Prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4)
is a cancer/testis antigen that
is typically restricted to the testicular germ cells but is aberrantly
expressed in cancer. Furthermore, PAGE4 is developmentally regulated
with dynamic expression patterns in the developing prostate and is
also a stress-response protein that is upregulated in response to
cellular stress. PAGE4 interacts with c-Jun, which is activated by
the stress-response kinase JNK1, and plays an important role in the
development and pathology of the prostate gland. Here, we have identified
homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1 (HIPK1), also a component
of the stress-response pathway, as a kinase that phosphorylates PAGE4
at T51. We show that phosphorylation of PAGE4 is critical for its
transcriptional activity since mutating this T residue abolishes its
ability to potentiate c-Jun transactivation. In vitro single molecule FRET indicates phosphorylation results in compaction
of (still) intrinsically disordered PAGE4. Interestingly, however,
while our previous observations indicated that the wild-type nonphosphorylated
PAGE4 protein interacted with c-Jun [RajagopalanK. et al. (2014) Biochim,
Biophys. Acta1842, 154−16324263171], here we show that phosphorylation of PAGE4
weakens its interaction with c-Jun in vitro. These
data suggest that phosphorylation induces conformational changes in
natively disordered PAGE4 resulting in its decreased affinity for
c-Jun to promote interaction of c-Jun with another, unidentified,
partner. Alternatively, phosphorylated PAGE4 may induce transcription
of a novel partner, which then potentiates c-Jun transactivation.
Regardless, the present results clearly implicate PAGE4 as a component
of the stress-response pathway and uncover a novel link between components
of this pathway and prostatic development and disease.
We evaluated the clinical benefits of novel predictive markers for distant recurrence with colorectal cancer using lectin microarray analysis of cell surface glycan modifications. Glycoproteins were extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens and normal epithelium from 53 consecutive curatively resected stage I–III colorectal cancer cases and then subjected to lectin microarray to obtain lectin–glycan interaction (LGI) values. In addition, clinicopathological factors associated with distant recurrence were identified. LGI values that were associated with distant recurrence were validated with an additional 55 curatively resected stage II colorectal cancer cases. LGI values for Agaricus bisporus (ABA) lectin, prominent in cancer tissues, were statistically associated with distant recurrence. ABA lectin staining exhibited strikingly intense signals in the cytoplasm and apical surfaces of cancer cells, while weak staining was observed in the supranuclear regions of normal epithelium. This ABA tumor/normal LGI ratio may be a new predictive biomarker for distant recurrence of curatively resected colorectal cancer.
Colorectal cancer; glycoprotein; lectin; prediction; recurrence
Background. Histones play important roles in both host defenses and inflammation related to microbial infection. A peptide mimotope (SSV) was identified from a novel histone H1 monoclonal antibody (16G9 mAb) that was shown to inhibit the mixed lymphocyte reaction. In the present study, an anti-SSV producing hybridoma was established. We investigated the effects of SSV mAb in a mouse acute inflammation model induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods. SSV mAb was generated and characterized. Mice were treated with SSV mAb or a control IgG antibody prior to LPS injection. Evaluation of survival rate and lung tissue on histological score was performed. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and histones H1, H3, and H4 in plasma and lung tissue were measured by ELISA. Results. Competitive ELISA revealed that SSV mAb binds to histone H1. SSV mAb improved lung injury and prolonged the survival of LPS-injected mice. Increased levels of histones H1, H3, and H4 and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in plasma and lung tissue after LPS injection were ameliorated by SSV mAb. Conclusion. SSV mAb is shown to have anti-inflammatory activity and organ-protective effects, highlighting the importance of controlling histone H1 as well as H3 and H4 levels during inflammation.
This study focused on identifying risk factors for adolescent post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), utilizing a prospective, nested case-control longitudinal design in which over 300 teenagers with Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) were identified through primary care sites and followed. Baseline variables that were gathered several months following IM, included autonomic symptoms, days in bed since IM, perceived stress, stressful life events, family stress, difficulty functioning and attending school, family stress and psychiatric disorders. A number of variables were predictors of post-infectious CFS at 6 months; however, when autonomic symptoms were used as a control variable, only days spent in bed since mono was a significant predictor. Step-wise logistic regression findings indicated that baseline autonomic symptoms as well as days spent in bed since mono, which reflect the severity of illness, were the only significant predictors of those who met CFS criteria at 6 months.
mononucleosis; chronic fatigue syndrome; risk factors; autonomic symptoms; longitudinal
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a nonmalignant clonal disease of hematopoietic stem cells that is associated with hemolysis, marrow failure, and thrombophilia. PNH has been considered a monogenic disease that results from somatic mutations in the gene encoding PIGA, which is required for biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinisotol-anchored (GPI-anchored) proteins. The loss of certain GPI-anchored proteins is hypothesized to provide the mutant clone with an extrinsic growth advantage, but some features of PNH argue that there are intrinsic drivers of clonal expansion. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of paired PNH+ and PNH– fractions on samples taken from 12 patients as well as targeted deep sequencing of an additional 36 PNH patients. We identified additional somatic mutations that resulted in a complex hierarchical clonal architecture, similar to that observed in myeloid neoplasms. In addition to mutations in PIGA, mutations were found in genes known to be involved in myeloid neoplasm pathogenesis, including TET2, SUZ12, U2AF1, and JAK2. Clonal analysis indicated that these additional mutations arose either as a subclone within the PIGA-mutant population, or prior to PIGA mutation. Together, our data indicate that in addition to PIGA mutations, accessory genetic events are frequent in PNH, suggesting a stepwise clonal evolution derived from a singular stem cell clone.
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a commonly used model organism for neurodegenerative diseases. Its major advantages include a short lifespan and its susceptibility to manipulation using sophisticated genetic techniques. Here, we report the systematic comparison of fly models of two polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases. We induced expression of the normal and mutant forms of full-length Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin exon 1 in cholinergic, dopaminergic, and motor neurons, and glial cells using cell type-specific drivers. We systematically analyzed their effects based on multiple phenotypes: eclosion rate, lifespan, motor performance, and circadian rhythms of spontaneous activity. This systematic assay system enabled us to quantitatively evaluate and compare the functional disabilities of different genotypes. The results suggest different effects of Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin on specific types of neural cells during development and in adulthood. In addition, we confirmed the therapeutic effects of LiCl and butyrate using representative models. These results support the usefulness of this assay system for screening candidate chemical compounds that modify the pathologies of polyQ diseases.
Recent studies applying high-throughput sequencing technologies have identified several recurrently mutated genes and pathways in multiple cancer genomes. However, transcriptional consequences from these genomic alterations in cancer genome remain unclear. In this study, we performed integrated and comparative analyses of whole genomes and transcriptomes of 22 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their matched controls. Comparison of whole genome sequence (WGS) and RNA-Seq revealed much evidence that various types of genomic mutations triggered diverse transcriptional changes. Not only splice-site mutations, but also silent mutations in coding regions, deep intronic mutations and structural changes caused splicing aberrations. HBV integrations generated diverse patterns of virus-human fusion transcripts depending on affected gene, such as TERT, CDK15, FN1 and MLL4. Structural variations could drive over-expression of genes such as WNT ligands, with/without creating gene fusions. Furthermore, by taking account of genomic mutations causing transcriptional aberrations, we could improve the sensitivity of deleterious mutation detection in known cancer driver genes (TP53, AXIN1, ARID2, RPS6KA3), and identified recurrent disruptions in putative cancer driver genes such as HNF4A, CPS1, TSC1 and THRAP3 in HCCs. These findings indicate genomic alterations in cancer genome have diverse transcriptomic effects, and integrated analysis of WGS and RNA-Seq can facilitate the interpretation of a large number of genomic alterations detected in cancer genome.
Progress in systems biology offers sophisticated approaches toward a comprehensive understanding of biological systems. Yet, computational analyses are held back due to difficulties in determining suitable model parameter values from experimental data which naturally are subject to biological fluctuations. The data may also be corrupted by experimental uncertainties and sometimes do not contain all information regarding variables that cannot be measured for technical reasons.
We show here a streamlined approach for the construction of a coarse model that allows us to set up dynamic models with minimal input information. The approach uses a hybrid between a pure mass action system and a generalized mass action (GMA) system in the framework of biochemical systems theory (BST) with rate constants of 1, normal kinetic orders of 1, and -0.5 and 0.5 for inhibitory and activating effects, named Unity (U)-system. The U-system model does not necessarily fit all data well but is often sufficient for predicting metabolic behavior of metabolites which cannot be simultaneously measured, identifying inconsistencies between experimental data and the assumed underlying pathway structure, as well as predicting system responses to a modification of gene or enzyme. The U-system approach was validated with small, generic systems and implemented to model a large-scale metabolic reaction network of a higher plant, Arabidopsis. The dynamic behaviors obtained by predictive simulations agreed with actually available metabolomic time-series data, identified probable errors in the experimental datasets, and estimated probable behavior of unmeasurable metabolites in a qualitative manner. The model could also predict metabolic responses of Arabidopsis with altered network structures due to genetic modification.
The U-system approach can effectively predict metabolic behaviors and responses based on structures of an alleged metabolic reaction network. Thus, it can be a useful first-line tool of data analysis, model diagnostics and aid the design of next-step experiments.
Arabidopsis thaliana; kinetic parameter; mathematical modeling; metabolic reaction network; metabolomics
Spontaneous esophageal perforation is relatively uncommon, but carries a high mortality rate if diagnosis or treatment is delayed. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with spontaneous esophageal perforation who was successfully treated over 96 h after onset by thoracic drainage and jejunostomy for enteral nutrition. He vomited after drinking alcohol, soon followed by epigastralgia. Heart failure was suspected on admission to another hospital. Spontaneous esophageal perforation was diagnosed 48 h after admission. Chest tube drainage was performed, but his general condition deteriorated and he was transferred to our hospital. Emergent surgery was performed and esophageal perforation combined with pyothorax and mediastinitis was identified on the left side of the lower esophagus. The left thoracic cavity was rinsed and thoracic drainage was performed. Feeding jejunostomy was performed for postoperative enteral nutrition. Effective drainage and sufficient nutrition management appear extremely valuable in treating spontaneous esophageal perforation.
Spontaneous esophageal perforation; Drainage; Enteral nutrition; Feeding jejunostomy
Linear Ubiquitin chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) is an E3 ligase complex that generates linear ubiquitin chains and is important for tumour necrosis factor (TNF) signaling activation. Mice lacking Sharpin, a critical subunit of LUBAC, spontaneously develop inflammatory lesions in the skin and other organs. Here we show that TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)-associated death domain (TRADD)-dependent TNFR1 signaling in epidermal keratinocytes drives skin inflammation in Sharpin-deficient mice. Epidermis-restricted ablation of Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) combined with receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) deficiency fully prevented skin inflammation, while single RIPK3 deficiency only delayed and partly ameliorated lesion development in Sharpin-deficient mice, showing that inflammation is primarily driven by TRADD- and FADD-dependent keratinocyte apoptosis while necroptosis plays a minor role. At the cellular level, Sharpin deficiency sensitized primary murine keratinocytes, human keratinocytes, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to TNF-induced apoptosis. Depletion of FADD or TRADD in Sharpin-deficient HaCaT cells suppressed TNF-induced apoptosis, indicating the importance of FADD and TRADD in Sharpin-dependent anti-apoptosis signaling in keratinocytes.
In response to an injury or an infection, areas of the body can become inflamed as the immune system attempts to repair the damage and/or destroy any microbes or toxins that have entered the body. At the level of individual cells inflammation can involve cells being programmed to die in one of two ways: apoptosis and necroptosis.
Apoptosis is a highly controlled process during which the contents of the cell are safely destroyed in order to prevent damage to surrounding cells. Necroptosis, on the other hand, is not controlled: the cell bursts and releases its contents into the surroundings.
Inflammation is activated by a protein called TNF, which is controlled by a complex that includes a protein called Sharpin. Mice that lack the Sharpin protein develop inflammation on the skin and other organs, even in the absence of injury or infection. However, it is not clear how the Sharpin protein controls TNF to prevent inflammation.
Kumari et al. have found that inflammation in mice lacking Sharpin depends on TNF interacting with another protein called TRADD. The experiments also show that the inflammation is mainly driven by apoptosis, with necroptosis having only a minor role. Further experiments carried out in mammal cells showed that TRADD and another protein (called FADD) work with Sharpin to prevent apoptosis.
At the molecular level, Sharpin is known to induce a special type of protein modification (called linear ubiquitination) with two partner proteins, so the next challenge is to work out exactly how Sharpin uses this process to prevent apoptosis.
ubiquitin; TNFR1; Sharpin; skin inflammation; apoptosis; LUBAC; mouse
99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scintigraphy is useful to evaluate hepatic function and hepatic functional reserve. A reliable SPECT and CT integrated system is now commercially available. Using this system, we can obtain 99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT fused imaging with a small registration error. Therefore, the 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy techniques prove more useful in clinical practice than have been previously reported. In the latest Annals of Surgical Oncology on Oct 2014, the uptake index (UI) values calculated from 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy are reported to be useful for predicting the functional reserve of the future remnant liver. In this paper, we describe the usefulness of 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy as well as some cautions that are necessary as regards using the system.
99mTc-GSA scintigraphy; SPECT/CT; uptake index (UI)
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex condition involving fatigue and musculoskeletal and cognitive symptoms. Six, 12, and 24 months following monospot-positive acute infectious mononucleosis (IM), 13%, 7%, and 4%, respectively, of adolescents met criteria for CFS.1 As part of their evaluation at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months following IM, adolescents diagnosed with CFS and recovered controls completed questionnaires regarding autonomic symptoms.
Drug resistance is a major limitation to the successful treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Patients who have metastatic, castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) are treated with chemotherapeutics. However, these standard therapy modalities culminate in the development of resistance. We established paclitaxel resistance in a classic, androgen-insensitive mCRPC cell line (DU145) and, using a suite of molecular and biophysical methods, characterized the structural and functional changes in vitro and in vivo that are associated with the development of drug resistance. After acquiring paclitaxel-resistance, cells exhibited an abnormal nuclear morphology with extensive chromosomal content, an increase in stiffness, and faster cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. Compared with the parental DU145, paclitaxel-resistant (DU145-TxR) cells became highly invasive and motile in vitro, exercised greater cell traction forces, and formed larger and rapidly growing tumors in mouse xenografts. Furthermore, DU145-TxR cells showed a discrete loss of keratins but a distinct gain of ZEB1, Vimentin and Snail, suggesting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that paclitaxel resistance in PCa is associated with a trans-differentiation of epithelial cell machinery that enables more aggressive and invasive phenotype and portend new strategies for developing novel biomarkers and effective treatment modalities for PCa patients.
PROSTATE CANCER; PACLITAXEL; EPITHELIAL MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION; INVASION; CELL TRACTION FORCE; CYTOSKELETAL REMODELING
Erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), and bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, are promising therapies for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our study was aimed to determine whether there were conditions under which the addition of bevacizumab would enhance the antitumor activity of erlotinib against NSCLC tumors in vitro and in vivo.
MTS was for NSCLC cell (PC9, 11–18, H1975, H157, H460 and A549) growth assay in vitro. ELISA was for VEGF protein assay in cells and tumor tissues. Mouse xenograft models were established with H157, H460 and A549 with primary resistance to erlotinib and treated with erlotinib plus bevacizumab or each agent alone. Erlotinib concentrations in tumors were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Bevacizumab alone did not inhibit NSCLC cell growth in vitro. In primarily erlotinib-resistant NSCLC cells, the levels of VEGF protein were highest in H157 cell followed in order by H460 and A549 cells. In vivo, bevacizumab alone significantly inhibited tumor growth only in xenograft models with high (H157) and/or moderate (H460) levels of VEGF protein. A combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab partially reversed resistance to erlotinib in H157 xenografts (high VEGF level) with increasing intratumoral erlotinib concentrations, but not in H460 (moderate) or A549 (low) xenografts.
These results support that combined with anti-VEGF therapy could enhance antitumor activity of anti-EGFR therapy and/or partially reverse resistance to EGFR TKI, by increasing EGFR TKI concentration in specific tumors that express high levels of VEGF protein.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00280-014-2610-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Bevacizumab; Drug concentration; Erlotinib; Non-small cell lung cancer; VEGF protein
We investigated the responsiveness of the mouse basilar artery to acetylcholine (ACh),
bradykinin (BK), noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine (His) and
angiotensin (Ang) II in order to characterize the related receptor subtypes in
vitro. ACh and BK induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of precontracted
arteries with U-46619 (a thromboxane A2 analogue). Atropine (a non-selective
muscarinic receptor antagonist) and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (a NO synthase
inhibitor, L-NNA) shifted the concentration-response curve for ACh to the right, whereas
pirenzepine, methoctramine and pFHHSiD (muscarinic M1, M2 and
M3 antagonists, respectively) had no significant effect. L-NNA and HOE140 (a
B2 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for BK to the right,
whereas des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK (a B1 antagonist) and
indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) had no significant effect. NA failed to produce
any vasomotor action. His and Ang II induced concentration-dependent contraction.
Diphenhydramine (a H1 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for
His to the right, whereas cimetidine (a H2 antagonist) had no significant
effect. Losartan (an AT1 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve
for Ang II to the right, whereas PD123319 (an AT2 antagonist) had no
significant effect. These results suggest that the H1 and AT1
receptor subtypes might play an important role in arterial contraction, whereas muscarinic
receptor subtypes apart from M1, M2 and M3, and
B2 receptors on the endothelium, might modify these contractions to
cerebral artery; pA2; receptor subtype; vasoconstrictor; vasodilator
A metabolizing enzyme arginase can decrease nitric oxide (NO) production by competing with NO synthase for arginine as a substrate, but its pathophysiological role in heart failure remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the effect of pharmacological inhibition of arginase on left ventricular function in doxorubicin‐induced cardiomyopathy in mice. Doxorubicin administration for 5 weeks significantly increased protein expression levels or activity of arginase in the lungs and liver, and caused moderate increase in arginase 2 expression in the aorta. In the lungs, accumulated interstitial cells strongly expressed both arginase 1 and arginase 2 by doxorubicin administration. Echocardiography revealed that administration of a potent, reversible arginase inhibitor N‐omega‐hydroxy‐nor‐l‐arginine completely reversed doxorubicin‐induced decrease in the ejection fraction, in parallel with expression levels of BNP mRNA, without affecting apoptosis, hypertrophy, fibrosis, or macrophage infiltration in the left ventricle. Arginase inhibition reversibly lowered systolic blood pressure, and importantly, it recovered doxorubicin‐induced decline in NO concentration in the serum, lungs, and aorta. Furthermore, arginase inhibition stimulated NO secretion from aortic endothelial cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, pharmacological inhibition of arginase augmented NO concentration in the serum, lungs, and aorta, promoted NO‐mediated decrease in afterload for left ventricle, and facilitated left ventricular systolic function in doxorubicin‐induced cardiomyopathy in mice.
This figure shows that administration of an arginase inhibitor nor‐ NOHA facilitates LV systolic function in murine Dox‐induced cardiomyopathy.
Endothelial cell; heart failure; macrophage; nitric oxide
AIM: To study the relationship between adverse events (AEs), efficacy, and nursing intervention for sorafenib therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We enrolled 37 consecutive patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib therapy. Relationships among baseline characteristics as well as AE occurrence and tumor response, overall survival (OS), and treatment duration were analyzed. The nursing intervention program consisted of education regarding self-monitoring and AEs management, and telephone follow-up was provided once in 1-2 wk.
RESULTS: A total of 37 patients were enrolled in the study, comprising 30 males (81%) with a median age of 71 years. The disease control rate at 3 mo was 41%, and the median OS and treatment duration were 259 and 108 d, respectively. Nursing intervention was given to 24 patients (65%). Every patient exhibited some kinds of AEs, but no patients experienced G4 AEs. Frequently observed AEs > G2 included anorexia (57%), skin toxicity (57%), and fatigue (54%). Factors significantly associated with longer OS in multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≤ 70 years, presence of > G2 skin toxicity, and absence of > G2 hypoalbuminemia. The disease control rate in patients with > G2 skin toxicity was 13/20 (65%), which was significantly higher compared with that in patients with no or G1 skin toxicity. Multivariate analysis revealed that nursing intervention and > G2 skin toxicity were independent significant predictors for longer treatment duration.
CONCLUSION: Skin toxicity was associated with favorable outcomes with sorafenib therapy for advanced HCC. Nursing intervention contributed to better adherence, which may improve the efficacy of sorafenib.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Molecular targeted therapy; Drug toxicity; Surrogate marker; Nursing intervention
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus and is a rare cause of keratitis. We present a case of fungal keratitis caused by B. bassiana that was diagnosed by in vivo confocal microscopy and in vitro corneal cultures. In addition, we determined the temperature- and drug-sensitivities of the isolated strain of B. bassiana.
A 59-year-old Japanese man with a 2-month history of keratitis was examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy, and histology and cultures of corneal scrapings. The corneal scrapings were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of different antifungal drugs and also to determine the temperature-sensitivity. In vivo confocal microscopy and histological examinations showed filamentous fungal keratitis. The characteristics of the fungal growth indicated that the keratitis was caused by B. bassiana. The keratitis responded poorly to systemic and topical voriconazole and to natamycin ointment. However, it was resolved after changing the natamycin to micafungin combined with surgical debridement. The isolated strain was sensitive to itraconazole, miconazole, micafungin, voriconazole, and resistant to flucytosine and fluconazole. It was moderately sensitive to amphotericin B, and natamycin. After 7 days in culture, the isolate grew small white colonies at 25°C, very small colonies at 35°C and 37°C.
The drug-sensitivity and temperature-sensitivity profiles of B. bassiana should be helpful in the treatment of B. bassiana keratitis. Therapeutic surgery may be helpful for mycotic keratitis poorly responsive to medical therapy alone.
Fungal keratitis; Beauveria bassiana; In vivo confocal microscopy; Drug-sensitivity; Temperature sensitivity growth
To identify common genetic variants that contribute to lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a multistage genome-wide association study of lung cancer in Asian women who never smoked. We scanned 5,510 never-smoking female lung cancer cases and 4,544 controls drawn from 14 studies from mainland China, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. We genotyped the most promising variants (associated at P < 5 × 10-6) in an additional 1,099 cases and 2,913 controls. We identified three new susceptibility loci at 10q25.2 (rs7086803, P = 3.54 × 10-18), 6q22.2 (rs9387478, P = 4.14 × 10-10) and 6p21.32 (rs2395185, P = 9.51 × 10-9). We also confirmed associations reported for loci at 5p15.33 and 3q28 and a recently reported finding at 17q24.3. We observed no evidence of association for lung cancer at 15q25 in never-smoking women in Asia, providing strong evidence that this locus is not associated with lung cancer independent of smoking.
To determine factors associated with HIV status unawareness and assess HIV prevention knowledge and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Mozambique.
Cross-sectional household-based nationally representative AIDS Indicator Survey.
Analyses focused on HIV-infected adults and were weighted for the complex sampling design. We identified PLHIV who had never been tested for HIV or received their test results prior to this survey. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with HIV status unawareness.
Of persons with positive HIV test results (N = 1182), 61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57–65%) were unaware of their serostatus. Men had twice the odds of being unaware of their serostatus compared with women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.05, CI 1.40–2.98]. PLHIV in the poorest wealth quintile were most likely to be unaware of their serostatus (aOR 3.15, CI 1.09–9.12) compared to those in the middle wealth quintile. Most PLHIV (83%, CI 79–87%) reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse, and PLHIV who reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse were more likely to be unaware of their serostatus (aOR 2.32, CI 1.57–3.43) than those who used a condom.
Knowledge of HIV-positive status is associated with more frequent condom use in Mozambique. However, most HIV-infected persons are unaware of their serostatus, with men and persons in the poorest wealth quintile being more likely to be unaware. These findings support calls for expanded HIV testing, especially among groups less likely to be aware of their HIV status and key populations at higher risk for infection.
To examine whether interpersonal violence perpetration and violence toward objects are associated with body mass index (BMI), body weight perception (BWP), and repeated weight-loss dieting in female adolescents.
A cross-sectional survey using a self-report questionnaire was performed evaluating interpersonal violence perpetration, violence toward objects, the number of diets, BMI, BWP, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), victimization, substance use, and other psychosocial variables among 9,112 Japanese females aged between 12–18 years. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of BMI, BWP, and weight-control behavior to the incidence of violent behavior, while controlling for potential confounding factors.
The number of diets was associated with both interpersonal violence perpetration (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.08–1.29, p<0.001) and violence toward objects (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24–1.45, p<0.001), after adjusting for age, BMI, BWP, the GHQ-12 total score, victimization, and substance use. In terms of BMI and BWP, the “overweight” BWP was associated with violence toward objects (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.54, p<0.05). On the other hand, the “Underweight” and “Slightly underweight” BMI were related to violence toward objects [(OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01–1.62, p<0.05) and (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.07–1.51, p<0.05), respectively]. The “Underweight” BWP was related to interpersonal violence perpetration (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.38–3.84, p<0.05).
The cumulative number of diets is associated with violent behavior in female adolescents. In addition, underweight BMI and extreme BWP are associated with violent behavior.
Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.
We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers), and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV).
This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA) Study from October 2010 to November 2012.
Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s) (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease) were enrolled.
Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed) were significantly (p = 0.001) lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36) as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228–0.762, P = 0.004) was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR) and frequency-domain (LF) of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.
Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function may be partly involved.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a long-lasting disorder with frequent relapses that have significant effects on the patient’s family. Family psychoeducation is recognized as part of the optimal treatment for patients with psychotic disorder. A previous randomized controlled trial has found that family psychoeducation is effective in enhancing the treatment of MDD. Although MDD can easily become a chronic illness, there has been no intervention study on the families of patients with chronic depression. In the present study, we design a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of family psychoeducation in improving the mental health of relatives of patients with MDD lasting more than one year.
Participants are patients with MDD lasting more than one year and their relatives. Individually randomized, parallel-group trial design will be employed. Participants will be allocated to one of two treatment conditions: relatives will receive (a) family psychoeducation (four, two-hour biweekly multifamily psychoeducation sessions) plus treatment-as-usual for the patient (consultation by physicians), or (b) counseling for the family (one counseling session from a nurse) plus treatment-as-usual for the patient. The primary outcome measure will be relatives’ mental health as measured by K6 that was developed to screen for DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorder. Additionally, the severity of depressive symptoms in patients measured by the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II) scale will be assessed. Data from the intention-to-treat sample will be analyzed 16 weeks after randomization.
This is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of family psychoeducation for relatives of patients with MDD lasting more than one year. If this type of intervention is effective, it could be a new method of rehabilitation for patients with MDD lasting more than one year.
Clinical Trials.gov NCT01734291 (registration date: 18 October 2012).
Major depressive disorder; Family psychoeducation; Randomized controlled trial
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) regulates a variety of cellular functions, including cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the alterations of phenotypic events in the long-term exposure of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to TGFβ1 and its effect on macrophage-differentiated cells. The PCa cell line, PC-3, and the subclone, M1, were exposed to TGFβ1 for short- or long-term periods. TGFβ1 signaling was assessed by Smad3 phosphorylation, and non-canonical signaling was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based regulatory gene expression profiles. TGFβ1-exposed PCa cells were also co-cultured with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 macrophages as a model of the tumor microenvironment. The phosphorylation of Smad3 in the PCa cells with long-term exposure was lower than that in the PCa cells with short-term exposure. Interleukin-6 mRNA expression in the PMA-treated THP-1 macrophages was significantly downregulated by co-culture with the PCa cells with long-term exposure. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the long-term TGFβ1-exposed PCa cells was lower than that in the control PCa cells, and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the long-term TGFβ1-exposed PCa cells was also significantly lower. The results of the current study demonstrated that the long-term TGFβ1 exposure of PCa cells induces phenotypic changes, including the downregulation of PGE2 production. This indicates that prolonged TGFβ-exposed PCa cells may change the cytokine production of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment.
prostate cancer; transforming growth factor β1; THP-1 macrophage; microenvironment
The Cancer/Testis Antigen (CTA), Prostate-associated Gene 4 (PAGE4), is a stress-response protein that is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) especially in precursor lesions that result from inflammatory stress. In cells under stress, translocation of PAGE4 to mitochondria increases while production of reactive oxygen species decreases. Furthermore, PAGE4 is also upregulated in human fetal prostate, underscoring its potential role in development. However, the proteins that interact with PAGE4 and the mechanisms underlying its pleiotropic functions in prostatic development and disease remain unknown. Here, we identified c-Jun as a PAGE4 interacting partner. We show that both PAGE4 and c-Jun are overexpressed in the human fetal prostate; and in cell-based assays, PAGE4 robustly potentiates c-Jun transactivation. Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments indicate that upon binding to c-Jun, PAGE4 undergoes conformational changes. However, no interaction is observed in presence of BSA or unilamellar vesicles containing the mitochondrial inner membrane diphosphatidylglycerol lipid marker cardiolipin. Together, our data indicate that PAGE4 specifically interacts with c-Jun and that, conformational dynamics may account for its observed pleiotropic functions. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating crosstalk between a CTA and a proto-oncogene. Disrupting PAGE4/c-Jun interactions using small molecules may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for PCa.
PAGE4; Cancer/Testis Antigen; c-Jun; smFRET; Prostate cancer; Intrinsically disordered protein