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1.  Accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the detection of bladder cancer 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1008):1091-1099.
Objective
To assess the accuracy contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in bladder cancer detection using transurethral biopsy in conventional cystoscopy as the reference standard and to determine whether CEUS improves the bladder cancer detection rate of baseline ultrasound.
Methods
43 patients with suspected bladder cancer underwent conventional cystoscopy with transurethral biopsy of the suspicious lesions. 64 bladder cancers were confirmed in 33 out of 43 patients. Baseline ultrasound and CEUS were performed the day before surgery and the accuracy of both techniques for bladder cancer detection and number of detected tumours were analysed and compared with the final diagnosis.
Results
CEUS was significantly more accurate than ultrasound in determining presence or absence of bladder cancer: 88.37% vs 72.09%. Seven of eight uncertain baseline ultrasound results were correctly diagnosed using CEUS. CEUS sensitivity was also better than that of baseline ultrasound per number of tumours: 65.62% vs 60.93%. CEUS sensitivity for bladder cancer detection was very high for tumours larger than 5 mm (94.7%) but very low for tumours <5 mm (20%) and also had a very low negative predictive value (28.57%) in tumours <5 mm.
Conclusion
CEUS provided higher accuracy than baseline ultrasound for bladder cancer detection, being especially useful in non-conclusive baseline ultrasound studies.
doi:10.1259/bjr/43400531
PMCID: PMC3473820  PMID: 21123306
2.  Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection using citrated whole blood. 
Standard isolation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) requires 5 to 20 ml of blood, and the centrifugal separation of PBMC is expensive and time-consuming. Whole-blood coculture techniques use small sample volumes, do not require centrifugation, and allow measurement of the total viral burden in peripheral circulation. We compared the results of citrated whole-blood coculture with those obtained by the standard AIDS Clinical Trials Group PBMC semiquantitative culture method and reverse transcription-PCR quantitation of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. PBMC cocultures were also set up with added erythrocytes (RBCs) to determine if the presence of RBCs affects the replication of HIV-1 in vitro. The mean number of cells required for a p24-positive PBMC coculture was approximately seven times greater than that required for a positive citrated whole-blood coculture (P < 0.01). At volumes of 100, 50, and 25 microl, the sensitivities of the whole-blood coculture were 94.5, 93.6, and 87.3%, respectively. The PBMC culture in the presence of added RBCs was more sensitive than PBMC coculture alone. The citrated whole-blood coculture was simple to perform, produced a reliable diagnosis of HIV infection in adult volunteers, was more sensitive than previously reported techniques even in half the culture time, and showed less variability than the PBMC coculture. Citrated whole-blood coculture may be a useful and efficient tool for diagnosing infection with HIV-1.
PMCID: PMC170515  PMID: 9144360
3.  Reduced parasitemia observed with erythrocytes containing inositol hexaphosphate. 
Chemicals entrapped in erythrocytes by hypotonic hemolysis can be assessed for possible antiparasitic activity both in vivo and in vitro, regardless of whether they are able to diffuse into erythrocytes readily. Inositol hexaphosphate, a highly charged compound, produced a dramatic lowering of the percentage of cells infected by Babesia microti in vivo and both B. microti and Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Several possible mechanisms for this observation are discussed.
PMCID: PMC172182  PMID: 3364957
4.  STUDIES ON REANIMATION WITH PLASMA EXPANDERS 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1960;13(5):450-452.
In dogs very severe haemorrhage, which leads to a state barely distinguishable from death, can be cured by one intra-arterial injection of dextran equal in volume to three-quarters or more of the estimated blood loss, provided that the dextran injection contains adrenaline and lobeline. Recovery after this treatment is only temporary, and a blood transfusion of about 25% of th e subject's lost volume of blood is needed for complete recovery.
It may be possible to apply these results to man, in which case, the reanimation method of Negovsky could be simplified and therefore be easy to use in any circumstances.
Images
PMCID: PMC480116  PMID: 13728835

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