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1.  Comparison of pulmonary thin section CT findings and serum KL-6 levels in patients with sarcoidosis 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(999):229-235.
Objective
This study aimed to compare thin-section CT images from sarcoidosis patients who had either normal or elevated serum KL-6 levels.
Methods
101 patients with sarcoidosis who underwent thin-section CT examinations of the chest and serum KL-6 measurements between December 2003 and November 2008 were retrospectively identified. The study group comprised 75 sarcoidosis patients (23 male, 52 female; aged 19–82 years, mean 54.1 years) with normal KL-6 levels (152–499 U ml–1, mean 305.7 U ml–1) and 26 sarcoidosis patients (7 male, 19 female; aged 19–75 years, mean 54.3 years) with elevated KL-6 levels (541–2940 U ml–1, mean 802.4 U ml–1). Two chest radiologists, unaware of KL-6 levels, retrospectively and independently interpreted CT images for parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion.
Results
CT findings in sarcoidosis patients consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement (70/75 with normal KL-6 levels and 21/26 with elevated KL-6 levels), followed by nodules (50 and 25 with normal and elevated levels, respectively) and bronchial wall thickening (25 and 21 with normal and elevated levels, respectively). Ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, traction bronchiectasis, architectural distortion and bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated KL-6 levels than those with normal levels (p<0.001, p<0.005, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). By comparison, there was no significant difference in frequency of lymph node enlargement between the two groups.
Conclusion
These results suggest that serum KL-6 levels may be a useful marker for indicating the severity of parenchymal sarcoidosis.
doi:10.1259/bjr/65287605
PMCID: PMC3473878  PMID: 21045068
2.  Presence of vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells in diffuse-type gastric carcinomas 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(9):970-972.
Aim: To investigate morphological changes in the tumour vessel adventitia, particularly the distribution of vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells (VAFCs)—namely, CD34 positive fibroblastic cells just outside the vascular media—in diffuse-type gastric carcinomas.
Method: In total, 18 surgically resected advanced typical diffuse-type gastric carcinomas and their normal tissues were examined. Immunostaining for CD34, CD31, high molecular weight caldesmon (HCD), and cytokeratin 8 (CAM5.2) was performed to detect VAFCs. VAFCs are positive for CD34 but negative for CD31, and are located just outside the vascular media (HCD positive vascular smooth muscle bundle). The areas just outside the vascular media in the whole maximum tumour cut surface were assessed, except the tumour growing edge, which was confirmed by immunostaining with CAM5.2. CD34 positive and CD31 negative cells just outside the vascular media were defined as VAFCs.
Results: VAFC containing vessels were seen in 17 of the 18 diffuse carcinoma tissues. Vessels lacking VAFCs were also detected in these 17 tumours. In contrast, all of the vessels lacked VAFCs in the remaining tumour. In the 18 samples of normal tissue, all of the vessels contained VAFCs.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the presence of VAFCs is associated with the infiltration of diffuse scattered gastric carcinoma cells.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2004.017137
PMCID: PMC1770410  PMID: 15333660
gastric carcinoma; diffuse-type; vessel; adventitial fibroblast; CD34
3.  High molecular weight caldesmon positive stromal cells in the capsule of hepatocellular carcinomas 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(7):776-777.
Aims: To investigate the smooth muscle nature of the stromal cells in the capsule of hepatocellular carcinomas.
Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody to high molecular weight caldesmon (HCD), a highly specific marker for smooth muscle cells, was performed in 33 encapsulated hepatocellular carcinomas and adjacent hepatic tissues.
Results: HCD positive stromal cells were detected in the capsule of 21 of the 33 hepatocellular carcinomas examined.
Conclusions: The capsule of hepatocellular carcinomas contains smooth muscle cells.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2004.016279
PMCID: PMC1770372  PMID: 15220377
high molecular weight caldesmon; capsule; stroma; hepatocellular carcinoma
4.  Lack of vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells in tumour stroma of intestinal-type and solid-type gastric carcinomas 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(2):183-185.
Aims: To investigate the roles of vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells in tumour stroma, the distribution of vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells was studied in gastric carcinomas.
Methods: In total, 50 surgically resected gastric carcinomas (43 intestinal type, and seven solid type) and their normal tissues were examined. Vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells are positive for CD34 but negative for CD31. To differentiate vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells from vascular endothelial cells, immunostaining for CD34 and CD31 was performed. Immunostaining for high molecular weight caldesmon was also performed to recognise vascular media.
Results: In normal gastric tissues, CD34 positive fibroblastic cells were found just outside the vascular media, namely vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells. In contrast, all of the 43 intestinal-type and seven solid-type gastric carcinomas had no vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells in the tumour stroma.
Conclusions: These results suggest that a lack of vascular adventitial fibroblastic cells is associated with tumour stroma formation in intestinal-type and solid-type gastric carcinomas.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2003.011312
PMCID: PMC1770199  PMID: 14747446
gastric carcinoma; tumour stroma; vascular adventitia; fibroblast; CD34
5.  High molecular weight caldesmon positive stromal cells in the capsule of thyroid follicular tumours and tumour-like lesions 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2002;55(12):917-920.
Aims: To investigate the smooth muscle nature of the spindle stromal cells in the capsule of thyroid tumours and tumour-like lesions.
Methods: Immunostaining for high molecular weight caldesmon (HCD), a highly specific marker for smooth muscle differentiation, was performed in 70 primary thyroid tumours and tumour-like lesions (21 hyperplastic nodules, 29 follicular adenomas, five minimally invasive follicular carcinomas, six widely invasive follicular carcinomas, and nine encapsulated papillary carcinomas).
Results: HCD positive stromal cells (HCD+ cells) were detected in the capsule of 20 of the 21 hyperplastic nodules, and all of the 29 follicular adenomas and five minimally invasive follicular carcinomas, whereas HCD+ cells were seen in the capsule of only four of the six widely invasive follicular carcinomas and no HCD+ cells were seen in the capsule of the nine encapsulated papillary carcinomas examined.
Conclusions: The presence of HCD+ cells in the capsule is characteristic of thyroid follicular tumours and tumour-like lesions. The stromal cells in the capsule of thyroid follicular tumours and tumour-like lesions are different from those of encapsulated papillary carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC1769821  PMID: 12461057
thyroid; capsule; high molecular weight caldesmon; smooth muscle cell; follicular tumour and tumour-like lesion
6.  α Smooth muscle actin positive stromal cells in gastric carcinoma 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2002;55(10):741-744.
Aims: To investigate the distribution and roles of α smooth muscle actin (ASMA) positive stromal cells (ASMA+ cells), which belong to the myofibroblast group, within gastric carcinomas, with reference to three histological types (diffuse type, intestinal type, and solid type).
Methods: In total, 74 surgically resected gastric carcinomas (24 diffuse type, 43 intestinal type, and seven solid type) were examined. ASMA positive and high molecular weight caldesmon (HCD) negative stromal cells were regarded as ASMA+ cells. The distribution of CD34 positive stromal cells (CD34+ cells) was also analysed immunohistochemically.
Results: In the 24 diffuse-type gastric carcinomas, six of the 13 carcinomas invading the subserosa had ASMA+ cells in the tumour stroma, whereas all six diffuse-type gastric carcinomas confined to the submucosa and all five invading the muscularis propria had no ASMA+ cells in the tumour stroma. In the 43 intestinal-type gastric carcinomas, only five of the 21 carcinomas confined to the submucosa had ASMA+ cells in the tumour stroma, whereas 21 of the 22 intestinal-type gastric carcinomas invading the muscularis propria and the subserosa had ASMA+ cell bundles in the tumour stroma. The distribution of CD34+ cells in diffuse-type and intestinal-type gastric carcinomas was similar to that seen in a previously published series. All seven solid-type gastric carcinomas examined had ASMA+ cells but not CD34+ cells in the tumour stroma. No stromal cells double positive for ASMA and CD34 were detected within the diffuse-type tumours examined.
Conclusions: These results suggest that ASMA expression in stromal cells is associated with tumour stroma formation of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas invading the subserosa, intestinal-type gastric carcinomas invading the muscularis propria and subserosa, and solid-type gastric carcinomas.
PMCID: PMC1769785  PMID: 12354798
α smooth muscle actin; high molecular weight caldesmon; stromal cell; diffuse type; intestinal type; gastric carcinoma
7.  Lack of CD34 positive stromal cells within angiomyomas (vascular leiomyomas) 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2002;55(5):395-396.
Aims: To investigate the role of CD34 positive stromal cells in the morphogenesis and tumour growth regulation of angiomyomas (vascular leiomyomas).
Methods: Histochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies to CD34 and CD31 was performed in 10 angiomyomas and their adjacent soft tissue.
Results: CD34 positive stromal cells were not seen within the tumour tissue; the thick walled vessels within the tumours lacked CD34 positive stromal cells. In contrast, bundles of CD34 positive stromal cells were detected at the tumour border of all of the angiomyomas and in the adventitial tissue of the surrounding normal vessels.
Conclusions: The lack of CD34 positive stromal cells within an angiomyoma is associated with the characteristic morphology of an angiomyoma.
PMCID: PMC1769649  PMID: 11986351
angiomyoma; tumour border; CD34 positive stromal cell; adventitia
8.  Denatured H-ferritin subunit is a major constituent of haemosiderin in the liver of patients with iron overload 
Gut  2002;50(3):413-419.
Background and aims: Iron is stored in hepatocytes in the form of ferritin and haemosiderin. There is a marked increase in iron rich haemosiderin in iron overloaded livers, and ferric iron in amounts exceeding the ferritin and haemosiderin binding capacity may promote free radical generation, causing cellular damage. The aim of this study was to characterise hepatic haemosiderin using four antibodies specific for either native or denatured H/L-ferritin subunits.
Methods: Ferritin and haemosiderin were prepared from the livers of three patients with post-transfusional iron overload. The assembled ferritin molecules were analysed by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)-immunoblotting. Ferritin subunits in the haemosiderin fraction were assessed by denaturing sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE-immunoblotting. Distribution of native and denatured ferritin subunits in hepatocytes was examined by immunogold electron microscopy.
Results: Non-denaturing PAGE-immunoblot analyses showed that the assembled liver ferritins were recognised by the antibodies for native ferritins and not by those for the denatured subunits. Both SDS-PAGE-immunoblot and immunogold electron microscopic analyses disclosed that haemosiderin of iron overloaded liver reacted predominantly to the monoclonal antibody for the denatured H-ferritin subunit, to a lesser degree to that for denatured L-ferritin, and very weakly, if any, with antibodies for native H-ferritin or L-ferritin.
Conclusions: These results suggest that in iron overloaded liver, haemosiderin consists predominantly of denatured H-ferritin subunits.
PMCID: PMC1773135  PMID: 11839724
iron overload; haemosiderin; ferritin; immunoelectron microscopy
9.  CD34 positive stromal cells in gastric adenocarcinomas 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2001;54(11):846-848.
Aims—To investigate the role of CD34 positive stromal cells, namely dendritic interstitial cells, in gastric carcinomas, the distribution of CD34 positive stromal cells in gastric adenocarcinomas (GCs), with special reference to two histological types (diffuse (D-type) and intestinal (I-type)), was examined.
Methods—In total, 55 surgically resected GCs (15 D-type and 40 I-type) and their normal tissues were examined. To distinguish CD34 positive stromal cells from vascular endothelial cells and to recognise the tumour border, immunostaining for CD34, CD31, and low molecular weight cytokeratins was performed.
Results—In the 15 D-type GCs, eight of the nine D-type GCs invading the muscularis propria and subserosa had a large number of CD34 positive stromal cells in the tumour stroma, whereas all six D-type GCs confined to the submucosa had no CD34 positive stromal cells in the tumour stroma. All of the 40 I-type GCs had no CD34 positive stromal cells, regardless of tumour depth.
Conclusions—These results suggest that CD34 expression in stromal cells is associated with progression of D-type GCs, and that absence of expression is also seen in I-type GCs that are progressing.
Key Words: CD34 • stromal cell • diffuse type • intestinal type • gastric adenocarcinoma
PMCID: PMC1731305  PMID: 11684718
10.  Differential expression of CD34 in normal colorectal tissue, peritumoral inflammatory tissue, and tumour stroma 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2000;53(8):626-629.
Aims—To investigate the role of CD34 positive stromal cells, namely dendritic interstitial cells, in the desmoplastic stroma formation of malignant epithelial neoplasms the distribution of CD34 positive stromal cells was examined in human colorectal adenocarcinomas, peritumoral inflammatory tissue, and normal tissue.
Methods—Forty one surgically resected human colorectal adenocarcinomas and their corresponding peritumoral inflammatory and normal tissues were examined. To distinguish CD34 positive stromal cells from vascular endothelial cells, immunostaining for both CD34 and CD31 was performed. The distribution of myofibroblasts was also analysed immunohistochemically, and double staining with CD34 and α smooth muscle actin (ASMA) was performed.
Results—Most of the stromal cells in the normal colorectal submucosa, muscularis propria, subserosa, and perirectal tissue were positive for CD34. In contrast, the peritumoral inflammatory tissue and the tumour stroma had no CD34 positive stromal cells. The distribution of myofibroblasts was almost the same as in the aforementioned series. No stromal cells double positive for CD34 and ASMA were detected in the peritumoral inflammatory tissues.
Conclusions—Most stromal fibroblasts are CD34 positive stromal cells (dendritic interstitial cells). In colorectal adenocarcinomas, a lack of CD34 expression in stromal cells is associated with desmoplastic reaction.
Key Words: CD34 • dendritic interstitial cell • colon carcinoma • rectal carcinoma
doi:10.1136/jcp.53.8.626
PMCID: PMC1762933  PMID: 11002768
11.  Differential expression of high molecular weight caldesmon in colorectal pericryptal fibroblasts and tumour stroma. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1999;52(10):785-786.
AIM: To investigate an extent of smooth muscle differentiation of pericryptal fibroblasts. METHODS: Expression of high molecular weight caldesmon (h-CD) and alpha smooth muscle actin was investigated in 123 invasive colorectal adenocarcinomas and their surrounding non-neoplastic tissues. RESULTS: The monoclonal antibody to h-CD, which showed predominantly positive immunostaining in well differentiated smooth muscle cells, recognised pericryptal fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and pericytes, but was not reactive to myofibroblasts. Antibody to alpha smooth muscle actin recognised not only pericryptal fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and pericytes but also myofibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Pericryptal fibroblasts show greater smooth muscle differentiation than myofibroblasts and there is a possibility that they are well differentiated smooth muscle cells; h-CD is an excellent marker to discriminate pericryptal fibroblasts from myofibroblasts.
Images
PMCID: PMC501579  PMID: 10674042

Results 1-11 (11)