in levels of VEGF ligands may provide insights into possible resistance mechanisms.
Methods
PlGF, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were measured from two cohorts of patients. Sequential plasma samples were obtained from a discovery cohort of 42 patients treated with chemotherapy and bevacizumab. A validation cohort included plasma samples from a cross-sectional of 403 patients prior to chemotherapy, or after progression on a regimen with or without bevacizumab.
Results
In the discovery cohort, VEGF-C was increased prior to progression and at progression (+49% and +95%, respectively, p<0.01), consistent with previously reported elevations in PlGF. Levels of VEGF-D were increased (+23%) at progression (p=0.05). In the validation cohort, samples obtained from patients after progression on a regimen with bevacizumab had higher levels of PlGF and VEGF-D (+43% and +6%, p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively) compared to untreated patients, but failed to validate the increase in VEGF-C seen in the first cohort. Patients who progressed on chemotherapy with bevacizumab had significantly elevated levels of PlGF (+88%) but not VEGF-C and VEGF-D compared to patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Elevations of PlGF and VEGF-D appeared transient and returned to baseline with a half-life of 6 weeks.
Conclusions
Increases in PlGF and VEGF-D were observed after progression on chemotherapy with bevacizumab. These changes appear to be reversible after discontinuing therapy. These ligands are associated with resistance to bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy in mCRC, but causation remains to be established.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077117
PMCID: PMC3797099  PMID: 24143206
4.  From Bench to Bedside: Lessons Learned in Translating Preclinical Studies in Cancer Drug Development 
The development of targeted agents in oncology has rapidly expanded over the past 2 decades and has led to clinically significant improvements in the treatment of numerous cancers. Unfortunately, not all success at the bench in preclinical experiments has translated to success at the bedside. As preclinical studies shift toward defining proof of mechanism, patient selection, and rational drug combinations, it is critical to understand the lessons learned from prior translational studies to gain an understanding of prior drug development successes and failures. By learning from prior drug development, future translational studies will provide more clinically relevant data, and the underlying hope is that the clinical success rate will improve and the treatment of patients with ineffective targeted therapy will be limited.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djt209
PMCID: PMC3787906  PMID: 24052618
5.  Quadrature RF Coil for In Vivo Brain MRI of a Macaque Monkey in a Stereotaxic Head Frame 
We present a quadrature volume coil designed for brain imaging of a macaque monkey fixed in a sphinx position (facing down the bore) within a stereotactic frame at 3 T, where the position of the monkey and presence of the frame preclude use of existing coils. Requirements include the ability to position and remove the coil without disturbing the position of the monkey in the frame. A saddle coil and a solenoid were combined on a modified cylindrical former and connected in quadrature as to produce a homogeneous circularly polarized field throughout the brain. To allow the loops of the saddle coil to encompass the ear posts, partial disassembly and reassembly were facilitated by embedding pin and socket contacts into separate pieces of the former. Coil design included simulation of the electromagnetic fields for the coil containing a 3D model of a monkey’s head. The resulting coil produced adequate homogeneity and signal-to-noise ratio throughout the brain.
doi:10.1002/cmr.b.21205
PMCID: PMC3354963  PMID: 22611340
monkey; MRI; coil; brain; stereotaxy
6.  Age-Related Behavioral Phenotype of an Astrocytic Monoamine Oxidase-B Transgenic Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54200.
We have previously shown that increases in astrocytic monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) expression, mimicking that which occurs with aging and in neurodegenerative disease, in a doxycycline (dox)-inducible transgenic mouse model evokes neuropathological similarities to what is observed in the human parkinsonian brain. Additional behavioral and neuropathological studies could provide further validation for its usage as a model for Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, we utilized a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate age-related phenotype in this model. In the open field test, we found that dox-induction impaired motor ability with decreases in movement and ambulatory function as well as diminished stereotypical, repetitive movement episodes in both young and old mice. Older mice also showed decreased motor performance in the pole test when compared to younger mice. Furthermore, dox-induced older mice displayed severe hindlimb clasping and the most significant loss of dopamine (DA) in the striatum when compared to young and non-induced animals. Additionally, increased MAO-B activity significantly correlated with decreased expression of striatal DA. The results of our study further confirms that the dox-inducible astrocytic MAO-B transgenic mouse displays similar age-related behavioral and neuropathological features to other models of PD, and could serve as a useful tool to study PD pathophysiology and for the evaluation of therapeutic interventions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054200
PMCID: PMC3542194  PMID: 23326597
7.  The interhemispheric connections of the striatum: implications for Parkinson’s disease and drug-induced dyskinesias 
Brain research bulletin  2011;87(1):1-9.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of nigrostriatal neurons and depletion of dopamine. This pathological feature leads to alterations to basal ganglia circuitry and subsequent motor disability. Pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy with medications such as levodopa ameliorates the symptoms of PD but can lead to motor complications known as drug-induced dyskinesias. We have recently shown that clinically hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys do not develop levodopa-induced dyskinesias despite chronic intermittent exposure and significant unilateral loss of nigrostriatal neurons and dopamine. It is currently unclear what mechanisms prevent the onset of dyskinesias in these animals. However, based on our study and results from previous lesioning studies in both the rat and monkey models of PD, we hypothesize that one potential mechanism that may prevent the genesis of dyskinesias in these animals is interhemispheric inhibition. Two potential interhemispheric connections that may modulate dyskinesias are the interhemispheric nigrostriatal and corticostriatal pathways. Few investigators have examined the interhemispheric nigrostriatal and corticostriatal connections and the functional role they may play in drug-induced dyskinesias in PD. Therefore, in the following review, we assess the neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral properties of these interhemispheric connections. Future studies evaluating these interhemispheric striatal pathways and the pathophysiological changes that occur to these pathways in the dyskinetic state are warranted to further develop treatments that prevent or mitigate drug-induced dyskinesias in PD.
doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.09.013
PMCID: PMC3246032  PMID: 21963946
basal ganglia; nigrostriatal degeneration; movement disorders; dopamine replacement therapy
8.  The effect of striatal dopaminergic grafts on the neuronal activity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and subthalamic nucleus in hemiparkinsonian rats 
Brain  2011;134(11):3276-3289.
The electrophysiological correlates of parkinsonism in the basal ganglia have been well studied in patients with Parkinson's disease and animal models. Separately, striatal dopaminergic cell transplantation has shown promise in ameliorating parkinsonian motor symptoms. However, the effect of dopaminergic grafts on basal ganglia electrophysiology has not thoroughly been investigated. In this study, we transplanted murine foetal ventral mesencephalic cells into rats rendered hemiparkinsonian by 6-hydroxydopamine injection. Three months after transplantation, extracellular and local field potential recordings were taken under urethane anaesthesia from the substantia nigra pars reticulata and subthalamic nucleus along with cortical electroencephalograms and were compared to recordings from normal and hemiparkinsonian controls. Recordings from cortical slow-wave activity and global activation states were analysed separately. Rats with histologically confirmed xenografts showed behavioural improvement measured by counting apomorphine-induced rotations and with the extended body axis test. Firing rates in both nuclei were not significantly different between control and grafted groups. However, burst firing patterns in both nuclei in the slow-wave activity state were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in rats with large surviving grafts, compared to hemiparkinsonian controls. The neuronal firing entropies and oscillations in both nuclei were restored to normal levels in the large-graft group. Electroencephalogram spike-triggered averages also showed normalization in the slow-wave activity state (P < 0.05). These results suggest that local continuous dopaminergic stimulation exerts a normalizing effect on the downstream parkinsonian basal ganglia firing patterns. This novel finding is relevant to future preclinical and clinical investigations of cell transplantation and the development of next-generation therapies for Parkinson's disease that ameliorate pathophysiological neural activity and provide optimal recovery of function.
doi:10.1093/brain/awr226
PMCID: PMC3212711  PMID: 21911417
neural transplantation; Parkinson's disease; substantia nigra pars reticulata; subthalamic nucleus; electrophysiology
9.  The Antiparkinsonian and Antidyskinetic Mechanisms of Mucuna pruriens in the MPTP-Treated Nonhuman Primate 
Chronic treatment with levodopa (LD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) can cause drug induced dyskinesias. Mucuna pruriens endocarp powder (MPEP) contains several compounds including natural LD and has been reported to not cause drug-induced dyskinesias. We evaluated the effects of Mucuna pruriens to determine if its underlying mechanistic actions are exclusively due to LD. We first compared MPEP with and without carbidopa (CD), and LD+CD in hemiparkinsonian (HP) monkeys. Each treatment ameliorated parkinsonism. We then compared the neuronal firing properties of the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in HP monkeys with MPEP+CD and LD+CD to evaluate basal ganglia circuitry alterations. Both treatments decreased SNR firing rate compared to HP state. However, LD+CD treatments significantly increased SNR bursting firing patterns that were not seen with MPEP+CD treatments. No significant changes were seen in STN firing properties. We then evaluated the effects of a water extract of MPEP. Oral MPWE ameliorated parkinsonism without causing drug-induced dyskinesias. The distinctive neurophysiological findings in the basal ganglia and the ability to ameliorate parkinsonism without causing dyskinesias strongly suggest that Mucuna pruriens acts through a novel mechanism that is different from that of LD.
doi:10.1155/2012/840247
PMCID: PMC3445014  PMID: 22997535
11.  Dyskinesias Do Not Develop after Chronic Intermittent Levodopa Therapy in Clinically Hemiparkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys 
The stable 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced hemiparkinsonian (HP) rhesus monkey model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been frequently used to test preclinical experimental therapeutics targeted to treat patients with advanced PD who suffer from motor fluctuations and drug-induced dyskinesias. We retrospectively analyzed data from 17 stable HP rhesus monkeys treated long-term with chronic intermittent dosing of levodopa (LD) in an attempt to induce choreoathetoid and dystonic dyskinesias. Rhesus monkeys in stable HP state for greater than 6 months as confirmed by multiple blinded behavioral ratings and 18F-dopa Positron Emission Tomography (PET) were treated with optimal doses of LD to provide maximal amelioration of unilateral clinical parkinsonism without any adverse effects. Thereafter, each animal was given chronic intermittent daily challenge with doses of LD up to 700 mg/day orally or with 300 mg/kg/day parenteral injections. LD treatments failed to induce choreoathetoid and dystonic dyskinesias in these animals despite chronic intermittent high dose administration. These results suggest that the stable strictly unilateral HP rhesus monkey model of PD may not be a suitable animal model to test experimental therapeutics targeted against dyskinesias, and that bilateral parkinsonian rhesus models that readily demonstrate drug-induced dyskinesias and clinically relevant motor fluctuations are more appropriate for preclinical experimental testing of therapies designed to treat patients with advanced PD.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2010.10.010
PMCID: PMC3053121  PMID: 21074478
Movement disorders; Macaca mulatta; basal ganglia; nigrostriatal degeneration; dopamine replacement therapy
12.  A Water Extract of Mucuna pruriens Provides Long-Term Amelioration of Parkinsonism with Reduced Risk for Dyskinesias 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2010;16(7):458-465.
Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide anti-parkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water extract of Mucuna pruriens seed powder (MPE) alone without any additives, MPE combined with the peripheral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) benserazide (MPE+BZ), LD+BZ and LD alone without BZ in the hemiparkinsonian rat model of PD. A battery of behavioral tests assessed by blinded investigators served as outcome measures in these randomized trials. In experiment 1, animals that received LD+BZ or MPE+BZ at high (6mg/Kg) and medium (4mg/Kg) equivalent doses demonstrated significant alleviation of parkinsonism, but, developed severe dose-dependent DID. LD+BZ at low doses (2mg/Kg) did not provide significant alleviation of parkinsonism. In contrast, MPE+BZ at an equivalent low dose significantly ameliorated parkinsonism. In experiment 2, MPE without any additives (12mg/Kg and 20mg/Kg LD equivalent dose) alleviated parkinsonism with significantly less DID compared to LD+BZ or MPE+BZ. In experiment 3, MPE without additives administered chronically provided long-term anti-parkinsonian benefits without causing DID. In experiment 4, MPE alone provided significantly more behavioral benefit when compared to the equivalent dose of synthetic LD alone without BZ. In experiment 5, MPE alone reduced the severity of DID in animals initially primed with LD+BZ. These findings suggest that Mucuna pruriens contains water soluble ingredients that either have an intrinsic DDCI-like activity or mitigate the need for an add-on DDCI to ameliorate parkinsonism. These unique long-term antiparkinsonian effects of a parenterally administered water extract of Mucuna pruriens seed powder may provide a platform for future drug discoveries and novel treatment strategies in PD.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2010.04.015
PMCID: PMC2909380  PMID: 20570206
basal ganglia; 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA); nigrostriatal degeneration; movement disorders; complementary and alternative medicine
13.  The Src Family of Protein Tyrosine Kinases: A New and Promising Target for Colorectal Cancer Therapy 
Clinical colorectal cancer  2010;9(2):89-94.
Aberrant activation of the Src family of tyrosine kinases has been implicated in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). As a result, Src inhibitors are now being studied as possible therapeutic agents to treat metastatic disease. In this review, we discuss the effects of aberrant Src activation in CRC, Src as a target of single-agent drug therapy, and Src as a target of combination therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition and cytotoxic chemotherapy. The greatest potential for clinically relevant benefit most likely lies in combination regimens. Further evaluation with biomarkers will continue to define the molecular phenotype of patients with CRC who will benefit the most from Src-based therapy.
doi:10.3816/CCC.2010.n.012
PMCID: PMC3091503  PMID: 20378502
Bosutinib; Dasatinib; EGFR; Saracatinib; Src inhibitors; VEGF
14.  Detection of MPTP-induced Substantia Nigra Hyperechogenicity in Rhesus Monkeys by Transcranial Ultrasound 
Ultrasound in medicine & biology  2010;36(4):604-609.
Detection of substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity by transcranial ultrasound has been proposed as a putative biomarker to differentiate between idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other forms of parkinsonism. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of using transcranial ultrasound to detect SN echogenicity in normal and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated Rhesus monkeys, a well-established model of PD. All animals had natural temporal bone windows for transcranial sonography. We could show that it is possible to visualize major brain landmarks including the “butterfly shaped” midbrain, basal cisterns, third and lateral ventricles in all animals by transcranial ultrasound. Blinded assessments showed that all normal monkeys had no SN hyperechogenicity. Bilaterally parkinsonian (overlesioned) monkeys showed hyperechogenicity of both SN, whereas right hemiparkinsonian monkeys only showed left nigral hyperechogenicity. These findings confirm the feasibility of transcranial ultrasound to detect SN hyperechogenicity in MPTP-treated Rhesus monkeys and suggest that this animal model may provide a platform for understanding the pathophysiological basis of nigral hyperechogenicity.
doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2009.12.001
PMCID: PMC2862281  PMID: 20211515
basal ganglia; nigrostriatal degeneration; movement disorders; Macaca mulatta; non-human primate
15.  Phase II Trial of Infusional Fluorouracil, Irinotecan, and Bevacizumab for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Efficacy and Circulating Angiogenic Biomarkers Associated With Therapeutic Resistance 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;28(3):453-459.
Purpose
We investigated the efficacy of fluorouracil (FU), leucovorin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab (FOLFIRI + B) in a phase II trial in patients previously untreated for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), and changes during treatment in plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAFs) as potential markers of treatment response and therapeutic resistance.
Patients and Methods
We conducted a phase II, two-institution trial of FOLFIRI + B. Each 14-day cycle consisted of bevacizumab (5 mg/kg), irinotecan (180 mg/m2), bolus FU (400 mg/m2), and leucovorin (400 mg/m2) followed by a 46-hour infusion of FU (2,400 mg/m2). Levels of 37 CAFs were assessed using multiplex-bead assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline, during treatment, and at the time of progressive disease (PD).
Results
Forty-three patients were enrolled. Median progression-free survival (PFS), the primary end point of the study, was 12.8 months. Median overall survival was 31.3 months, with a response rate of 65%. Elevated interleukin-8 at baseline was associated with a shorter PFS (11 v 15.1 months, P = .03). Before the radiographic development of PD, several CAFs associated with angiogenesis and myeloid recruitment increased compared to baseline, including basic fibroblast growth factor (P = .046), hepatocyte growth factor (P = .046), placental growth factor (P < .001), stromal-derived factor-1 (P = .04), and macrophage chemoattractant protein-3 (P < .001).
Conclusion
Efficacy and tolerability of FOLFIRI + B eared favorable to historical controls in this single arm study. Before radiographic progression, there was a shift in balance of CAFs, with a rise in alternate pro-angiogenic cytokines and myeloid recruitment factors in subsets of patients that may represent mechanisms of resistance.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.24.8252
PMCID: PMC2815707  PMID: 20008624
16.  A phase I study of bortezomib, etoposide and carboplatin in patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy 
Investigational new drugs  2008;27(1):53-62.
Summary
Purpose
To evaluate the toxicity, pharmacological, and biological properties of the combination of bortezomib, etoposide, and carboplatin in adults with advanced solid malignancies.
Patients and methods
Patients received escalating doses of bortezomib, etoposide, and carboplatin every 21 days. Surrogate markers of angiogenesis were evaluated.
Results
Twenty-four patients received 64 courses of therapy. The most common treatment-related adverse events were myelosuppression. Dose-limiting grade 3 and 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were observed when bortezomib was given on days 1, 4, 8, 11. With revised dosing, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of bortezomib 0.75 mg/m2 (days 1, 8), etoposide 75 mg/m2 (days 1–3), and carboplatin AUC 5 (day 1) was well tolerated, and are the recommended doses for further studies with this combination. No objective responses were observed, however stable disease was noted for greater or equal to four cycles in nine highly refractory patients.
doi:10.1007/s10637-008-9154-z
PMCID: PMC2829404  PMID: 18618082
Bortezomib; Combination chemotherapy; Phase I clinical trial; Proteasome inhibitor
17.  Differential Effects of Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics on Brain Myelination in Schizophrenia 
Schizophrenia research  2007;93(1-3):13-22.
Context
Imaging and post-mortem studies provide converging evidence that patients with schizophrenia have a dysregulated developmental trajectory of frontal lobe myelination even in adulthood. Atypical antipsychotics have been shown to have a wide spectrum of efficacy across multiple psychiatric diseases and to be particularly efficacious in treatment resistant cases of disorders such as schizophrenia.
Objective
To test the a priori hypothesis that antipsychotic medications may differentially impact frontal lobe myelination in patients with schizophrenia.
Design, setting, and participants
Participants ranged in age from 18–35 years, were all male, and were recruited by a single group of investigators using the same criteria. Two cohorts of subjects with schizophrenia early in their disease who were treated either with oral risperidone (Ris) or fluphenazine decanoate (Fd) were imaged in conjunction with cohorts of healthy controls. Each cohort was imaged using a different MRI instrument using identical imaging sequences.
Main outcome measure
MRI measures of frontal lobe white matter volume.
Results
We estimated differences due to differences in the MRI instruments used in the two studies in the two healthy control groups matched to the patient samples, adjusting for age and other covariates. We then statistically removed those differences (which we assumed were instrument artifacts) from the data in the schizophrenia samples by subtraction. Relative to the differences seen in controls, the two groups of schizophrenic patients differed in their pattern of frontal lobe structure with the Ris-treated group having significantly larger white matter volume than the Fd group.
Conclusions
The results suggest that the choice of antipsychotic treatment may differentially impact brain myelination in adults with schizophrenia. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding. MRI can be used to dissect subtle differences in brain tissue characteristics and thus could help clarify the effect of pharmacologic treatments on neurodevelopmental and pathologic processes in vivo.
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2007.02.011
PMCID: PMC1974878  PMID: 17407804
Schizophrenia; antipsychotic; medication; typical; atypical; frontal lobe; myelin; white matter; gray matter; oligodendrocyte; trajectory; development; lipid; intracortical; age; treatment; prevention; human; primate

Results 1-17 (17)