To evaluate the effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by measuring the response of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells.
B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumours received reactor thermal neutron beam irradiation following the administration of a 10B-carrier [L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-10B (BSH)] in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation.
BPA-BNCT increased the sensitivity of the total tumour cell population more than BSH-BNCT. However, the sensitivity of Q cells treated with BPA was lower than that of BSH-treated Q cells. With or without a 10B–carrier, MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the Q cell population. Without irradiation, nicotinamide treatment decreased the number of lung metastases. With irradiation, BPA-BNCT, especially in combination with nicotinamide treatment, showed the potential to reduce the number of metastases more than BSH-BNCT.
BSH-BNCT in combination with MTH improves local tumour control, while BPA-BNCT in combination with nicotinamide may reduce the number of lung metastases.
The aim was to evaluate the influence of bevacizumab on intratumour oxygenation status and lung metastasis following radiotherapy, with specific reference to the response of quiescent (Q) cell populations within irradiated tumours.
B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) with or without the administration of bevacizumab under aerobic conditions or totally hypoxic conditions, achieved by clamping the proximal end of the tumours. Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In the other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation.
3 days after bevacizumab administration, acute hypoxia-rich total cell population in the tumour showed a remarkably enhanced radiosensitivity to γ-rays, and the hypoxic fraction (HF) was reduced, even after MTH treatment. However, the hypoxic fraction was not reduced after nicotinamide treatment. With or without γ-ray irradiation, bevacizumab administration showed some potential to reduce the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide treatment.
Bevacizumab has the potential to reduce perfusion-limited acute hypoxia and some potential to cause a decrease in the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide.
Aberrant reactivation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been described in a wide variety of human cancers including cancer stem cells. However, involvement of the Hh-signaling system in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment during the development of myeloid neoplasms is unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression of Hh-related genes in primary human CD34+ cells, CD34+ blastic cells and BM stromal cells. Both Indian Hh (Ihh) and its signal transducer, smoothened (SMO), were expressed in CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-derived cells. However, Ihh expression was relatively low in BM stromal cells. Remarkably, expression of the intrinsic Hh-signaling inhibitor, human Hh-interacting protein (HHIP) in AML/MDS-derived stromal cells was markedly lower than in healthy donor-derived stromal cells. Moreover, HHIP expression levels in BM stromal cells highly correlated with their supporting activity for SMO+ leukemic cells. Knockdown of HHIP gene in stromal cells increased their supporting activity although control cells marginally supported SMO+ leukemic cell proliferation. The demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine rescued HHIP expression via demethylation of HHIP gene and reduced the leukemic cell-supporting activity of AML/MDS-derived stromal cells. This indicates that suppression of stromal HHIP could be associated with the proliferation of AML/MDS cells.
acute myeloid leukemia (AML); myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); human hedgehog-interacting protein (HHIP); stromal cells
Sick leave from work due to psychiatric disorders is a major public health problem, not only in Japan but also worldwide. As males and females in Japan tend to differ in their approach to work, a gender difference in perfectionism might be expected. We investigated the background factors leading to long-term absence from work due to sickness among psychiatric outpatients in Japan.
We surveyed 73 psychiatric outpatients who were absent from work for a long time (POAWs) and 228 employees without long-term sickness absence as controls. GHQ-30, NEO-FFI, MPS, RSS and questionnaires inquiring about background factors, including relationships with others, was used, and the data were compared between males and females.
Male POAWs had a significantly higher tendency for depression and perfectionism than the controls, but in females this difference was not significant. With regard to personal relationships of POAWs, males had worse relationships with superiors and colleagues, whereas females had worse relationships with superiors, colleagues, and family.
The data suggested that male workers exhibiting perfectionism tend to undertake too much work and become exhausted when trying to cope with complex human relationships in the workplace. Female workers having the double burden of family commitment and perfectionism tend to be isolated in terms of personal relationships, leading to exhaustion both in and outside the workplace.
Sickness Absence; Psychiatric Outpatients; Perfectionism; Psychological Stress; Double-Burden
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases.
The expression and activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are determinants of radiosensitivity in several tumour types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known of whether genetic alterations of EGFR in NSCLC cells affect the therapeutic response to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to EGFR in combination with radiation. We examined the effects of nimotuzumab, a humanised mAb to EGFR, in combination with ionising radiation on human NSCLC cell lines of differing EGFR status. Flow cytometry revealed that H292 and Ma-1 cells expressed high and moderate levels of EGFR on the cell surface, respectively, whereas H460, H1299, and H1975 cells showed a low level of surface EGFR expression. Immunoblot analysis revealed that EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by nimotuzumab in H292 and Ma-1 cells but not in H460, H1299, or H1975 cells. Nimotuzumab augmented the cytotoxic effect of radiation in H292 and Ma-1 cells in a clonogenic assay in vitro, with a dose enhancement factor of 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. It also enhanced the antitumor effect of radiation on H292 and Ma-1 cell xenografts in nude mice, with an enhancement factor of 1.3 and 4.0, respectively. Nimotuzumab did not affect the radioresponse of H460 cells in vitro or in vivo. Nimotuzumab enhanced the antitumor efficacy of radiation in certain human NSCLC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. This effect may be related to the level of EGFR expression on the cell surface rather than to EGFR mutation.
epidermal growth factor receptor; non-small cell lung cancer; nimotuzumab; monoclonal antibody; genetic alteration; radiosensitisation
Profilins are actin binding proteins, which also interact with polyphosphoinositides and proline-rich ligands. On the basis of the genome sequence, three diverse profilin homologues (PFN) are predicted to exist in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that all three isoforms PFN-1, PFN-2, and PFN-3 are expressed in vivo and biochemical studies indicate they bind actin and influence actin dynamics in a similar manner. In addition, they bind poly(l-proline) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate micelles. PFN-1 is essential whereas PFN-2 and PFN-3 are nonessential. Immunostainings revealed different expression patterns for the profilin isoforms. In embryos, PFN-1 localizes in the cytoplasm and to the cell–cell contacts at the early stages, and in the nerve ring during later stages. During late embryogenesis, expression of PFN-3 was specifically detected in body wall muscle cells. In adult worms, PFN-1 is expressed in the neurons, the vulva, and the somatic gonad, PFN-2 in the intestinal wall, the spermatheca, and the pharynx, and PFN-3 localizes in a striking dot-like fashion in body wall muscle. Thus the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans expresses three profilin isoforms and is the first invertebrate animal with tissue-specific profilin expression.
Profilin; Caenorhabditis elegans; actin cytoskeleton; poly(l-proline); polyphospho-inositides
To characterise Ca2+-binding protein gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), we compared the gene expression profiles in OSCC-derived cell lines with normal oral tissues. One hundred Ca2+-binding protein genes differentially expressed in OSCCs were identified, and genetic pathways associated with expression changes were generated. Among genes mapped to the network with the highest significance, glucose-regulated protein 94 kDa (Grp94) was evaluated further for mRNA and protein expression in the OSCC cell lines, primary OSCCs, and oral premalignant lesions (OPLs). A significant (P<0.001) overexpression of Grp94 protein was observed in all cell lines compared to normal oral epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis showed highly expressed Grp94 in primary OSCCs and OPLs, whereas most of the corresponding normal tissues had no protein immunoreaction. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR data agreed with the protein expression status. Moreover, overexpression of Grp94 in primary tumours was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with poor disease-free survival. The results suggested that Grp94 may have potential clinical application as a novel diagnosis and prognostic biomarker for human OSCCs.
oral squamous cell carcinoma; Ca2+-binding protein; pathway analysis; glucose-regulated protein 94 kDa; poor prognosis
TZT-1027 is a novel anticancer agent that inhibits microtubule polymerisation and manifests potent antitumour activity in preclinical models. We have examined the effect of TZT-1027 on cell cycle progression as well as the anticancer activity of this drug both in vitro and in vivo. With the use of tsFT210 cells, which express a temperature-sensitive mutant of Cdc2, we found that TZT-1027 arrests cell cycle progression in mitosis, the phase of the cell cycle most sensitive to radiation. A clonogenic assay indeed revealed that TZT-1027 increased the sensitivity of H460 cells to γ-radiation, with a dose enhancement factor of 1.2. Furthermore, TZT-1027 increased the radiosensitivity of H460 and A549 cells in nude mice, as revealed by a marked delay in tumour growth and an enhancement factor of 3.0 and 2.2, respectively. TZT-1027 also potentiated the induction of apoptosis in H460 cells by radiation both in vitro and in vivo. Histological evaluation of H460 tumours revealed that TZT-1027 induced morphological damage to the vascular endothelium followed by extensive central tumour necrosis. Our results thus suggest that TZT-1027 enhances the antitumour effect of ionising radiation, and that this action is attributable in part to potentiation of apoptosis induction and to an antivascular effect. Combined treatment with TZT-1027 and radiation therefore warrants investigation in clinical trials as a potential anticancer strategy.
TZT-1027; radiosensitisation; microtubule; mitotic arrest; apoptosis; antivascular effect
stents; restenosis; vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation; genetics
Somatically acquired mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancer are associated with significant clinical responses to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets EGFR. We screened the EGFR in 469 resected tumours of patients with lung cancer, which included 322 adenocarcinomas, 102 squamous cell carcinomas, 27 large cell carcinomas, 13 small cell carcinomas, and five other cell types. PCR with a specific condition was performed to identify any deletion in exon 19, while mutant-allele-specific amplification was performed to identify a mutation in codon 858 of exon 21. EGFR mutations were found in 136 cases (42.2%) with adenocarcinoma, in one case with large cell carcinoma, and in one case with pleomorphic carcinoma. An in-frame deletion in exon 19 was found in 62 cases while an L858R mutation was found in 77 cases. In the 322 cases with adenocarcinoma, these mutations were more frequently found in women than in men (P=0.0004), in well differentiated tumours than in poorly differentiated tumours (P=0.0014), and in patients who were never smokers than in patients who were current/former smokers (P<0.0001). The mutation was more frequently observed in patients who smoked ⩽20 pack-year, and in patients who quit at least 20 years before the date of diagnosis for lung cancer. The K-ras mutations were more frequently found in smokers than in never smokers, and in high-dose smokers than in low-dose smokers. In conclusion, the mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR were found to specifically occur in lung adenocarcinoma patients with a low exposure of tobacco smoking.
EGFR; mutation; lung cancer; adenocarcinoma; smoking; screening; K-ras
Background/aims: To evaluate the potential of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) as a tool to study the precise location and changes of sclerotomy sites of the eye with an intraocular drug delivery device.
Methods: Eight eyes of six patients (13 sites) who received ganciclovir implants were examined by UBM. Examinations were performed 1–26 months (mean 12.8 months) postoperatively. Serial transverse and radial sections of the anterior ciliary body around the sclerotomy sites were obtained.
Results: The ganciclovir implant contour was successfully viewed using an UBM with high reflectivity. Three implants were deviated anteriorly and they were very close to the ciliary body and the lens (anterior deviation), while four implants were deviated posteriorly and away from the lens (posterior deviation). The other six implants were located at the appropriate position as intended. A solitary homogeneous mass with a medium reflectivity around the suture tab was observed at 12 out of 13 sites in seven eyes. Thick membranes extending from sclerotomy sites to the ora serrata were found at two sites in two eyes.
Conclusion: UBM is helpful in detecting abnormal manifestations around ganciclovir implants and is a valuable tool to assess the changes of the sclerotomy sites of the sustained released intraocular devices.
ultrasound biomicroscopy; drug delivery system; ganciclovir implants
Periodate-treated, non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene consists of about ten periodate-oxidized, alkaline-degraded low molecular weight-heparin chains linked to a polystyrene core and has a markedly lower anti-coagulant activity than heparin. In this study, we evaluated the effect of non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene on tumour growth and metastasis. Non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene has a higher activity to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-165-, fibroblast growth factor-2- or hepatocyte growth factor-induced human microvascular endothelial cell growth than heparin, ten periodate-oxidized-heparin and ten periodate-oxidized-low molecular weight-heparin, which is probably due to the heparin-clustering effect of non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene. Non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene inhibited human microvascular endothelial cell, B16 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cell adhesion to Matrigel-coated plates. Non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene also showed strong inhibitory activities in the tubular formation of endothelial cells on Matrigel and B16-melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cell invasion in a Matrigel-coated chamber assay. In vivo studies showed that growth of subcutaneous induced tumours and lung metastasis of B16-melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells were more effectively inhibited by non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene than ten periodate-oxidized-heparin and ten periodate-oxidized-low molecular weight-heparin. Furthermore, non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene markedly reduced the number of CD34-positive vessels in subcutaneous Lewis lung cancer tumours, indicating a strong inhibition of angiogenesis. These results suggest that non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene has an inhibitory activity on angiogenesis and tumour invasion and may be very useful in cancer therapy.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1803–1812. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600307 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
periodate-treated; non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene (NAC-HCPS); heparin; angiogenesis; metastasis; tumour growth
In posterior lumbar interbody
vertebral fusion operations, variously sized, rectangular
shaped, defatted, freeze-dried, gas-sterilised cortical bone
allografts were used in combination with cancellous bone
autografts from excised posterior elements. Single-level fusion,
with or without internal fixation, was undertaken in 38 patients
aged 50 years or less with disc herniation or a failed
discectomy (the younger group) and in 33 women aged 60 years or
more with degenerative spondylolisthesis (the older group). Of
the various observable indicators of union, changes in the
allograft-host interface alone proved to be of practical use.
The incidence of nonunion in patients managed with pedicle
screws, with a hook and rod system or without internal fixation
was 0 of 8 patients; 1 of 14 patients; and 3 of 16 patients,
respectively, in the younger group, and 0 of 11 patients; 0 of 8
patients; and 2 of 14 patients, respectively, in the older
group. Of the six patients with nonunion, three had persistent
low back pain and only two had mobility of the fused segment
which was evident on lateral radiographs during flexion and
extension. No patient had graft collapse. The decrease in the
height of the intervertebral space, chiefly due to settlement of
the allograft into the vertebral bodies, in the younger and
older groups averaged 1.1 and 1.6 mm, respectively. We concluded
that this simplified technique is mechanically sound and
effective in maintaining the height of the intervertebral space.
Even when the graft failed to unite, fibrous union could be
obtained without graft collapse. Combination with a simple
internal fixator, such as a compression rod, facilitates bone
We describe a new modality for administering aminoglycosides to hemodialysis (HD) patients, namely, a modification of the once-daily regimen which consists of administering the aminoglycosides over 60 min by drip infusion just before each HD session, with a preplanned peak concentration being reached at the beginning of the session and then with a rapidly decreasing concentration being achieved by the start of HD. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), i.e., the accumulation of the drug in the body, is thus minimized by this modality. Arbekacin (ABK) was given at a dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight to 10 HD patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for 2 weeks (six sessions in total), resulting in the complete disappearance of MRSA in 5 patients. A high rate of elimination of ABK was attained for each patient while the patient was on HD (range, 0.20 to 0.42 h-1; mean 0.28 +/- 0.08 h-1) by using high-performance dialyzers provided with membranes made of either polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose triacetate (CTA), or ethylene vinyl alcohol. The best results were obtained with the CTA membrane, as revealed by the overall mass transfer coefficient (Ko). The AUC in the simulation model for the variation in the serum ABK concentration in this modality was calculated to be 40% of that of the conventional post-HD dosing modality, suggesting that a much higher dose could be administered to HD patients who receive HD thrice weekly (4 h per session), giving, e.g., 4 mg/kg initially and before the HD sessions, when there is an interval of 68 h from HD session to HD session, and giving 2 mg/kg before the other sessions.
The nth and nei genes of Escherichia coli affect the production of endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII, respectively, glycosylases/apurinic lyases that attack DNA damaged by oxidizing agents. Here, we provide evidence that oxidative lethal lesions are repaired by both endonuclease III and endonuclease VIII and that spontaneous mutagenic lesions are repaired mainly by endonuclease III.
Immunoliposomes were prepared by conjugating anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody with liposomes containing [10B]compound. These immunoliposomes were shown to bind selectively to human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) bearing CEA on their surface. The cytotoxic effects of locally injected [10B]compound, multilamellar liposomes containing [10B]compound or [10B]immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with [10B]solution, 10B-containing liposomes or [10B]immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Injection of [10B]immunoliposomes caused the greatest tumour suppression with thermal neutron irradiation in vivo. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in 10B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with intratumoral injection of immunoliposomes is able to destroy malignant cells in the marginal portion between normal tissues and cancer tissues from the side of 4He generation.
C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII tumours received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps in order to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumours were then heated at 40 degrees C for 60 min. At various time points after heating, tumour-bearing mice were irradiated while alive or after being killed. Immediately after irradiation, the tumours were excised, minced and trypsinized. The tumour cell suspensions obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labelling, which could be regarded as quiescent (Q) cells, was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN frequency in the total (P+Q) tumour cell population was determined from the irradiated tumours that were not pretreated with BrdU. The MN frequency of BrdU unlabelled cells was then used to calculate the surviving fraction of the unlabelled cells from the regression line for the relationship between the MN frequency and the surviving fraction of total (P+Q) tumour cells. In general, Q cells contained a greater hypoxic fraction (HF) than the total tumour cell population. Mild heating decreased the HF of Q cells more markedly than in the total cell population, and the minimum values of HFs of both total and Q cell populations were obtained 6 h after heating. Two days after heating, the HF of total tumour cells returned to almost that of unheated tumours. In contrast, the HF of Q cells did not return to the HF level of unheated tumours until 1 week after heating. It was thought that irradiation within 12 h after mild heating might be a potentially promising therapeutic modality for controlling radioresistant Q tumour cells.
We studied bovine subjects that exhibited a moderate uncompensated anemia with hereditary spherocytosis inherited in an autosomal incompletely dominant mode and retarded growth. Based on the results of SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and electron microscopic analysis by the freeze fracture method, we show here that the proband red cells lacked the band 3 protein completely. Sequence analysis of the proband band 3 cDNA and genomic DNA showed a C --> T substitution resulting in a nonsense mutation (CGA --> TGA; Arg --> Stop) at the position corresponding to codon 646 in human red cell band 3 cDNA. The proband red cells were deficient in spectrin, ankyrin, actin, and protein 4.2, resulting in a distorted and disrupted membrane skeletal network with decreased density. Therefore, the proband red cell membranes were extremely unstable and showed the loss of surface area in several distinct ways such as invagination, vesiculation, and extrusion of microvesicles, leading to the formation of spherocytes. Total deficiency of band 3 also resulted in defective Cl-/HCO3- exchange, causing mild acidosis with decreases in the HCO3- concentration and total CO2 in the proband blood. Our results demonstrate that band 3 indeed contributes to red cell membrane stability, CO2 transport, and acid-base homeostasis, but is not always essential to the survival of this mammal.
Two temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of the M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (tsG31 and tsG33) are defective in viral assembly, but the exact nature of this defect is not known. When infected cells are switched from nonpermissive (40 degrees C) to permissive (32 degrees C) temperatures in the presence of cycloheximide, tsG33 virus release increased by 100-fold, whereas tsG31 release increased only by 10-fold. Thus, the tsG33 defect is more reversible than that of tsG31. Therefore, we investigated how the altered synthesis and cellular distribution of tsG33 M protein correlates with the viral assembly defect. At 32 degrees C tsG33 M protein is stained diffusely in the cell cytoplasm and later at the budding sites. In contrast, at 40 degrees C the mutant M protein formed unusual aggregates mostly located in the perinuclear regions of virus-infected cells and partially colocalized with G protein in this region. In temperature shift-down experiments, M can be disaggregated and used to some extent for nucleocapsid coiling and budding, which correlates with the virus titer increase. M aggregates also formed after shift-up from 32 to 40 degrees C, indicating a complete dependence of M aggregation on the temperature. Biochemical analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting revealed that at 40 degrees C M protein is detected exclusively in pellet fractions (nuclear and cytoskeleton components), whereas at 32 degrees C M protein is mainly in the cytoplasmic soluble fractions. Furthermore, when the temperature is raised from 32 to 40 degrees C, the distribution of M protein tends to shift from the soluble to the pellet and cytoskeletal fractions. Electron micrographs of immunoperoxidase-labeled M protein showed that at 40 degrees C M aggregates are often associated with the outer nuclear membranes as well as with vesicular structures. No nucleocapsid coiling was observed in these cells, whereas coiling and budding were seen at 32 degrees C in cells where M protein was partly associated with the plasma membrane. We suggest that the tsG33 M protein mutation may produce a reversible conformational alteration which causes M protein to aggregate at 40 degrees C, therefore inhibiting the proper association of M protein with nucleocapsids and budding membranes.
Two and four treatments of 5 mmol kg-1 of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) at an interval of 12 h depleted the glutathione (GSH) content in NFSa tumours of C3H/He mice, respectively, to 24.0 and 1.78 percent of the untreated controls. BSO pre-treatments every 12 h enhanced the cytotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CYC) towards artificial lung micrometastases of NFSa tumours giving enhancement ratios (ERs) ranging from 1.75 to 1.83 and from 2.41 to 2.73, for two and four BSO pretreatments respectively. Large ERs were obtained at low CYC doses (high cell survival). Four BSO pre-treatments at an interval of 12 h did not increase the cytotoxicity of CYC to bone marrow stem cells. Our results suggest a clinical applicability of the combination of BSO and CYC.
The amount of the initiating complement component (Clq) in the classical pathway and the first essential component (C3) in the alternative complement pathway were measured with a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID). A high ionic strength was used corresponding to that of 0 . 25 M NaCl and 0 . 01 M EDTA to avoid nonspecific binding of Clq with immune aggregates. Measurements were made on sera and/or synovial fluids from 165 patients with various bone and joint diseases. Values of Clq and C3 in synovial fluids were also expressed as ratios to that of albumin in the same specimens to avoid the influence of differences in volume of synovial fluid in various diseases, and this appeared to provide a reliable index reflecting pathological conditions. Both serum Clq and C3 levels were raised highly in rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and osteomyelitis, but the extent of the elevation of C3 was less conspicuous. Values of Clq and C3 in synovial fluids also markedly increased in rheumatoid arthritis.