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1.  Recurrent stroke risk and cerebral microbleed burden in ischemic stroke and TIA 
Neurology  2016;87(14):1501-1510.
To determine associations between cerebral microbleed (CMB) burden with recurrent ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk after IS or TIA.
We identified prospective studies of patients with IS or TIA that investigated CMBs and stroke (ICH and IS) risk during ≥3 months follow-up. Authors provided aggregate summary-level data on stroke outcomes, with CMBs categorized according to burden (single, 2–4, and ≥5 CMBs) and distribution. We calculated absolute event rates and pooled risk ratios (RR) using random-effects meta-analysis.
We included 5,068 patients from 15 studies. There were 115/1,284 (9.6%) recurrent IS events in patients with CMBs vs 212/3,781 (5.6%) in patients without CMBs (pooled RR 1.8 for CMBs vs no CMBs; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.5). There were 49/1,142 (4.3%) ICH events in those with CMBs vs 17/2,912 (0.58%) in those without CMBs (pooled RR 6.3 for CMBs vs no CMBs; 95% CI 3.5–11.4). Increasing CMB burden increased the risk of IS (pooled RR [95% CI] 1.8 [1.0–3.1], 2.4 [1.3–4.4], and 2.7 [1.5–4.9] for 1 CMB, 2–4 CMBs, and ≥5 CMBs, respectively) and ICH (pooled RR [95% CI] 4.6 [1.9–10.7], 5.6 [2.4–13.3], and 14.1 [6.9–29.0] for 1 CMB, 2–4 CMBs, and ≥5 CMBs, respectively).
CMBs are associated with increased stroke risk after IS or TIA. With increasing CMB burden (compared to no CMBs), the risk of ICH increases more steeply than that of IS. However, IS absolute event rates remain higher than ICH absolute event rates in all CMB burden categories.
PMCID: PMC5075978  PMID: 27590288
2.  Cerebral microbleeds and postthrombolysis intracerebral hemorrhage risk 
Neurology  2015;85(11):927-934.
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on pretreatment MRI scans of patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombolysis is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
We searched PubMed for relevant studies and calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) for symptomatic ICH, using the Mantel–Haenszel fixed-effects method, among individuals with vs without CMBs on pretreatment MRI scans. To minimize potential bias, sensitivity analysis was performed including studies providing data on patients treated only with IV thrombolysis.
Ten eligible studies including 2,028 patients were pooled in meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of CMBs was 23.3%. Among patients with CMBs, 40 of 472 (8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–11.4%) experienced a symptomatic ICH after thrombolysis compared with 61 of 1,556 patients (3.9%; 95% CI: 3%–5%) without CMBs. The pooled OR of ICH across all studies was 2.26 (95% CI: 1.46–3.49; p < 0.0001). Eight studies, including 1,704 patients (n = 401 with CMBs), provided data on patients treated with IV thrombolysis only; OR for the presence of CMBs and the development of symptomatic ICH was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.76–4.69; p < 0.0001).
Our meta-analysis of the available published data demonstrates an increased risk of symptomatic ICH after thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in patients with CMBs. However, we cannot fully exclude bias or confounding, so our results should be considered hypothesis-generating. Detecting CMBs should not prevent thrombolytic treatment based on present evidence. Further analyses, taking into account CMB number and location, as well as measures of functional outcome, are needed.
PMCID: PMC4567460  PMID: 26296519
3.  Self-Managing Postoperative Pain with the Use of a Novel, Interactive Device: A Proof of Concept Study 
Pain Research & Management  2016;2016:9704185.
Background. Pain is commonly experienced following surgical procedures. Suboptimal management is multifactorial. Objectives. The primary objective was to assess whether patients used a device (Navimed) to self-report pain over and above a normal baseline of observations. Secondary outcome measures included comparison of pain scores and patient use of and feedback on the device. Methods. In a prospective randomized controlled trial, elective gynaecological surgery patients received standard postoperative pain care or standard care plus the Navimed, which allowed them to self-report pain and offered interactive self-help options. Results. 52 female patients, 26 in each of device and standard groups, did not differ in the frequency of nurse-documented pain scores or mean pain scores provided to nurses. The device group additionally reported pain on the device (means 18.50 versus 11.90 pain ratings per day, t(32) = 2.75, p < 0.001) that was significantly worse than reported to nurses but retrospectively rated significantly less anxiety. 80% of patients found the device useful. Discussion and Conclusion. This study demonstrates that patients used the Navimed to report pain and to help manage it. Further work is required to investigate the difference in pain scores reported and to develop more sophisticated software.
PMCID: PMC4904622  PMID: 27445635
4.  The effects of an intronic polymorphism in TOMM40 and APOE genotypes in sporadic inclusion body myositis 
Neurobiology of Aging  2015;36(4):1766.e1-1766.e3.
A previous study showed that, in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype ε3/ε3 or ε3/ε4, the presence of a very long (VL) polyT repeat allele in “translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40” (TOMM40) was less frequent in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) compared with controls and associated with a later age of sIBM symptom onset, suggesting a protective effect of this haplotype. To further investigate the influence of these genetic factors in sIBM, we analyzed a large sIBM cohort of 158 cases as part of an International sIBM Genetics Study. No significant association was found between APOE or TOMM40 genotypes and the risk of developing sIBM. We found that the presence of at least 1 VL polyT repeat allele in TOMM40 was significantly associated with about 4 years later onset of sIBM symptoms. The age of onset was delayed by 5 years when the patients were also carriers of the APOE genotype ε3/ε3. In addition, males were likely to have a later age of onset than females. Therefore, the TOMM40 VL polyT repeat, although not influencing disease susceptibility, has a disease-modifying effect on sIBM, which can be enhanced by the APOE genotype ε3/ε3.
PMCID: PMC4378665  PMID: 25670332
Sporadic inclusion body myositis; sIBM; APOE; TOMM40; Age of onset
5.  Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction Is Common in Both Men and Women with Mutation of the ABCD1 Gene for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy 
JIMD Reports  2015;22:77-83.
Background: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. The commonest phenotype of X-ALD is adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), which is characterised by involvement of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The aim of this study was to evaluate bladder and bowel symptoms in men with AMN and female X-ALD carriers.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with confirmed mutation of the ABCD1 gene attending a tertiary care service were approached about bladder and bowel complaints and completed the Urinary Symptom Profile (USP), Qualiveen Short Form (SF-Qualiveen), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction (NBD) questionnaires. Neurological disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS).
Results: Forty-eight patients participated, 19 males (mean EDSS score (n = 16) 5.0 (95% CI ± 1.03)) and 29 females (mean EDSS score (n = 25) 3.2 (95% CI ± 0.98)). Overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms were reported in both males (100%, n = 19) and females (86.2%, n = 25). There was no significant gender difference in severity of OAB symptoms (P = 0.35) and impact on quality of life (P = 0.13). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in OAB severity when symptoms were compared between female carriers and a cohort of women (n = 17) with spinal cord damage due to multiple sclerosis (P = 0.27). Twenty-one percent (n = 4) of males and 10% (n = 3) of females had moderate to severe bowel dysfunction.
Conclusions: Bladder and bowel complaints are common in both men with AMN and female carriers. They have a significant impact on the quality of life yet are under-reported and under-treated. Though having an X-linked pattern of inheritance, female carriers may experience overactive bladder symptoms which are as severe as in male patients and are likely to be neurological in origin.
PMCID: PMC4486267  PMID: 25763509
6.  Cortical superficial siderosis and intracerebral hemorrhage risk in cerebral amyloid angiopathy 
Neurology  2013;81(19):1666-1673.
To investigate whether cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) on MRI, especially if disseminated (involving more than 3 sulci), increases the risk of future symptomatic lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA).
European multicenter cohort study of 118 patients with CAA (104 with baseline symptomatic lobar ICH) diagnosed according to the Boston criteria. We obtained baseline clinical, MRI, and follow-up data on symptomatic lobar ICH. Using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses, we investigated cSS and ICH risk, adjusting for known confounders.
During a median follow-up time of 24 months (interquartile range 9–44 months), 23 of 118 patients (19.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.8%–27.8%) experienced symptomatic lobar ICH. Any cSS and disseminated cSS were predictors of time until first or recurrent ICH (log-rank test: p = 0.0045 and p = 0.0009, respectively). ICH risk at 4 years was 25% (95% CI: 7.6%–28.3%) for patients without siderosis; 28.9% (95% CI: 7.7%–76.7%) for patients with focal siderosis; and 74% (95% CI: 44.1%–95.7%) for patients with disseminated cSS (log-rank test: p = 0.0031). In Cox regression models, any cSS and disseminated cSS were both independently associated with increased lobar ICH risk, after adjusting for ≥2 microbleeds and age (hazard ratio: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.05–6.15; p = 0.040 and hazard ratio: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.35–7.43; p = 0.008, respectively). These results remained consistent in sensitivity analyses including only patients with symptomatic lobar ICH at baseline.
Our findings indicate that cSS, particularly if disseminated, is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic lobar ICH in CAA. cSS may help stratify future bleeding risk in CAA, with implications for prognosis and treatment.
PMCID: PMC3812101  PMID: 24107862
7.  Parkin Disease: A Clinicopathologic Entity? 
JAMA neurology  2013;70(5):571-579.
Mutations in the gene encoding parkin (PARK2) are the most common cause of autosomal recessive juvenile-onset and young-onset parkinsonism. The few available detailed neuropathologic reports suggest that homozygous and compound heterozygous parkin mutations are characterized by severe substantia nigra pars compacta neuronal loss.
To investigate whether parkin -linked parkinsonism is a different clinicopathologic entity to Parkinson disease (PD).
Design, Setting, and Participants
We describe the clinical, genetic, and neuropathologic findings of 5 unrelated cases of parkin disease and compare them with 5 pathologically confirmed PD cases and 4 control subjects. The PD control cases and normal control subjects were matched first for age at death then disease duration (PD only) for comparison.
Presenting signs in the parkin disease cases were hand or leg tremor often combined with dystonia. Mean age at onset was 34 years; all cases were compound heterozygous for mutations of parkin. Freezing of gait, postural deformity, and motor fluctuations were common late features. No patients had any evidence of cognitive impairment or dementia. Neuronal counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta revealed that neuronal loss in the parkin cases was as severe as that seen in PD, but relative preservation of the dorsal tier was seen in comparison with PD (P = .04). Mild neuronal loss was identified in the locus coeruleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, but not in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, raphe nucleus, or other brain regions. Sparse Lewy bodies were identified in 2 cases (brainstem and cortex).
Conclusions and Relevance
These findings support the notion that parkin disease is characterized by a more restricted morphologic abnormality than is found in PD, with predominantly ventral nigral degeneration and absent or rare Lewy bodies.
PMCID: PMC4202385  PMID: 23459986
8.  The Relationship between Therapeutic Alliance and Service User Satisfaction in Mental Health Inpatient Wards and Crisis House Alternatives: A Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e100153.
Poor service user experiences are often reported on mental health inpatient wards. Crisis houses are an alternative, but evidence is limited. This paper investigates therapeutic alliances in acute wards and crisis houses, exploring how far stronger therapeutic alliance may underlie greater client satisfaction in crisis houses.
Methods and Findings
Mixed methods were used. In the quantitative component, 108 crisis house and 247 acute ward service users responded to measures of satisfaction, therapeutic relationships, informal peer support, recovery and negative events experienced during the admission. Linear regressions were conducted to estimate the association between service setting and measures, and to model the factors associated with satisfaction. Qualitative interviews exploring therapeutic alliances were conducted with service users and staff in each setting and analysed thematically.
We found that therapeutic alliances, service user satisfaction and informal peer support were greater in crisis houses than on acute wards, whilst self-rated recovery and numbers of negative events were lower. Adjusted multivariable analyses suggest that therapeutic relationships, informal peer support and negative experiences related to staff may be important factors in accounting for greater satisfaction in crisis houses. Qualitative results suggest factors that influence therapeutic alliances include service user perceptions of basic human qualities such as kindness and empathy in staff and, at service level, the extent of loss of liberty and autonomy.
Conclusions and Implications
We found that service users experience better therapeutic relationships and higher satisfaction in crisis houses compared to acute wards, although we cannot exclude the possibility that differences in service user characteristics contribute to this. This finding provides some support for the expansion of crisis house provision. Further research is needed to investigate why acute ward service users experience a lack of compassion and humanity from ward staff and how this could be changed.
PMCID: PMC4091866  PMID: 25010773
9.  Precise determination of time to reach viral load set point after acute HIV-1 infection 
HIV viral load set point has long been used as a prognostic marker of disease progression and more recently as an end-point parameter in HIV vaccine clinical trials. The definition of set point, however, is variable. Moreover, the earliest time at which the set point is reached after the onset of infection has never been clearly defined.
In this study, we obtained sequential plasma viral load data from 60 acutely HIV-infected Chinese patients among a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM), mathematically determined viral load set point levels, and estimated time to attain set point after infection. We also compared the results derived from our models and that obtained from an empirical method.
With novel uncomplicated mathematic model, we discovered that setpoint may vary from 21 to 119 days dependent on the patients' initial viral load trajectory. The viral load set points were 4.28 ± 0.86 and 4.25 ± 0.87 log10 copies/ml (P = 0.08), respectively, as determined by our model and an empirical method, suggesting an excellent agreement between the old and new methods.
We provide a novel method to estimate viral load set point at the very early stage of HIV infection. Application of this model can accuratly and reliably determine set point, thus providing a new tool for physicians to better monitor early intervention strategies in acutely infected patients, and scientists to rationally design preventative vaccine studies.
PMCID: PMC3705732  PMID: 23143525
HIV-1; viral load; set point; acute infection; seroconversion
10.  Sensitive Assessment of the Virologic Outcomes of Stopping and Restarting Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69266.
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant mutants have been shown to emerge after interruption of suppressive NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) using routine testing. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of resistance by sensitive testing and correlate the detection of resistance with NNRTI concentrations after treatment interruption and virologic responses after treatment resumption.
Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and NNRTI concentrations were studied in plasma from 132 patients who interrupted suppressive ART within SMART. RAMs were detected by Sanger sequencing, allele-specific PCR, and ultra-deep sequencing. NNRTI concentrations were measured by sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography.
Four weeks after NNRTI interruption, 19/31 (61.3%) and 34/39 (87.2%) patients showed measurable nevirapine (>0.25 ng/ml) or efavirenz (>5 ng/ml) concentrations, respectively. Median eight weeks after interruption, 22/131 (16.8%) patients showed ≥1 NNRTI-RAM, including eight patients with NNRTI-RAMs detected only by sensitive testing. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of NNRTI-RAM detection was 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52, 38.30; p = 0.01) with nevirapine or efavirenz concentrations above vs. below the median measured in the study population. Staggered interruption, whereby nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were continued for median nine days after NNRTI interruption, did not prevent NNRTI-RAMs, but increased detection of NRTI-RAMs (OR 4.25; 95% CI 1.02, 17.77; p = 0.03). After restarting NNRTI-based ART (n = 90), virologic suppression rates <400 copies/ml were 8/13 (61.5%) with NNRTI-RAMs, 7/11 (63.6%) with NRTI-RAMs only, and 51/59 (86.4%) without RAMs. The ORs of re-suppression were 0.18 (95% CI 0.03, 0.89) and 0.17 (95% CI 0.03, 1.15) for patients with NNRTI-RAMs or NRTI-RAMs only respectively vs. those without RAMs (p = 0.04).
Detection of resistant mutants in the rebound viremia after interruption of efavirenz- or nevirapine-based ART affects outcomes once these drugs are restarted. Further studies are needed to determine RAM persistence in untreated patients and impact on newer NNRTIs.
PMCID: PMC3715458  PMID: 23874928
11.  Atypical face shape and genomic structural variants in epilepsy 
Brain  2012;135(10):3101-3114.
Many pathogenic structural variants of the human genome are known to cause facial dysmorphism. During the past decade, pathogenic structural variants have also been found to be an important class of genetic risk factor for epilepsy. In other fields, face shape has been assessed objectively using 3D stereophotogrammetry and dense surface models. We hypothesized that computer-based analysis of 3D face images would detect subtle facial abnormality in people with epilepsy who carry pathogenic structural variants as determined by chromosome microarray. In 118 children and adults attending three European epilepsy clinics, we used an objective measure called Face Shape Difference to show that those with pathogenic structural variants have a significantly more atypical face shape than those without such variants. This is true when analysing the whole face, or the periorbital region or the perinasal region alone. We then tested the predictive accuracy of our measure in a second group of 63 patients. Using a minimum threshold to detect face shape abnormalities with pathogenic structural variants, we found high sensitivity (4/5, 80% for whole face; 3/5, 60% for periorbital and perinasal regions) and specificity (45/58, 78% for whole face and perinasal regions; 40/58, 69% for periorbital region). We show that the results do not seem to be affected by facial injury, facial expression, intellectual disability, drug history or demographic differences. Finally, we use bioinformatics tools to explore relationships between facial shape and gene expression within the developing forebrain. Stereophotogrammetry and dense surface models are powerful, objective, non-contact methods of detecting relevant face shape abnormalities. We demonstrate that they are useful in identifying atypical face shape in adults or children with structural variants, and they may give insights into the molecular genetics of facial development.
PMCID: PMC3470710  PMID: 22975390
epilepsy; dysmorphism; structural variants; genomics; dense surface models
12.  Activation and Coagulation Biomarkers are Independent Predictors for the Development of Opportunistic Disease in Patients with HIV Infection 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;200(6):973-983.
Activation and coagulation biomarkers were measured within the SMART trial. Their associations with opportunistic disease (OD) in HIV-positive patients were examined.
Inflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], amyloid-A, and amyloid-P) and coagulation (D-dimer and prothrombin-fragment 1+2) markers were determined. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between these biomarkers and risk of OD.
The 91 patients who developed an OD were matched to 182 controls. Patients with hsCRP≥5 μg/mL at baseline had a 3.5 (95%CI: 1.5-8.1) higher odds of OD versus those with hsCRP<1 μg/ml, Ptrend=0.003, and patients with IL-6≥3 pg/mL at baseline had a 2.4 (95%CI: 1.0-5.4) higher odds of OD versus those with IL-6<1.5 pg/mL, Ptrend=0.02. No other baseline biomarkers predicted development of an OD. Latest hsCRP (OR: 7.6 (95%CI: 2.0-28.5) for those with hsCRP≥5 μg/mL versus hsCRP<1 μg/mL, Ptrend=0.002), latest amyloid-A (OR: 3.8 (95%CI: 1.1-13.4) for those with amyloid-A ≥6 mg/L versus amyloid-A <2 mg/L, Ptrend=0.03) and latest IL-6 (OR 2.4 (95%CI: 0.7-8.8) for those with IL-6≥3 pg/mL versus IL-6<1.5 pg/mL, Ptrend=0.04) were also associated with developing an OD.
Higher IL-6 and hsCRP independently predicted development of OD. These biomarkers could provide additional prognostic information for predicting risk of OD.
PMCID: PMC2892757  PMID: 19678756
HIV-infection; opportunistic disease; IL-6; hsCRP; inflammation; coagulation; biomarkers
13.  Comparative Evaluation of the ExaVir Load Version 3 Reverse Transcriptase Assay for Measurement of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Plasma Load ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(10):3266-3270.
In resource-limited settings, the virological monitoring of antiretroviral therapy is limited by high cost and the lack of infrastructure. The Cavidi ExaVir Load assay employs a simple and inexpensive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format to measure human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase activity, which correlates with plasma RNA load. The version 3 assay has been described as having improved precision and sensitivity. There are limited data on its performance relative to those of current real-time assays. Our objective was to compare HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA load measurement in plasma by ExaVir Load version 3 (designated ExaVir), Abbott M2000sp/M2000rt RealTime HIV-1 assay (designated RealTime), and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 version 1 assay (designated TaqMan). Plasma from 119 patients (34 with subtype B infection, 85 with non-subtype B infection [A-H, CRF01, CRF02, CRF06, CRF12, CRF14, and complex]; 48 subjects were treatment experienced, 71 were naive) and serial dilutions of the second international standard (IS) were tested. Assay relationship and agreement were determined by linear regression, correlation analysis, and the Bland-Altman method. The ExaVir assay quantified 77/83 (92.8%) samples with viral loads of >2.3 log10 copies/ml by the molecular assays. Results were linearly associated and strongly correlated with RealTime and TaqMan measurements (R of 0.94 and 0.92, respectively) for both subtype B (R of 0.97 and 0.95, respectively) and non-subtype B (R of 0.93 and 0.91, respectively) samples. Mean differences were 0.28 and 0.18 log10 copies/ml in favor of the two molecular assays; 7/119 (5.9%) and 5/119 (4.2%) samples were outside the 95% level of agreement. ExaVir underquantified the IS by a mean of 0.2 (range, 0.0 to 0.5) log10 copies/ml. The ExaVir assay showed excellent concordance with real-time molecular assays, offering a suitable option for virological monitoring in settings with limited infrastructure.
PMCID: PMC2756939  PMID: 19656978
14.  Viral re-suppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive NNRTI-based regimen 
AIDS (London, England)  2008;22(17):2279-2289.
Interruption of an NNRTI-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use.
Patients in the drug-conservation arm of SMART who interrupted a fully suppressive NNRTI-regimen were evaluated. From 2003, SMART recommended interruption of an NNRTI by: a staggered-interruption, where the NNRTI was stopped before the NRTIs; or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous-interruption of all ARVs was discouraged. Re-suppression rates four-to-eight months after re-initiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within two months of the treatment interruption in a subset (N=141).
Overall, 601/688 (87.4%) patients who re-started an NNRTI achieved viral re-suppression. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for achieving re-suppression was 1.94 (1.02-3.69) for patients with a staggered-interruption and 3.64 (1.37-9.64) for those with a switched-interruption compared to patients with a simultaneous-interruption. At least one NNRTI-mutation was detected in the virus of 16.4% patients with simultaneous-interruption, 12.5% patients with staggered-interruption and 4.2% patients with switched-interruption. Fewer patients with detectable mutations (i.e. 69.2%) achieved HIV-RNA≤400 copies/mL compared to those in whom no mutations were detected (i.e. 86.7%), p=0.05.
In patients who interrupt a suppressive NNRTI-regimen, the choice of interruption-strategy may influence re-suppression rates when re-starting a similar regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered- or switched-interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs.
PMCID: PMC2745911  PMID: 18981767
NNRTI-based therapy; treatment interruption strategies; viral re-suppression; genotypic resistance emergence
16.  Cerebral microbleeds and the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage after thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis 
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) remains the most devastating yet unpredictable complication of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, to assess whether the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on prethrombolysis MRI scans is associated with an increased risk of ICH.
We searched PubMed for studies assessing ICH risk in patients with acute ischaemic stroke treated with thrombolysis, in relation to the presence of pre-treatment CMBs.
We identified five studies including 790 patients and pooled data in a meta-analysis. The CMB (+) versus CMB (−) groups were not significantly different in age, gender or stroke severity. The overall prevalence of CMBs was 135/790 (17.1%). Amongst patients with CMBs, 10/135 (7.4%) experienced a symptomatic ICH after thrombolysis, compared to 29/655 (4.4%) patients without CMBs. The pooled relative risk of ICH was 1.90 (95% CI 0.92 to 3.93; p=0.082).
The available evidence does not demonstrate a statistically significant increased risk of symptomatic ICH after thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke in patients with CMBs. However, in view of the methodological limitations of the studies included, the clinical relevance of any potential hazard associated with CMBs remains uncertain. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the risk of ICH might outweigh the benefit of thrombolysis, especially in patients with multiple lobar CMBs suggestive of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
PMCID: PMC3905626  PMID: 23024352
Stroke; Cerebrovascular Disease; Amyloid; Meta-Analysis; MRI
17.  Enlarged perivascular spaces as a marker of underlying arteriopathy in intracerebral haemorrhage: a multicentre MRI cohort study 
Background and purpose
Small vessel disease (mainly hypertensive arteriopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)) is an important cause of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), a devastating and still poorly understood stroke type. Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are a promising neuroimaging marker of small vessel disease. Based on the underlying arteriopathy distributions, we hypothesised that severe centrum semiovale EPVS are more common in lobar ICH attributed to CAA than other ICH. We evaluated EPVS prevalence, severity and distribution, and their clinical–radiological associations.
Retrospective multicentre cohort study of 121 ICH patients. Clinical information was obtained using standardised forms. Basal ganglia and centrum semiovale EPVS on T2-weighted MRI (graded 0–4 (>40 EPVS)), white-matter changes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and lacunes were rated using validated scales.
Patients with probable or possible CAA (n=76) had a higher prevalence of severe (>40) centrum semiovale EPVS compared with other ICH patients (35.5% vs 17.8%; p=0.041). In logistic regression age (OR: 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.02; p=0.045), deep CMBs (OR: 3.27; 95% CI 1.27 to 8.45; p=0.014) and mean white-matter changes score (OR: 1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.43; p<0.0001) were independently associated with increased basal ganglia EPVS severity; only age was associated with increased centrum semiovale EPVS severity (OR: 1.50; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.10; p=0.017).
EPVS are common in ICH. Different mechanisms may account for EPVS according to their anatomical distribution. Severe centrum semiovale EPVS may be secondary to, and indicative of, CAA with value as a new neuroimaging marker. By contrast, basal ganglia EPVS severity is associated with markers of hypertensive arteriopathy.
PMCID: PMC3905629  PMID: 23412074
Amyloid; Cerebrovascular Disease; Clinical Neurology; MRI
18.  MRI-visible perivascular spaces: relationship to cognition and small vessel disease MRI markers in ischaemic stroke and TIA 
MRI-visible perivascular spaces (PVS) are potential neuroimaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease, but their functional significance and mechanisms remain uncertain. We investigated the association between PVS and cognitive impairment, and other MRI markers of small vessel disease, in a patient cohort of ischaemic stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) referrals.
Data were collected from a prospective observational database. Standardised detailed neuropsychological testing was performed. A validated visual rating scale on T2-weighted MRI was used to categorise PVS severity; validated scales were used to assess white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds (CMB) and lacunes.
We included 246 patients (45.1% female, mean age 62 years). No significant association between PVS severity grade in any brain region and impairment in any cognitive domain was identified. In multivariable analysis, WMH and hypertension (but not age) were independently associated with basal ganglia PVS severity (OR: 1.27; p<0.0001 and OR: 4.89; p=0.013, respectively). Increasing PVS severity in the basal ganglia was associated with lacunar stroke subtype (p<0.0001). Age and hypertension (but not WMH or lacunar stroke subtype) were independently associated with centrum semiovale PVS severity (OR: 1.19; p=0.013 and OR: 3.71; p=0.007, respectively).
PVS do not have an independent association with cognitive impairment in patients with ischaemic stroke or TIA. The associations with clinical-radiological factors are consistent with the hypothesis that PVS reflect cerebral small vessel disease; the different associations for basal ganglia and centrum semiovale PVS might indicate different underlying small vessel arteriopathies according to PVS anatomical distribution, but this requires further study.
PMCID: PMC3995332  PMID: 24249785
Stroke; MRI; Image Analysis

Results 1-18 (18)