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1.  MRI manifestations of soft-tissue haemangiomas and accompanying reactive bone changes 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1008):1100-1108.
Objectives
Soft tissue haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions that can be accompanied by reactive changes in the adjacent bone structure. This study aimed to discuss the MRI features of soft-tissue haemangiomas with an emphasis on changes in bone.
Methods
The radiographic and MRI findings of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 25 years; age range 2–46 years) with soft-tissue haemangiomas were analysed retrospectively. MR images were evaluated for location of the lesion, size, configuration, signal features, contrast patterns, proximity to adjacent bone and changes in the accompanying bone. Excisional biopsy was performed in 15 patients.
Results
Radiographs demonstrated phleboliths in 8 patients (34%) and reactive bone changes in 4 (19%). On MRI, T1 weighted images showed that most of the lesions were isointense or isohyperintense, as compared with muscle tissue; however, on T2 weighted images all lesions appeared as hyperintense. Following intravenous gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) administration, homogeneous enhancement was observed in 3 lesions and heterogeneous enhancement was seen in 19. No enhancement was observed in one patient. Bone atrophy adjacent to the lesion was observed in four patients.
Conclusion
MRI is the most valuable means of diagnosing deep soft-tissue haemangiomas. Bone changes can accompany deeply situated haemangiomas; in four of our patients, we found atrophy of the bone adjacent to the lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature regarding atrophy of the bone adjacent to a lesion.
doi:10.1259/bjr/58308513
PMCID: PMC3473825  PMID: 21123304
2.  Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Aqueous Extract of Stinging Nettle and In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect on Hela and BT-474 Cell Lines 
Phenolic compounds including flavonoids and phenolic acids are plants secondary metabolites. Due to their ability to act as antioxidant agents, there is a growing interest to use those components in traditional medicine for cancer prevention or treatment. The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids as well as anti-proliferative effect of aqueous extract of Stinging nettle on BT-474 and Hela cell lines. The amounts of phenolics content and total flavonoids were determined by folin ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity was measured by using diphenyl - picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The reducing power of the extract was measured in the presence of potassium hexacyanoferrate and its antiproliferative activity was assessed on BT-474 and Hela cell lines using MTT assay. Total phenolic content was 322.941± 11.811 mg gallic acid/g extract. Total flavonoid content was 133.916±12.006 mg Catechin/g. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 1.2 mg/ ml and the reducing power was 218.9± 15.582 μg ascorbic acid/ g. Cell viability of BT-474 cells decreased to less than half of the control (no added extract) at the presence of 3 mg/ ml extract while no significant changes were detected for Hela cells at similar conditions. There was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between consecutive days (day 1, 2 and 3) for both BT-474 and Hela cells (P>0.05). Although the relatively high amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents of the aqueous extract make this plant a promising candidate for diseases treatment; however, there is not a direct relationship between the amounts of these antioxidant components and the efficiency in in vitro cancer treatment.
PMCID: PMC4082812  PMID: 25035860
Polyphenols; Stinging nettle; antioxidant activity; antiproliferative effect
3.  Tissue Culture Study of The Medicinal Plant Leek (Allium Ampeloprasum L) 
Persian shallot, also called leek (Allium ampeloprasum), is a monocotyledon plant of the lily family (Liliaceae). It belongs to the genus Allium, has a characteristic taste and morphological features, making it to be considered as one of the popular herbal medicine. This research was conducted with the purpose of obtaining optimal conditions for tissue culture of Persian shallot and comparing its active ingredient production in vitro versus in vivo. In this study, the auxin 2, 4–D and benzyl aminopurine- 6 (BAP) hormones, each at two concentrations (0.5 and 0.1 mg/ L) and Kin at 0.5 mg/ L were used in the format of a randomized complete block design in three replications. Results showed that the best culture media for callus formation for leaf and seed explants were the MS cultures with the hormonal compositions (0.5 mg/ L of 2, 4– D, 0.1 mg/ L of BAP) and (0.5 mg/ L of Kin and 0.1 mg/ L of 2, 4– D). Identification of the chemical composition of the essential oils, extracted either from leek callus or leaf was carried out using GC mass analysis. Twenty one compounds were detected in the GC mass spectra, seven of which constitutv about 51.5% of the total amount of compounds present in the essential oils were identified. Our data demonstrate that the leek essential oil constituents as well as callus formation can be affected by culture medium condition.
PMCID: PMC4082814  PMID: 25035862
Leek; Allium Ampeloprasum; tissue culture; chromatography; essential oil
4.  Effects of Teucrium Polium Aerial Parts extract on oral glucose tolerance tests and pancreas histopathology in Streptozocin-induced diabetic rats 
Teucrium polium can reduce serum glucose. There are few reports in the literature related to this subject and the resolution of this mechanism requires further experiments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium aerial parts extracts on oral glucose tolerance tests and pancreas histology in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. In order to prepare the aqueous concentrate, aerial parts extract was dissolved in distilled water and was boiled for 30 minutes. For the preparation of ethanolic solution, powder was dissolved in ethanol and mixed by a shaker. Diabetic rats were induced with single IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in normal saline just before use to the 16 hr fast rats. Both groups, diabetic and normal were sacrificed by ether anesthesia. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination in accordance with routine laboratory procedures. Blood was collected from the tail vein of the rats. Serum glucose levels were then measured by commercial kits by using a glucose oxidized method. There were no biochemical abnormalities or histological changes in the pancreas of control rats. Post treatment of Teucrium polium aerial parts extract reduced the severity of streptozotocin diabetic pancreases. Our histopathological investigation along with the biochemical evaluations showed a significant effect on histological changes in the pancreas of induced diabetic rats upon Teucrium polium aerial parts extract treatment (P<0.05).
PMCID: PMC3920490  PMID: 24551758
Teucrium polium; oral glucose tolerance tests; pancreas histology; streptozocin; diabetic rats
5.  Central Effects of Camphor on GnRH and Sexual Hormones in Male Rat 
In Persian traditional medicine is believed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) is a suppressor of sexual behaviors. This study examined the central effects of camphor on sexual hormones (LH, FSH and testosterone) and GnRH plasma levels in male rat.
Male Wistar rats weighing 250-260gr were selected and divided into control (no treatment), sham (ICV injection of EtOH 10%) and treatment (ICV injection of camphor in three doses 4, 20, 40 µg/ 10µl in alcohol) groups. The serum samples were used for assaying of GnRH, LH, FSH and testosterone.
There were no significant differences in the levels of hormones between the groups of study.
Despite the central administration of camphor in hypothalamus - pituitary - gonad (HPG) axis, no significant differences were seen in sex hormone`s levels compared to the control. With this finding, it can be concluded that camphor may not effectively handle the axis via central pathway. These data recommend further studies of camphor on the HPG axis.
PMCID: PMC3920510  PMID: 24551777
Camphor; GnRH; Hypothalamus - Pituitary - Gonad (H-P-G) Axis

Results 1-5 (5)