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1.  Structural and functional brain connectivity in presymptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia 
Neurology  2013;80(9):814-823.
Objective:
We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of microtubule-associated protein tau and progranulin mutations.
Methods:
In this case-control study, 75 healthy individuals (aged 20–70 years) with 50% risk for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) underwent DNA screening, neuropsychological assessment, and structural and functional MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics for voxelwise analyses of gray matter volume and diffusion tensor imaging measures. Using resting-state fMRI scans, we assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to frontoinsula, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), and posterior cingulate cortex.
Results:
Although carriers (n = 37) and noncarriers (n = 38) had similar neuropsychological performance, worse performance on Stroop III, Ekman faces, and Happé cartoons correlated with higher age in carriers, but not controls. Reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity throughout frontotemporal white matter tracts were found in carriers and correlated with higher age. Reductions in functional aMCC connectivity were found in carriers compared with controls, and connectivity between frontoinsula and aMCC seeds and several brain regions significantly decreased with higher age in carriers but not controls. We found no significant differences or age correlations in posterior cingulate cortex connectivity. No differences in regional gray matter volume were found.
Conclusions:
This study convincingly demonstrates that alterations in structural and functional connectivity develop before the first symptoms of FTD arise. These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI may have the potential to become sensitive biomarkers for early FTD in future clinical trials.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828407bc
PMCID: PMC3598452  PMID: 23390180
2.  Frequency of the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in ALS and FTD in diverse populations: a cross-sectional study 
Lancet Neurology  2012;11(4):323-330.
Background
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene has recently been shown to cause a large proportion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD).
Methods
We screened 4,448 patients diagnosed with ALS and 1,425 patients diagnosed with FTD drawn from diverse populations for the hexanucleotide expansion using a repeat-primed PCR assay. ALS and FTD were diagnosed according to the El Escorial and Lund-Manchester criteria respectively. Familial status was based on self-reported family history of similar neurodegenerative diseases at the time of sample collection. Haplotype data of 262 patients carrying the expansion were compared with the known Finnish founder risk haplotype across the chromosomal locus. Age-related penetrance was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method using data from 603 individuals carrying the expansion.
Findings
The mutation was observed among 7·0% (n = 236 of 3,377) of Caucasians, 4·1% (n = 2 of 49) of African-Americans, and 8·3% (n = 6 of 72) of Hispanic individuals diagnosed with sporadic ALS, whereas the rate was 6·0% (n = 59 of 981) among Caucasians diagnosed with sporadic FTD. Among Asians, 5·0% (n = 1 of 20) of familial ALS and 66·6% (n = 2 of 3) of familial FTD cases carried the repeat expansion. In contrast, mutations were not observed among patients of Native American (n = 3 sporadic ALS), Indian (n = 31 sporadic ALS, n = 31 sporadic FTD), and Pacific Islander (n = 90 sporadic ALS) ethnicity. All patients with the repeat expansion carried, either partially or fully, the founder haplotype suggesting that the expansion occurred on a single occasion in the past (~1,500 years ago). The pathogenic expansion was non-penetrant below 35 years of age, increasing to 50·0% penetrance by 58 years of age, and was almost fully penetrant by 80 years of age.
Interpretation
We confirm that a common single Mendelian genetic lesion is implicated in a large proportion of sporadic and familial ALS and FTD. Testing for this pathogenic expansion will be important in the management and genetic counseling of patients with these fatal neurodegenerative diseases.
Funding
See Acknowledgements.
doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70043-1
PMCID: PMC3322422  PMID: 22406228
3.  Sensitivity of revised diagnostic criteria for the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia 
Brain  2011;134(9):2456-2477.
Based on the recent literature and collective experience, an international consortium developed revised guidelines for the diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. The validation process retrospectively reviewed clinical records and compared the sensitivity of proposed and earlier criteria in a multi-site sample of patients with pathologically verified frontotemporal lobar degeneration. According to the revised criteria, ‘possible’ behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia requires three of six clinically discriminating features (disinhibition, apathy/inertia, loss of sympathy/empathy, perseverative/compulsive behaviours, hyperorality and dysexecutive neuropsychological profile). ‘Probable’ behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia adds functional disability and characteristic neuroimaging, while behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia ‘with definite frontotemporal lobar degeneration’ requires histopathological confirmation or a pathogenic mutation. Sixteen brain banks contributed cases meeting histopathological criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a clinical diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or vascular dementia at presentation. Cases with predominant primary progressive aphasia or extra-pyramidal syndromes were excluded. In these autopsy-confirmed cases, an experienced neurologist or psychiatrist ascertained clinical features necessary for making a diagnosis according to previous and proposed criteria at presentation. Of 137 cases where features were available for both proposed and previously established criteria, 118 (86%) met ‘possible’ criteria, and 104 (76%) met criteria for ‘probable’ behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. In contrast, 72 cases (53%) met previously established criteria for the syndrome (P < 0.001 for comparison with ‘possible’ and ‘probable’ criteria). Patients who failed to meet revised criteria were significantly older and most had atypical presentations with marked memory impairment. In conclusion, the revised criteria for behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia improve diagnostic accuracy compared with previously established criteria in a sample with known frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Greater sensitivity of the proposed criteria may reflect the optimized diagnostic features, less restrictive exclusion features and a flexible structure that accommodates different initial clinical presentations. Future studies will be needed to establish the reliability and specificity of these revised diagnostic guidelines.
doi:10.1093/brain/awr179
PMCID: PMC3170532  PMID: 21810890
behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia; diagnostic criteria; frontotemporal lobar degeneration; FTD; pathology
4.  Symmetrical Corticobasal Syndrome Caused by a Novel c.314dup Progranulin Mutation 
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience  2011;45(3):354-358.
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is characterised by asymmetrical parkinsonism and cognitive impairment. The underlying pathology varies between corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, Alzheimer’s disease, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration sometimes in association with GRN mutations. A 61-year-old male underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological assessment, MRI, and HMPAO-SPECT at our medical centre. After his death at the age of 63, brain autopsy, genetic screening and mRNA expression analysis were performed. The patient presented with slow progressive walking disabilities, non-fluent language problems, behavioural changes and forgetfulness. His family history was negative. He had primitive reflexes, rigidity of his arms and postural instability. Later in the disease course he developed dystonia of his left leg, pathological crying, mutism and dysphagia. Neuropsychological assessment revealed prominent ideomotor and ideational apraxia, executive dysfunction, non-fluent aphasia and memory deficits. Neuroimaging showed symmetrical predominant frontoparietal atrophy and hypoperfusion. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-TDP type 3 pathology was found at autopsy. GRN sequencing revealed a novel frameshift mutation c.314dup, p.Cys105fs and GRN mRNA levels showed a 50% decrease. We found a novel GRN mutation in a patient with an atypical (CBS) presentation with symmetric neuroimaging findings. GRN mutations are an important cause of CBS associated with FTLD-TDP type 3 pathology, sometimes in sporadic cases. Screening for GRN mutations should also be considered in CBS patients without a positive family history.
doi:10.1007/s12031-011-9626-z
PMCID: PMC3207131  PMID: 21863316
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS); Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD); Progranulin (GRN); TDP-43

Results 1-4 (4)