Erectile dysfunction (ED) represents a common and debilitating condition with a wide range of organic and non-organic causes. Physical aetiologies can be divided into disorders affecting arterial inflow, the venous occlusion mechanism or the penile structure itself. Various imaging modalities can be utilised to investigate the physical causes of ED, but penile Doppler sonography (PDS) is the most informative technique, indicated in those patients with ED who do not respond to oral pharmacological agents (e.g. phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). This review will examine the anatomical and physiological basis of penile erection, the method for performing PDS and features of specific causes of ED, and will also consider the alternative imaging modalities available.
Priapism is defined as a penile erection that persists for 4 h or longer and is unrelated to sexual activity. Its identification is important as lack of timely treatment (particularly of the low flow/ischaemic subgroup) can result in persisting erectile dysfunction as a consequence of irreversible corporal fibrosis. This review describes the physiology and anatomy of the normal erection, the aetiology and pathophysiology of the different types of priapism, and the role of the radiologist in the management of the condition. The treatment of iatrogenic priapism following intracavernosal injection of pharmacostimulant is discussed.
Screening for asymptomatic diseases can reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality in all population groups. There is widespread geographical variation in the quality of care. Few data are available on national screening rates in South Africa and how these vary across the provinces.
To examine screening rates for chronic diseases of lifestyle (CDL), HIV and cancer in a privately insured population for a single insurer across all nine provinces in South Africa, and to determine whether or not there are any differences between the provinces.
Screening rates were calculated as the proportion of eligible members who had received screening tests during 2011 in each province. Mean screening rates were compared between Gauteng and the other eight provinces.
Nationwide screening rates were 20.5% for CDL, 8.2% for HIV and 31.9% for cancer. Despite similar insurance coverage, screening rates ranged from 0.3% to 0.95% lower in other provinces compared with Gauteng. Of all the provinces, Gauteng had the highest annual screening rates for CDL, breast cancer, prostate cancer and HIV (p<0.001), while the Western Cape had the highest rate for cervical cancer (p<0.001).
There is much variation in preventive care utilisation across the provinces within this health-insured population. Provinces with more abundant healthcare resources have higher screening rates. Further research is required to understand the reasons for the variation, given equal payment access.
Neo-angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis, in a prospective patient cohort, that in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (LR-GTN) the uterine artery pulsatility index (UAPI), a measure of tumour vascularity, can predict resistance to methotrexate chemotherapy (MTX-R).
286 LR-GTN patients (Charing Cross Hospital (CXH) score 0–8, or FIGO score 0–6) were treated with methotrexate between January 2008 and June 2011 at CXH. During staging investigations, patients underwent a Doppler ultrasound to assess the UAPI.
239 patients were assessable for both UAPI and MTX-R. The median UAPI was lower (higher vascularity) in MTX-R compared with MTX-sensitive patients (0.8 vs 1.4, P<0.0001). In multivariate logistic regression, UAPI⩽1 predicted MTX-R, independent of both CXH and FIGO scores. The risk of MTX-R in patients with a FIGO score of 6 and UAPI⩽1 was 100% vs 20% in patients with UAPI>1 (χ2
UAPI represents an independently validated clinically useful predictor of MTX-R in LR-GTN. Further, consideration of whether to incorporate UAPI into the FIGO scoring system is now warranted so that patients with a score of 6 and a UAPI ⩽1 might be upstaged and offered combination chemotherapy rather than MTX.
low-risk GTN; UAPI; drug resistance; angiogenesis
Endovascular repair of isolated iliac artery aneurysms is an established safe and effective management option. Type II endoleak is a potential complication, but rarely results in significant morbidity or mortality. We report a case of a patient who presented with a ruptured internal iliac artery aneurysm secondary to a Type II endoleak. To our knowledge this and the following method of managing this have not been previously reported. Established methods of managing endoleaks, such as intravascular transfemoral embolisation and open or laparoscopic ligation, were not possible. Therefore, we resorted to a novel approach to this type of aneurysm and successfully performed a transcutaneous direct puncture and embolisation of the superior gluteal artery.
Estimating another person's subjective confidence is crucial for social interaction, but how this inference is achieved is unknown. Previous research has demonstrated that the speed at which people make decisions is correlated with their confidence in their decision. Here, we show that (i) subjects are able to infer the subjective confidence of another person simply through the observation of their actions and (ii) this inference is dependent upon the performance of each subject when executing the action. Crucially, the latter result supports a model in which motor simulation of an observed action mediates the successful understanding of other minds. We conclude that kinematic understanding allows access to the higher-order cognitive processes of others, and that this access plays a central role in social interactions.
inference; kinematics; action observation
We have used a translational convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach to identify and prioritize genes involved in schizophrenia, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study data with other genetic and gene expression studies in humans and animal models. Using this polyevidence scoring and pathway analyses, we identify top genes (DISC1, TCF4, MBP, MOBP, NCAM1, NRCAM, NDUFV2, RAB18, as well as ADCYAP1, BDNF, CNR1, COMT, DRD2, DTNBP1, GAD1, GRIA1, GRIN2B, HTR2A, NRG1, RELN, SNAP-25, TNIK), brain development, myelination, cell adhesion, glutamate receptor signaling, G-protein–coupled receptor signaling and cAMP-mediated signaling as key to pathophysiology and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Overall, the data are consistent with a model of disrupted connectivity in schizophrenia, resulting from the effects of neurodevelopmental environmental stress on a background of genetic vulnerability. In addition, we show how the top candidate genes identified by CFG can be used to generate a genetic risk prediction score (GRPS) to aid schizophrenia diagnostics, with predictive ability in independent cohorts. The GRPS also differentiates classic age of onset schizophrenia from early onset and late-onset disease. We also show, in three independent cohorts, two European American and one African American, increasing overlap, reproducibility and consistency of findings from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genes, then genes prioritized by CFG, and ultimately at the level of biological pathways and mechanisms. Finally, we compared our top candidate genes for schizophrenia from this analysis with top candidate genes for bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders from previous CFG analyses conducted by us, as well as findings from the fields of autism and Alzheimer. Overall, our work maps the genomic and biological landscape for schizophrenia, providing leads towards a better understanding of illness, diagnostics and therapeutics. It also reveals the significant genetic overlap with other major psychiatric disorder domains, suggesting the need for improved nosology.
biomarkers; convergent functional genomics; genetic risk prediction; pathways; schizophrenia
To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in schools for the blind in Malaysia.
All children ≤15years attending 24 schools for the blind throughout the country were examined using the WHO Prevention of Blindness Programme (WHO/PBL) eye examination record for children, and visual loss was classified according to the International Classification of Disease (ICD).
In all, 469 children were examined, of whom 448 (95.6%) had BL/SVI. The major causes of visual loss were retinal disorders (n=148, 33% mainly retinopathy of prematurity (n=78, 17.4%)), cataract/pseudophakia/aphakia (n=77, 17.2%), and anomalies affecting the whole globe. (n=86, 19.2%). The major underlying etiology was undetermined (n=193, 43.1%), followed by hereditary factors, 21.7% (mainly retinal dystrophies), and perinatal factors, 20.5%. More than 34 (7.6%) cases were considered potentially preventable and 192 (42.9%) potentially treatable.
Diseases of the retina are the major cause of visual impairment, with retinopathy of prematurity being an important avoidable cause. This reflects expansion of neonatal services in Malaysia, and improved survival of very low birth weight and preterm babies. Lens-related causes of visual impairment reflect the need to further improve pediatric ophthalmology services in Malaysia.
childhood blindness; severe visual impairment; Malaysia; retinopathy of prematurity; WHO prevention of blindness programme
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are those that provide intimate contact of the drug with the mucosa for an extended period of time. In present work, mucoadhesive chitosan microspheres of Levosalbutamol sulphate were prepared by Spray drying method. Formulations were characterized for various physicochemical attributes size, encapsulation efficiency, swelling ability, in vitro release study and mucoadhesion study by rat ileum. Through these parameters we conclude that the batch B2 was found to be best mainly by mucoadhesion study and in vitro drug release. Mucoadhesion was found to be increased with incresed concentration of polymer and visa versa in case of drug release. Batch B3 had also similar results with that of Batch B2. That's why here Batch B2 was said to be the best batch with less polymeric content as compare to Batch B3.
Chitosan microspheres; spray drying; in vitro release study
Both granular and lattice deposits are present in Avellino corneal dystrophy (ACD), primarily associated with R124H mutation of transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBI). We investigated the presence of these deposits in other TGFBI mutations and the use of Thioflavin-T (ThT), a fluorescent amyloid stain for characterizing corneal amyloid deposits.
Surgical corneal specimens of three unrelated patients clinically diagnosed with ACD were studied. Corneal sections from normal and prior patients with lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD) were used as controls. Histochemical studies were performed with Congo red and Masson trichrome, and fluorescent imaging with scanning laser confocal microscopy was performed for ThT and an anti-TGFBI antibody staining.
Clinical and histopathological findings supported the diagnoses of ACD in these three cases, in whom granular deposits stained with Masson trichrome and lattice deposits stained with ThT and Congo red showing birefringence and dichroism as expected. However, genotyping revealed a heterozygous R124C mutation in each case. In addition to classical stromal deposits, unique sub-epithelial TGFBI aggregates, that stain with neither ThT nor trichrome, were observed. In control LCD sections, stromal deposits stained with ThT but not with trichrome, confirming lack of granular deposits.
Our results demonstrate that both granular and lattice deposits can be associated with R124C mutation, other than R124H. An additional feature of non-hyaline, non-amyloid TGFBI sub-epithelial deposits might substantiate such cases be categorized as a variant form of LCD or ACD. This study further validates ThT staining for detection of amyloid TGFBI deposits.
Avellino corneal dystrophy; keratoepithelin; TGFBI; amyloid; ThT
Anxiety disorders are prevalent and disabling yet understudied from a genetic standpoint, compared with other major psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The fact that they are more common, diverse and perceived as embedded in normal life may explain this relative oversight. In addition, as for other psychiatric disorders, there are technical challenges related to the identification and validation of candidate genes and peripheral biomarkers. Human studies, particularly genetic ones, are susceptible to the issue of being underpowered, because of genetic heterogeneity, the effect of variable environmental exposure on gene expression, and difficulty of accrual of large, well phenotyped cohorts. Animal model gene expression studies, in a genetically homogeneous and experimentally tractable setting, can avoid artifacts and provide sensitivity of detection. Subsequent translational integration of the animal model datasets with human genetic and gene expression datasets can ensure cross-validatory power and specificity for illness. We have used a pharmacogenomic mouse model (involving treatments with an anxiogenic drug—yohimbine, and an anti-anxiety drug—diazepam) as a discovery engine for identification of anxiety candidate genes as well as potential blood biomarkers. Gene expression changes in key brain regions for anxiety (prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus) and blood were analyzed using a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach, which integrates our new data with published human and animal model data, as a translational strategy of cross-matching and prioritizing findings. Our work identifies top candidate genes (such as FOS, GABBR1, NR4A2, DRD1, ADORA2A, QKI, RGS2, PTGDS, HSPA1B, DYNLL2, CCKBR and DBP), brain–blood biomarkers (such as FOS, QKI and HSPA1B), pathways (such as cAMP signaling) and mechanisms for anxiety disorders—notably signal transduction and reactivity to environment, with a prominent role for the hippocampus. Overall, this work complements our previous similar work (on bipolar mood disorders and schizophrenia) conducted over the last decade. It concludes our programmatic first pass mapping of the genomic landscape of the triad of major psychiatric disorder domains using CFG, and permitted us to uncover the significant genetic overlap between anxiety and these other major psychiatric disorders, notably the under-appreciated overlap with schizophrenia. PDE10A, TAC1 and other genes uncovered by our work provide a molecular basis for the frequently observed clinical co-morbidity and interdependence between anxiety and other major psychiatric disorders, and suggest schizo-anxiety as a possible new nosological domain.
anxiety; biomarkers; blood; brain; genes; microarray
Omega-3 fatty acids have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment option in psychiatric disorders. Given their other health benefits and their relative lack of toxicity, teratogenicity and side effects, they may be particularly useful in children and in females of child-bearing age, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. A comprehensive mechanistic understanding of their effects is needed. Here we report translational studies demonstrating the phenotypic normalization and gene expression effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in a stress-reactive knockout mouse model of bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcoholism, using a bioinformatic convergent functional genomics approach integrating animal model and human data to prioritize disease-relevant genes. Additionally, to validate at a behavioral level the novel observed effects on decreasing alcohol consumption, we also tested the effects of DHA in an independent animal model, alcohol-preferring (P) rats, a well-established animal model of alcoholism. Our studies uncover sex differences, brain region-specific effects and blood biomarkers that may underpin the effects of DHA. Of note, DHA modulates some of the same genes targeted by current psychotropic medications, as well as increases myelin-related gene expression. Myelin-related gene expression decrease is a common, if nonspecific, denominator of neuropsychiatric disorders. In conclusion, our work supports the potential utility of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically DHA, for a spectrum of psychiatric disorders such as stress disorders, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and beyond.
alcoholism; bipolar; DHA; genomics; omega-3; stress
Diabetes is one of the major causes of cataract. Some drugs prescribed for the treatment of diabetes are the modulators of CYP450, which may alter the risk of cataract.
To study the effect of CYP450 modulation in galactosemic cataract.
Materials and Methods:
Male Sprague-Dawley suckling rats were allotted to four groups (n = 6), as follows: Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: Galactose control, Group 3: CYP450 inhibitor pretreated and Group 4: CYP450 inducer pretreated. Cataract was induced in animals of all groups except group 1 by feeding them galactose (50%), 21 days after parturition. From the eighteenth day of life, CYP450 inhibitor (nifedipine; 8.1 mg/kg) and CYP450 inducer (pioglitazone; 3.8 mg/kg) were given orally to groups 3 and 4, respectively. The maturation pattern of the cataract was observed by an operating microscope, every third day. Biochemical changes in the lenses of all groups, for example, CYP450 activity expressed as µM NADPH oxidized / unit time, alterations in the levels of total proteins, soluble proteins, and reduced glutathione (GSH) following the induction of cataract, were estimated.
The microscopic examination of the lenses indicated that CYP450 inhibitor pre-treatment delayed (fourteenth day) the occurrence of cataract, while CYP450 inducer pretreatment demonstrated an early (ninth day) cataract as compared to galactose control rats (twelfth day). A significant decrease and increase in CYP450 activity was observed with the CYP450 inhibitor and inducer pre-treatment, respectively. There was no alteration in the GSH level, but a significant increase in total and soluble protein was found in groups 3 and 4 as compared to group 2.
CYP450 may have a role in the initiation of cataract without any effect on the maturation pattern, as revealed by the delayed occurrence of cataract with the CYP450 inhibitor and an early onset of cataract with the CYP450 inducer.
Cataract; CYP450; galactose; lens
The objective of this study was to prospectively measure peri-diagnostic and surgical time intervals for patients with suspected colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer. Prospective eligible patients were referred to a regional hospital in Ottawa, Canada between February 2004 and February 2005 for diagnostic assessment of presumptive colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer. Chart abstractions were used to measure nine time intervals; the primary interval was the date of referral for diagnostic assessment to the date the patient was informed of the diagnosis. Health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) was assessed 5 days following the patient being informed of their diagnosis. The median (IQR) time for the primary interval was 71 (30–110), 37 (29–49), and 81 (56–100) days for colorectal, lung, and prostate patients, respectively (Kruskal–Wallis P=0.0001). This interval was significantly less for colorectal patients diagnosed with cancer than for those without cancer (median difference=59.0 days; Wilcoxon P=0.003). No differences in HRQL existed for patients with cancer and those without. Colorectal and prostate patients wait longer between referral for suspected cancer and being informed of their diagnosis than current recommendations. The shorter diagnostic intervals for colorectal patients with cancer suggest clinicians have an effective process for triaging patients referred for diagnostic assessment.
lung cancer; colorectal cancer; prostate cancer; health services; diagnosis; surgery
A single dose, crossover bioequivalence study of two different brands of clonidine hydrochloride 25 μg tablets was conducted in 24 (+2 stand by) healthy, adult, male, Indian subjects under fasting conditions to check the implication of enterohepatic re-circulation on assessment of bioequivalence. After an overnight fasting of at least 10 h, the subjects received single oral dose of test or reference product with either of the product as per randomization schedule in each period with a washout period of 10 days. The pre-dose blood sample was collected within a period of one h before dosing. The post-dose blood samples were collected at specified time intervals up to 96 h. The plasma concentrations of clonidine were quantified by validated LCMS/MS method and pharmacokinetic parameters were computed. The 90% confidence intervals of test/reference ratios for Cmax and area under the plasma-concentration- time-curve AUC under 0-t were found to be between 0.80 and 1.25 for log-transformed data. Analysis of variance did not show significant difference to these parameters. No meaningful values of Kel and therefore AUC under 0-infinity could be calculated for significant number of subjects due to enterohepatic re-circulation. Based on the results obtained, two different brands of clonidine 25 μg tablets have comparable rate and extent of absorption after oral administration but failed to show bioequivalence as per regulatory requirement of Food and Drugs Administration-united states.
Enterohepatic re-circulation; clonidine hydrochloride; area under curve; analysis of variance; bioequivalence
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) originate from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and ambient air pollution by these is increasing. There is also an increase in the global prevalence of asthma, for which environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the important factors. Exposure to pollutants and other allergens induces chronic airway inflammation by generation of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess association, if any, between exposure to PAH and asthma as well as oxidative stress in children.
In this hospital-based case control study, cases of bronchial asthma aged 1–14 years and healthy matched controls were included. Oxidative stress was measured by assessing the levels of enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH).
Forty-two cases and 20 controls were enrolled. Mean blood level of phenanthrene, a PAH, was 63.11 ppb ± 115.62 and 4.20 ppb ± 10.68 ppb in cases and controls, respectively (P = 0.02). Mean blood levels of GSH was significantly lower in cases and controls (27.39 μg/ml ± 11.09 versus 47.39 g/ml ± 13.83; P-value = 0.001). Likewise, mean blood level of MDA in nanomole/ml was significantly higher in asthma as compared with controls (12.85 ± 5.40 versus 8.19 ± 5.16; P-value = 0.002), suggestive of increased oxidative stress.
Because elevated blood level of phenanthrene is associated with bronchial asthma as well as with oxidative stress, measures to reduce exposure to PAH may possibly lead to reduced incidence and severity of bronchial asthma.
Asthma; children; India; phenanthrene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; oxidative stress
Floating matrix tablets of domperidone were developed to prolong gastric residence time and thereby increased drug bioavailability. Domperidone was chosen as a model drug because it is poorly absorbed from the lower gastrointestinal tract. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using polymers such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M, carbopol 934P, and sodium alginate, either alone or in combination, and other standard excipients. Tablets were evaluated for physical characteristics viz. hardness, % friability, floating capacity, weight variation and content uniformity. Further, tablets were evaluated for in vitro release characteristics for 24 h. In vitro release mechanism was evaluated by linear regression analysis. Floating matrix tablets based on combination of three polymers namely; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M, carbopol 934P and sodium alginate exhibited desired floating and prolonged drug release for 24 h. Carbopol loading showed negative effect on floating properties but were found helpful to control the release rate of drug.
Domperidone; floating matrix tablet; floating lag time; total floating time
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index and early complications following total hip replacements. Five hundred and fifty patients who underwent primary total hip replacement were recruited. All these patients were subjected to a pre-operative assessment and follow-up at 6 weeks and 1 year following surgery. Any complications occurring during this period were recorded. Complications were grouped into systemic and local, both subdivided into minor and major depending on the risk involved. Fifty-six patients (10.2%) had an early complication following hip replacement surgery. Forty-four patients (8%) had a major local complication. Overall, there did seem to be a weak correlation between BMI and the rate of complications, with a p value of 0.104. A correlation was also found between the surgeon and presence of complications with a p value of 0.736. There is a weak correlation between BMI and early complications following hip replacement surgery, and there also seems to be a correlation between the operating surgeon and early complications, but this is not statistically significant.
A rapid, selective and stability-indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combined tablet dosage form. Olanzapine and fluoxetine were chromatographed on silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate using methanol:toluene (4:2 v/v) as the mobile phase and spectrodensitometric scanning-integration was performed at a wavelength of 233 nm using a Camag TLC Scanner III. This system was found to give compact spots for both olanzapine (Rf value of 0.63±0.01) and fluoxetine (Rf value of 0.31±0.01). The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.9995 in the concentration range of 100-800 ng/spot for olanzapine and 1000-8000 ng/spot for fluoxetine with r2=0.9991. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and specificity. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for the olanzapine were found to be 30 and 100 ng/spot, respectively and for fluoxetine 300 and 1000 ng/spot, respectively. Olanzapine and fluoxetine were degraded under acidic, basic and oxidation degradation conditions which showed all the peaks of degraded product were well resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Both drugs were not further degraded after thermal and photochemical degradation. The method was found to be reproducible and selective for the simultaneous estimation of olanzapine and fluoxetine. As the method could effectively separate the drugs from their degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating method.
Stability indicating method; forced degradation; olanzapine; fluoxetine; HPTLC; simultaneous estimation
The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q30) and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE30). From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent.
Fast dissolving tablets; etoricoxib; sublimation; menthol; factorial design; response surface plot