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author:("donelson, Noa")
1.  The functional anatomy of schizophrenia: A dynamic causal modeling study of predictive coding 
Schizophrenia Research  2014;158(1-3):204-212.
This paper tests the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in selectively attending to predictable events. We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of electrophysiological responses – to predictable and unpredictable visual targets – to quantify the effective connectivity within and between cortical sources in the visual hierarchy in 25 schizophrenia patients and 25 age-matched controls. We found evidence for marked differences between normal subjects and schizophrenia patients in the strength of extrinsic backward connections from higher hierarchical levels to lower levels within the visual system. In addition, we show that not only do schizophrenia subjects have abnormal connectivity but also that they fail to adjust or optimize this connectivity when events can be predicted. Thus, the differential intrinsic recurrent connectivity observed during processing of predictable versus unpredictable targets was markedly attenuated in schizophrenia patients compared with controls, suggesting a failure to modulate the sensitivity of neurons responsible for passing sensory information of prediction errors up the visual cortical hierarchy. The findings support the proposed role of abnormal connectivity in the neuropathology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2014.06.011
PMCID: PMC4166404  PMID: 24998031
Dynamic causal modeling; Schizophrenia; EEG; Prediction; Connectivity
2.  Cortical Spatio-temporal Dynamics Underlying Phonological Target Detection in Humans 
Journal of cognitive neuroscience  2010;23(6):1437-1446.
Selective processing of task-relevant stimuli is critical for goal-directed behavior. We used electrocorticography to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activation during a simple phonological target detection task, in which subjects press a button when a prespecified target syllable sound is heard. Simultaneous surface potential recordings during this task revealed a highly ordered temporal progression of high gamma (HG, 70– 200 Hz) activity across the lateral hemisphere in less than 1 sec. The sequence demonstrated concurrent regional sensory processing of speech syllables in the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and speech motor cortex, and then transitioned to sequential task-dependent processing from prefrontal cortex (PFC), to the final motor response in the hand sensorimotor cortex. STG activation was modestly enhanced for target over nontarget sounds, supporting a selective gain mechanism in early sensory processing, whereas PFC was entirely selective to targets, supporting its role in guiding response behavior. These results reveal that target detection is not a single cognitive event, but rather a process of progressive target selectivity that involves large-scale rapid parallel and serial processing in sensory, cognitive, and motor structures to support goal-directed human behavior.
doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21466
PMCID: PMC3895406  PMID: 20465359
3.  Implicit Versus Explicit Local Contextual Processing 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65914.
We investigated the effects of implicit local contextual processing using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. EEG recording blocks consisted of targets preceded by either randomized sequences of standards or by sequences including a predictive sequence signaling the occurrence of a target event. Subjects performed two sessions: in the first the regularity of the predictive sequence was implicit, while in the second this regularity was made explicit. Subjects pressed a button in response to targets. Both the implicit and explicit sessions showed shorter reaction times and peak P3b latencies for predicted versus random targets, although to a greater extent in the explicit session. In both sessions the middle and last most-informative stimuli of the three-standard predictive sequence induced a significant larger P3b compared with randomized standards. The findings show that local contextual information is processed implicitly, but that this modulation was significantly greater when subjects were explicitly instructed to attend to target-predictive contextual information. The findings suggest that top-down attentional networks have a role in modulating the extent to which contextual information is utilized.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065914
PMCID: PMC3681826  PMID: 23785458
4.  Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Cost of Task Switching: An ERP Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e42233.
Background
When switching from one task to a new one, reaction times are prolonged. This phenomenon is called switch cost (SC). Researchers have recently used several kinds of task-switching paradigms to uncover neural mechanisms underlying the SC. Task-set reconfiguration and passive dissipation of a previously relevant task-set have been reported to contribute to the cost of task switching.
Methodology/Principal Findings
An unpredictable cued task-switching paradigm was used, during which subjects were instructed to switch between a color and an orientation discrimination task. Electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded in 14 subjects. Response-stimulus interval (RSI) and cue-stimulus interval (CSI) were manipulated with short and long intervals, respectively. Switch trials delayed reaction times (RTs) and increased error rates compared with repeat trials. The SC of RTs was smaller in the long CSI condition. For cue-locked waveforms, switch trials generated a larger parietal positive event-related potential (ERP), and a larger slow parietal positivity compared with repeat trials in the short and long CSI condition. Neural SC of cue-related ERP positivity was smaller in the long RSI condition. For stimulus-locked waveforms, a larger switch-related central negative ERP component was observed, and the neural SC of the ERP negativity was smaller in the long CSI. Results of standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) for both ERP positivity and negativity showed that switch trials evoked larger activation than repeat trials in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC).
Conclusions/Significance
The results provide evidence that both RSI and CSI modulate the neural activities in the process of task-switching, but that these have a differential role during task-set reconfiguration and passive dissipation of a previously relevant task-set.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042233
PMCID: PMC3408496  PMID: 22860090
5.  Electrophysiological evidence for aging effects on local contextual processing 
We used event-related potentials to investigate how aging affects local contextual processing. Local context was defined as the occurrence of a short predictive series of visual stimuli before delivery of a target event. Stimuli were presented to either the left or right visual field and consisted of 15% targets (downward facing triangle) and 85% of equal numbers of three types of standards (triangles facing left, upwards and right). Recording blocks consisted of targets preceded by either randomized sequences of standards or by sequences including a three-standard predictive sequence signaling the occurrence of a subsequent target event. Subjects pressed a button in response to targets. Predictive local context affected target detection by reducing the duration of stimulus evaluation compared to detection of non-predictive random targets comparably for both young and older adults, as shown by a P3b latency shift. The peak of an earlier latency context positivity, which was seen only in the predicted compared to the random target condition, was prolonged in the older population compared to young adults. Finally, older subjects elicited a late sustained positivity in the predictive condition, not seen in the younger subjects. Taken together, theses findings suggest that local contextual effects on target detection processes are altered with age.
doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2009.05.007
PMCID: PMC2826523  PMID: 19559410
aging; context; P3b; EEG; context positivity
6.  Prefrontal cortex is critical for contextual processing: evidence from brain lesions 
Brain  2009;132(11):3002-3010.
We investigated the role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in local contextual processing using a combined event-related potentials and lesion approach. Local context was defined as the occurrence of a short predictive series of visual stimuli occurring before delivery of a target event. Targets were preceded by either randomized sequences of standards or by sequences including a three-stimulus predictive sequence signalling the occurrence of a subsequent target event. PFC lesioned patients were impaired in their ability to use local contextual information. The response time for controls revealed a larger benefit for predictable targets than for random targets relative to PFC patients. PFC patients had reduced amplitude of a context-dependent positivity and failed to generate the expected P3b latency shift between predictive and non-predictive targets. These findings show that PFC patients are unable to utilize predictive local context to guide behaviour, providing evidence for a critical role of PFC in local contextual processing.
doi:10.1093/brain/awp230
PMCID: PMC2768662  PMID: 19713281
context; prefrontal cortex; P3b; EEG; context positivity
7.  Multi-modal effects of local context on target detection: Evidence from P3b 
Journal of cognitive neuroscience  2009;21(9):1680-1692.
We used the P300 component to investigate how changes in local context influenced the ability to detect target stimuli. Local context was defined as the occurrence of a short predictive series of stimuli before delivery of a target event. EEG was recorded in 12 subjects during auditory and visual sessions. Stimuli were presented in the center of the auditory and visual field and consisted of 15% targets (1000 Hz tone or downward facing triangle) and 85% of equal amounts of three types of standards (1500 Hz, 2000 Hz and 2500 Hz tones or triangles facing left, upwards and right). Recording blocks consisted of targets preceded by either randomized sequences of standards or by sequences including a three-standard predictive sequence signaling the occurrence of a subsequent target event. Subjects pressed a button in response to targets. Peak target P300 (P3b) amplitude and latency were evaluated for targets after predictive and non-predictive sequences using conventional averaging and a novel single-trial analysis procedure. Reaction times were shorter for predictable targets than for non-predicted targets. P3b latency was shorter for predicted targets than for non-predictive targets, and there were no significant P3b amplitude differences between predicted and random targets, as determined by both conventional averaging and single-trial analysis. Comparable effects on amplitude and latency were observed in both the auditory and visual modalities. The results indicate that local context has differential effects on P3b amplitude and latency, and exerts modality independent effects on cognitive processing.
doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21071
PMCID: PMC2823841  PMID: 18702574
context; P3b; multi-modal; EEG; ASEO

Results 1-7 (7)