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1.  Trastuzumab treatment improves brain metastasis outcomes through control and durable prolongation of systemic extracranial disease in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;100(6):894-900.
In patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer, treatment with trastuzumab has been shown to markedly improve the outcome. We investigated the role of trastuzumab on brain metastasis (BM) in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. From 1999 to 2006, 251 patients were treated with palliative chemotherapy for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer at Samsung Medical Center. The medical records of these patients were analysed to study the effects of trastuzumab on BM prevalence and outcomes. Patients were grouped according to trastuzumab therapy: pre-T (no trastuzumab therapy) vs post-T (trastuzumab therapy). The development of BM between the two treatment groups was significantly different (37.8% for post-T vs 25.0% for pre-T, P=0.028). Patients who had received trastuzumab had longer times to BM compared with patients who were not treated with trastuzumab (median 15 months for post-T group vs 10 months for pre-T group, P=0.035). Time to death (TTD) from BM was significantly longer in the post-T group than in the pre-T group (median 14.9 vs 4.0 months, P=0.0005). Extracranial disease control at the time of BM, 12 months or more of progression-free survival of extracranial disease and treatment with lapatinib were independent prognostic factors for TTD from BM.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604941
PMCID: PMC2661774  PMID: 19240719
trastuzumab; brain metastasis; HER2-overexpressing breast cancer; extracranial disease control
2.  Time-resolved MR angiography for detecting and grading ovarian venous reflux: comparison with conventional venography 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1014):e117-e122.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of time-resolved MR angiography (TR-MRA) with that of conventional venography for the detection and grading of ovarian venous reflux, which aid in the diagnosis of pelvic venous congestion.
Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of 19 consecutive patients who underwent TR-MRA and conventional venography. The images were analysed by two radiologists in a randomised “blinded” manner. With the use of conventional venography as a gold standard, the images were reviewed to determine if differences in the detection and grading of ovarian venous reflux were seen between TR-MRA and conventional venography; the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TR-MRA compared with that of conventional venography were evaluated. The McNemar test was performed to determine the significance of any differences. Interobserver agreement was analysed using generalised κ statistics.
Results
There was no significant difference between TR-MRA and conventional venography for grading ovarian venous reflux (p>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of TR-MRA were found to be 66.7%, 100% and 78.9%, and 75%, 100% and 84.2%, respectively, for the two observers. The weighted κ-values indicated excellent agreement between the two observers for grading ovarian venous reflux on TR-MRA (κ=0.894).
Conclusion
TR-MRA is an accurate method for accessing pelvic venous congestion.
doi:10.1259/bjr/79155839
PMCID: PMC3474099  PMID: 21385913
3.  Acute appendicitis: relationships between CT-determined severities and serum white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1008):1115-1120.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the severity of appendicitis as depicted on CT and blood inflammatory markers of serum white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP).
Methods
CT images in 128 patients (109 surgically proven and 19 with clinically excluded appendicitis) were retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists by consensus evaluated and scored (using a 0, 1 or 2 point scale) severities based on CT-determined appendiceal diameters, appendiceal wall changes, caecal changes, periappendiceal inflammatory stranding and phlegmon or abscess formation. We investigated whether CT findings were significantly related to elevated WBC counts or CRP levels and performed the correlations of WBC counts and CRP levels with CT severity scores. Patients were also subjectively classified using four grades from normal (Grade I) to perforated appendicitis (Grade IV) on the basis of CT findings to evaluate differences in WBC counts and CRP levels between grades.
Results
Only appendiceal wall changes and the phlegmon or abscess formation were related to elevated WBC counts and CRP levels, respectively (p<0.05). CT severity scores were found to be more strongly correlated with CRP levels (r = 0.669) than with WBC counts (r = 0.222). On the basis of CT grades, the WBC counts in Grade I were significantly lower than in other grades (p<0.001), whereas CRP levels in Grade IV were significantly higher than in other grades (p<0.001).
Conclusion
CRP levels were found to correlate with CT-determined acute appendicitis severity and could be a useful predictor for perforated appendicitis, whereas WBC counts might be useful to detect early acute appendicitis.
doi:10.1259/bjr/47699219
PMCID: PMC3473821  PMID: 21123307
4.  The detection and discrimination of malignant and benign focal hepatic lesions: T2 weighted vs diffusion-weighted MRI 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1000):319-326.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the detection and characterisation of focal hepatic lesions compared with the use of T2 weighted imaging.
Method
45 patients with 97 hepatic lesions (51 malignant lesions and 46 benign lesions) were included in this retrospective study. Malignant hepatic lesions included 12 hepatocellular carcinomas, 26 metastases and 13 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Benign hepatic lesions included 19 haemangiomas and 27 cysts. The MRI protocol for the upper abdomen included T2 weighted images, in- and opposed-phase T1 weighted images and dynamic T1 weighted images. Breath-hold fat-suppressed single-shot echo planar DWI was performed with the following parameters: 1338/66; b factors, 0, 50 and 800 s mm–2. Two independent observers reviewed the T2 weighted images and the DWI to detect and to characterise the hepatic lesions.
Results
For detection of malignant hepatic lesions, the use of DWI showed a significantly higher detection rate than the use of T2 weighted images (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the use of DWI and T2 weighted images for benign hepatic lesions. For the differentiation between malignant and benign hepatic lesions, there was no significant difference in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the use of T2 weighted images and the use of DWI.
Conclusion
The use of DWI was better for the detection of malignant hepatic lesions than the use of T2 weighted images. However, for detection of benign hepatic lesions and characterisation of hepatic lesions, the use of DWI was equivalent to the use of T2 weighted images.
doi:10.1259/bjr/50130643
PMCID: PMC3473479  PMID: 20959371
5.  Increased burst firing in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons and enhanced response to selective D2 agonist in hemiparkinsonian rats after repeated administration of apomorphine. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2001;16(5):636-642.
Intermittent administrations of dopaminergic agents in hemiparkinsonian rat enhances the behavioral response to subsequent administration of the drugs. This phenomenon is known as "priming" and thought as comparable to drug-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological changes in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats after repeated administrations of apomorphine. Administration of apomorphine (0.32 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.) twice daily for 6 days enhanced the rotation induced by apomorphine from 341 turns/hour at the beginning to 755 turns/hr at the end. At the same time, the response to selective D2 agonist quinpirole (0.26 mg/kg, i.p.) was also enhanced from 203 to 555 turns/hr. Extracellular single unit recording revealed no significant difference in the basal firing rates of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neurons between the ipsilateral and contralateral side of the 6-OHDA lesion regardless of the repeated administrations of apomorphine. In SNr of the lesion side, the units with burst firing pattern were found more frequently after repeated administrations of apomorphine and the suppressive effect of quinpirole on the firing rate was enhanced. These findings suggest that the increased percentage of the burst units is the important electrophysiological change in the development of enhanced response to selective D2 agonist.
PMCID: PMC3057592  PMID: 11641536
6.  The effect of isochromosome 17q presence, proliferative and apoptotic indices, expression of c-erbB-2, bcl-2 and p53 proteins on the prognosis of medulloblastoma. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2000;15(4):452-456.
Medulloblastoma accounts for 20 to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms in children. The significance of the presence of isochromosome 17q (i(17q)), proliferative potential, apoptotic activity, and expression of c-erbB-2, bd-2, and p53 proteins in predicting long-term survival of patients with medulloblastomas was investigated. Twenty children were divided into two groups (favorable and poor outcome groups). Ten children with favorable outcome (FO) were disease-free during the follow-up period (median: 61.5 months). The other ten children with poor outcome (PO) died of disease progression, having a median survival of 18 months. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for i(17q), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, c-erbB-2, bcl-2, and p53 proteins was performed in these patients. Nine out of 17 children showed i(17q). There was no difference in the rate of positive i(17q) between the FO and PO groups. The presence of i(17q) was not significantly related to biological factors that we investigated. Unlike the prominent presence of the proliferative potential and p53 expression in children with PO, apoptotic activity and expression of c-erbB-2 and bcl-2 had no correlation with the outcome.
PMCID: PMC3054657  PMID: 10983696
7.  Brain tumor in the first year of life: a single institute study. 
Brain tumors in infants present special diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. To figure out the clinical features, pathological classification of the tumors and the treatment outcome of infantile brain tumors, 458 children (age<16) with brain tumors were reviewed retrospectively. Among them 21 cases (4.6%) were diagnosed during the first 12 months of life. Two tumors were definitely of congenital origin. The majority of infants with brain tumors presented with increased intracranial pressure. Fourteen tumors were located at the supratentorial area. Sixteen cases had neuroepithelial tumors; astrocytoma (optic pathway), supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and medulloblastoma were found in three cases each. There were two treatment-related mortalities. Compared with the outcomes in older children, the treatment outcome was poorer in medulloblastoma and the optic pathway glioma which showed a higher growth potential. Because of the limited application of postoperative adjuvant therapy, radical surgical removal played a more important role in this age group. The prognosis of patients in whom the tumors could not be totally removed, largely depended on the pathological malignancy of the tumors. Though the treatment outcome was not always dismal, immaturity of the brain, higher growth potential, perioperative risks, limitations in adjuvant therapy, and pessimistic attitude on the part of parents made management more challenging.
PMCID: PMC3054340  PMID: 9539322
8.  Biochemical properties of penicillin amidohydrolase from Micrococcus luteus. 
Some biochemical properties of whole-cell penicillin amidohydrolase from Micrococcus luteus have been studied. This whole-cell enzyme showed its maximal activity at 36 degrees C at pH 7.5. It was found that the activation energy of this enzyme was 8.03 kcal (ca. 33.6 kJ) per mol, and this amidohydrolase showed first-order decay at 36 degrees C. The penicillin amidohydrolase was deactivated rapidly at temperatures above 50 degrees C during storage or preincubation for 24 h. The Michaelis constant, Km, for penicillin G was determined as 2.26 mM, and the substrate inhibition constant, Kis, was 155 mM. The whole-cell penicillin amidohydrolase from M. luteus was capable of hydrolyzing penicillin G, penicillin V, ampicillin, and cephalexin, but not cephalosporin C and cloxacillin. This whole-cell enzyme also had synthetic activity for semisynthetic penicillins or cephalosporins from D-(--)-alpha-phenylglycine methyl ester and 6-alpha-aminopenicillanic acid or 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid.
PMCID: PMC243431  PMID: 39505
9.  Relationship between butirosin biosynthesis and sporulation in Bacillus circulans. 
The relationship between butirosin biosynthesis and certain biochemical characteristics related to sporulation in a strain of Bacillus circulans NRRL B-3313 was examined. The cellular content of dipicolinic acid increased while the amount of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate decreased with changes in antibiotic productivity. Oligosporogenous mutants failed to synthesize the antibiotic and to degrade poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. These observations suggest that spore formation may be related to antibiotic production in this strain of B. circulans.
PMCID: PMC180154  PMID: 2409916

Results 1-9 (9)