Erythrocyte invasion is an essential step in the pathogenesis of malaria. The erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) family of Plasmodium falciparum proteins recognizes glycophorins (Gp) on erythrocytes and plays a critical role in attachment during invasion. However, the molecular basis for specific receptor recognition by each parasite ligand has remained elusive, as is the case with the ligand/receptor pair P. falciparum EBA-175 (PfEBA-175)/GpA. This is due largely to difficulties in producing properly glycosylated and functional receptors. Here, we developed an expression system to produce recombinant glycosylated and functional GpA, as well as mutations and truncations. We identified the essential binding region and determinants for PfEBA-175 engagement, demonstrated that these determinants are required for the inhibition of parasite growth, and identified the glycans important in mediating the PfEBA-175–GpA interaction. The results suggest that PfEBA-175 engages multiple glycans of GpA encoded by exon 3 and that the presentation of glycans is likely required for high-avidity binding. The absence of exon 3 in GpB and GpE due to a splice site mutation confers specific recognition of GpA by PfEBA-175. We speculate that GpB and GpE may have arisen due to selective pressure to lose the PfEBA-175 binding site in GpA. The expression system described here has wider application for examining other EBL members important in parasite invasion, as well as additional pathogens that recognize glycophorins. The ability to define critical binding determinants in receptor-ligand interactions, as well as a system to genetically manipulate glycosylated receptors, opens new avenues for the design of interventions that disrupt parasite invasion.
Plasmodium falciparum uses distinct ligands that bind host cell receptors for invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) during malaria infection. A key entry pathway involves P. falciparum EBA-175 (PfEBA-175) recognizing glycophorin A (GpA) on RBCs. Despite knowledge of this protein-protein interaction, the complete mechanism for specific receptor engagement is not known. PfEBA-175 recognizes GpA but is unable to engage the related RBC receptor GpB or GpE. Understanding the necessary elements that enable PfEBA-175 to specifically recognize GpA is critical in developing specific and potent inhibitors of PfEBA-175 that disrupt host cell invasion and aid in malaria control. Here, we describe a novel system to produce and manipulate the host receptor GpA. Using this system, we probed the elements in GpA necessary for engagement and thus for host cell invasion. These studies have important implications for understanding how ligands and receptors interact and for the future development of malaria interventions.
Diet quality tools provide researchers with brief methods to assess the nutrient adequacy of usual dietary intake. This study describes the development and validation of a pediatric diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Scores for Pre-schoolers (ARFS-P), for use with children aged two to five years.
The ARFS-P was derived from a 120-item food frequency questionnaire, with eight sub-scales, and was scored from zero to 73. Linear regressions were used to estimate the relationship between diet quality score and nutrient intakes, in 142 children (mean age 4 years) in rural localities in New South Wales, Australia.
Total ARFS-P and component scores were highly related to dietary intake of the majority of macronutrients and micronutrients including protein, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin A. Total ARFS-P was also positively related to total consumption of nutrient dense foods, such as fruits and vegetables, and negatively related to total consumption of discretionary choices, such as sugar sweetened drinks and packaged snacks.
ARFS-P is a valid measure that can be used to characterise nutrient intakes for children aged two to five years. Further research could assess the utility of the ARFS-P for monitoring of usual dietary intake over time or as part of clinical management.
Diet quality index; Food frequency questionnaire; Pre-schoolers; Nutritional adequacy
Breast cancer (BC) is usually diagnosed in late stages in countries with limited resources. Early detection of BC is likely to improve the outcome of the disease for women in these areas.
The aim of this study was to understand the possible personal, economic, and systems barriers to BC screening in a sample of Egyptian women.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in family health centers representing the seven districts of Alexandria governorate, Egypt. A total of 612 women were randomly selected from the chosen centers.
In this sample of Egyptian women, the most frequently identified potential barriers to BC screening were the following: 81.8% would not seek care until they were ill, 77% were unwilling to have a mammogram until it was recommended by the doctor, 71.4% blamed the, lack of privacy, 69.2% thought that medical checkups were not worthwhile, and 64.6% blamed the cost of services. The study further revealed that women of lower education, women in the lower income category, women who did not do paid work, those who had poor knowledge of the risks of BC, and women with no family history of BC were more likely to perceive different screening barriers compared with their counterparts.
Many potential personal, economic, and health system barriers were identified. Addressing these barriers by increasing the awareness of BC and dealing with the misconceptions that the women have can help the policy makers to design more culturally relevant strategies to motivate women to utilize screening services.
Breast cancer; barriers; Egypt; screening
A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) by LeMaire et al. found that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2118181 and rs10519177 in the FBN-1 gene (encoding Fibrillin-1), were associated with thoracic aortic dissection (TAD), non-dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), and thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection (TAAD); the largest effect was observed for the association of rs2118181 with TAD. We investigated whether rs2118181 and rs10519177 were associated with TAD, TAA, and TAAD in the Yale study.
The genotypes of rs2118181 and rs10519177 were determined for participants in the Yale study: 637 TAAD cases (140 TAD, 497 TAA) and 275 controls from the United States, Hungary, and Greece. The association of the genotypes with TAD, TAA and TAAD were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, study center and hypertension.
Results and Conclusions
In the Yale study, rs2118181 was associated with TAD: compared with non-carriers, carriers of the risk allele had an unadjusted odds ratio for TAD of 1.80 (95% CI 1.15–2.80) and they had odds ratio for TAD of 1.87 (95% CI 1.09–3.20) after adjusting for sex, age, study center and hypertension. We did not find significant differences in aortic size, a potential confounder for TAD, between rs2118181 risk variant carriers and non-carriers: mean aortic size was 5.56 (95% CI: 5.37–5.73) for risk variant carriers (CC+CT) and was 5.48 (95% CI: 5.36–5.61) for noncarriers (TT) (p = 0.56). rs2118181 was not associated with TAA or TAAD. rs10519177 was not associated with TAD, TAA, or TAAD in the Yale study. Thus, the Yale study provided further support for the association of the FBN-1 rs2118181SNP with TAD.
Clinical examination of the ocular surface is commonly carried out after application of sodium fluorescein in both veterinary and medical practice by assessing the resulting ‘staining’. Although localized intensely stained regions of the cornea frequently occur after exposure to ‘adverse’ clinical stimuli, the cell biology underlying this staining is unknown, including whether intense fluorescein staining indicates the presence of damaged cells. Ocular exposure to certain contact lens multipurpose solutions (MPS) gives rise to intense fluorescein staining referred to as solution induced corneal staining (SICS), and we have made use of this phenomenon with Vero and L929 cell culture models to investigate the fundamental biology of fluorescein interactions with cells.
We found that all cells take up fluorescein, however a sub-population internalize much higher levels, giving rise to brightly staining ‘hyperfluorescent’ cells within the treated cultures, which contain fluorescein throughout the cell cytoplasm and nucleus. The numbers of these hyperfluorescent cells are significantly increased after exposure to MPS associated with SICS. Surprisingly, hyperfluorescent cells did not show higher levels of staining with propidium iodide, a marker of lysed cells. Consistently, treatment with the cytolytic toxin benzalkonium chloride resulted in almost all cells staining with propidium iodide, and the complete abolition of fluorescein hyperfluorescence. Finally we found that internalization of fluorescein and its loss from treated cells both require cellular activity, as both processes were halted after incubation at 4°C.
We conclude that fluorescein hyperfluorescence can be replicated in three diverse cell cultures, and is increased by MPS-treatment, as occurs clinically. The process involves the concentration of fluorescein by a sub-population of cells that are active, and does not occur in lysed cells. Our data suggest that corneal staining in the clinic reflects active living cells, and is not directly caused by dead cells being produced in response to adverse clinical stimuli.
Disrupting erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is an attractive approach to combat malaria. P. falciparum EBA-175 (PfEBA-175) engages the host receptor Glycophorin A (GpA) during invasion and is a leading vaccine candidate. Antibodies that recognize PfEBA-175 can prevent parasite growth, although not all antibodies are inhibitory. Here, using x-ray crystallography, small-angle x-ray scattering and functional studies, we report the structural basis and mechanism for inhibition by two PfEBA-175 antibodies. Structures of each antibody in complex with the PfEBA-175 receptor binding domain reveal that the most potent inhibitory antibody, R217, engages critical GpA binding residues and the proposed dimer interface of PfEBA-175. A second weakly inhibitory antibody, R218, binds to an asparagine-rich surface loop. We show that the epitopes identified by structural studies are critical for antibody binding. Together, the structural and mapping studies reveal distinct mechanisms of action, with R217 directly preventing receptor binding while R218 allows for receptor binding. Using a direct receptor binding assay we show R217 directly blocks GpA engagement while R218 does not. Our studies elaborate on the complex interaction between PfEBA-175 and GpA and highlight new approaches to targeting the molecular mechanism of P. falciparum invasion of erythrocytes. The results suggest studies aiming to improve the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines, either by selecting single or combining multiple parasite antigens, should assess the antibody response to defined inhibitory epitopes as well as the response to the whole protein antigen. Finally, this work demonstrates the importance of identifying inhibitory-epitopes and avoiding decoy-epitopes in antibody-based therapies, vaccines and diagnostics.
Malaria is a devastating parasitic disease that kills one million people annually. The parasites invade and multiply within red blood cells, leading to the clinical symptoms of malaria. Therefore, preventing red blood cell, entry through vaccines is an attractive approach to controlling the disease. Although widespread efforts to develop a vaccine by identifying and combining critical parasite blood-stage proteins are underway, a protective vaccine for malaria has proved challenging. This is in part because, while parasite proteins have the ability to elicit antibodies that prevent red blood cell invasion, these antibodies are a small proportion compared to the total collection of ineffective antibodies produced. We show an antibody that prevents red blood cell invasion targets regions of the critical parasite protein PfEBA-175 required for red blood cell engagement. We also show that an antibody that does not prevent red blood cell invasion recognizes a region far removed from important functional segments of PfEBA-175. Our work demonstrates that identifying the regions targeted by antibodies, and the mechanisms by which antibodies that prevent invasion function, should drive future vaccine development and studies measuring the effectiveness of current vaccine combinations.
Background: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is relatively common and
disabling. Over 8000 patients attend adult services each year, yet little is known about
the outcome of patients attending NHS services.
Aim: Investigate the outcome of patients with CFS and what factors predict
Design: Longitudinal patient cohort.
Methods: We used data from six CFS/ME (myalgic encephalomyelitis) specialist
services to measure changes in fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale), physical function (SF-36),
anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and pain (visual analogue
pain rating scale) between clinical assessment and 8–20 months of follow-up. We used
multivariable linear regression to investigate baseline factors associated with outcomes
Results: Baseline data obtained at clinical assessment were available for
1643 patients, of whom 834 (51%) had complete follow-up data. There were
improvements in fatigue [mean difference from assessment to outcome: −6.8;
95% confidence interval (CI) −7.4 to −6.2; P <
0.001]; physical function (4.4; 95% CI 3.0–5.8; P <
0.001), anxiety (−0.6; 95% CI −0.9 to −0.3; P
< 0.001), depression (−1.6; 95% CI −1.9 to −1.4;
P < 0.001) and pain (−5.3; 95% CI −7.0 to
−3.6; P < 0.001). Worse fatigue, physical function and pain at
clinical assessment predicted a worse outcome for fatigue at follow-up. Older age,
increased pain and physical function at assessment were associated with poorer physical
function at follow-up.
Conclusions: Patients who attend NHS specialist CFS/ME services can expect
similar improvements in fatigue, anxiety and depression to participants receiving
cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy in a recent trial, but are
likely to experience less improvement in physical function. Outcomes were predicted by
fatigue, disability and pain at assessment.
To understand its potential to cause invasive disease, the genome of Mycoplasma canis strain PG14T from a dog's throat was compared to those of isolates from the genital tract or brain of dogs. The average nucleotide identity between strain pairs is 98%, and their genome annotations are similar.
A GPCR ubiquitin-independent MVB/lysosomal sorting pathway is regulated by the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and ALIX, a noncanonical ESCRT component. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 C-tail–localized, tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation. AP-3 also facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting.
The sorting of signaling receptors within the endocytic system is important for appropriate cellular responses. After activation, receptors are trafficked to early endosomes and either recycled or sorted to lysosomes and degraded. Most receptors trafficked to lysosomes are modified with ubiquitin and recruited into an endosomal subdomain enriched in hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), a ubiquitin-binding component of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, and then sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/lysosomes. However, not all receptors use ubiquitin or the canonical ESCRT machinery to sort to MVBs/lysosomes. This is exemplified by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein–coupled receptor for thrombin, which sorts to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and HRS. We recently showed that the adaptor protein ALIX binds to PAR1, recruits ESCRT-III, and mediates receptor sorting to ILVs of MVBs. However, the mechanism that initiates PAR1 sorting at the early endosome is not known. We now report that the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent sorting to MVBs through an ALIX-dependent pathway. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 cytoplasmic tail–localized tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation independent of ubiquitination. Moreover, AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting.
Life expectancies (LEs) of patients in UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) stratified by CD4 count at start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been estimated  but not gains in years of life in response to ART. We estimated LE associated with attained CD4 count and viral suppression at different durations of ART. Patients in UK CHIC aged > 20 years who started ART in 2000 to 2008 (excluding person who injects drugs) were followed to end of 2010. All-cause mortality was ascertained from clinic notes and by linkage to national records. We used the nearest CD4 count before ART and the last in each of years 1 to 5 of ART and determined whether patients were virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA < 400 copies/mL) in the past year for those remaining under follow-up. Poisson models were used to estimate mortality rates by sex, age, latest CD4 count (<200, 200 to 349,≥350) and viral suppression for each duration of ART. Abridged life tables were constructed from age-specific mortality rates to estimate LE for ages 20 to 85 years. Results are presented as the average number of years that will be lived after exact age 35 years. A total of 17,021 patients started ART from 2000 to 2008 of whom 708 (4.2%) died; 3956 (23%) were lost to study follow-up. There was no difference in mortality between those with attained CD4 350 to 499 and ≥ 500. On starting ART, male LE at exact age 35 was 36, 44 and 42 (female LE 38, 46 and 44) years for attained CD4 < 200, 200 to 349,≥350, respectively; after 5 years on ART, it was 22, 42 and 46 (female LE 27, 46 and 51) years, respectively. Only 17% of patients had CD4 ≥ 350 at ART start, compared with 78% of patients on ART for > 5 years. The difference in LE between suppressed versus unsuppressed patients was around 11 years. The figure shows that both CD4 count and viral suppression contribute to changes in LE. Male patients that increased their CD4 in the 1st year of ART from < 200 to 200–349 or ≥ 350 gained 6 and 11 years of LE to 42 and 48 years, respectively, with similar rises for women. Overall, LE was 4 years greater for those on ART for > 5 years compared with those starting ART. Individuals that attain viral suppression and a CD4 count > 350 within 1 year of ART start have a normal LE with 35-year olds estimated to live to over 80 years on average. LE in patients with CD4 count < 200 beyond 5 years on ART drops by 15 years. Estimated LE may be biased by under-ascertainment of deaths, missing CD4 measurements and extrapolation beyond available data.
A novel MVB/lysosomal sorting pathway for signaling receptors bypasses the requirement for ubiquitination and ubiquitin-binding ESCRTs and may be broadly applicable to GPCRs containing YPXnL motifs.
The sorting of signaling receptors to lysosomes is an essential regulatory process in mammalian cells. During degradation, receptors are modified with ubiquitin and sorted by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)–0, –I, –II, and –III complexes into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, it remains unclear whether a single universal mechanism mediates MVB sorting of all receptors. We previously showed that protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is internalized after activation and sorted to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and the ubiquitin-binding ESCRT components hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate and Tsg101. In this paper, we report that PAR1 sorted to ILVs of MVBs through an ESCRT-III–dependent pathway independent of ubiquitination. We further demonstrate that ALIX, a charged MVB protein 4–ESCRT-III interacting protein, bound to a YPX3L motif of PAR1 via its central V domain to mediate lysosomal degradation. This study reveals a novel MVB/lysosomal sorting pathway for signaling receptors that bypasses the requirement for ubiquitination and ubiquitin-binding ESCRTs and may be applicable to a subset of GPCRs containing YPXnL motifs.
The activity of the protein kinase Akt is frequently dysregulated in cancer and is an important factor in the growth and survival of tumour cells. Akt activation involves the phosphorylation of two residues: threonine 308 (Thr308) in the activation loop and serine 473 (Ser473) in the C-terminal hydrophobic motif. Phosphorylation of Ser473 has been extensively studied in tumour samples as a correlate for Akt activity, yet the phosphorylation of Thr308 or of downstream Akt substrates is rarely assessed.
The phosphorylation status of Thr308 and Ser473 was compared with that of three separate Akt substrates – PRAS40, TSC2 and TBC1D4 – in fresh frozen samples of early-stage human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Akt Thr308 phosphorylation correlated with the phosphorylation of each Akt substrate tested, whereas Akt Ser473 phosphorylation did not correlate with the phosphorylation of any of the substrates examined.
The phosphorylation of Thr308 is a more reliable biomarker for the protein kinase activity of Akt in tumour samples than Ser473. Any evaluation of the link between Akt phosphorylation or activity in tumour samples and the prediction or prognosis of disease should, therefore, focus on measuring the phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 and/or at least one downstream Akt substrate, rather than Akt Ser473 phosphorylation alone.
protein kinase B; Akt; biomarker; tumour; phosphorylation
Mycoplasma alligatoris and Mycoplasma crocodyli are closely related siblings, one being highly virulent and the other relatively attenuated. We compared their genomes to better understand the mechanisms and origins of M. alligatoris' remarkable virulence amid a clade of harmless or much less virulent species. Although its chromosome was refractory to closure, M. alligatoris differed most notably by its complement of sialidases and other genes of the N-acetylneuraminate scavenging and catabolism pathway.
Occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) results in Be sensitization (BeS) that can progress to pulmonary granulomatous inflammation associated with chronic Be disease (CBD). Be-specific lymphocytes are present in the blood of patients with BeS and in the blood and lungs of patients with CBD. Sulfasalazine and its active metabolite, mesalamine, are clinically used to ameliorate chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease. We tested whether sulfasalazine or mesalamine could decrease Be-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in subjects with CBD and BeS and Be-induced cytokine production in CBD bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. CBD (n = 25), BeS (n = 12) and healthy normal control (n = 6) subjects were enrolled and ex vivo proliferation and cytokine production were assessed in the presence of Be and sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Be-stimulated PBMC proliferation was inhibited by treatment with either sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Be-stimulated CBD BAL cell IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine production was decreased by treatment with sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Our data suggest that both sulfasalazine and mesalamine interfere with Be-stimulated PBMC proliferation in CBD and BeS and dampens Be-stimulated CBD BAL cell proinflammatory cytokine production. These studies demonstrate that sulfasalazine and mesalamine can disrupt inflammatory pathways critical to the pathogenesis of chronic granulomatous inflammation in CBD, and may serve as novel therapy for human granulomatous lung diseases.
granulomatous inflammation; IFN-γ; TNF-α; lymphocyte proliferation; berylliosis
Nerve sheath myxoma (NSM) is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor that rarely occurs in the oral cavity. Among the 23 reported intraoral cases, no lesion has previously been reported on the gingiva. In this report, we describe the first gingival case of oral neurothekeoma with histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics. The patient, a 32 year old female presented with a slowly growing gingival mass diagnosed clinically as an epulis. The lesion was surgically excised. Histopathologically, the lesion presented as a submucosal multinodular mass composed of spindle and stellate-shaped cells with a myxoid background. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were sporadically positive for S-100 and NSE and negative for GFAP, EMA, SMA, CD68 and HMB45. The immunoprofile of this lesion confirmed a Schwann cell origin. The lesion was followed up for 10 months with no reports of recurrence.
Nerve sheath myxoma; Neurothekeoma; Gingiva; Oral cavity; Benign tumor
As those with HIV infection live longer, ‘non-AIDS’ condition associated with immunodeficiency and chronic inflammation are more common. We ask whether ‘non-HIV’ biomarkers improve differentiation of mortality risk among individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
Using Poisson models, we analysed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) on HIV-infected veterans initiating cART between 1 January 1997 and 1 August 2002. Measurements included: HIV biomarkers (CD4 cell count, HIV RNA and AIDS-defining conditions); ‘non-HIV’ biomarkers (haemoglobin, transaminases, platelets, creatinine, and hepatitis B and C serology); substance abuse or dependence (alcohol or drug); and age. Outcome was all cause mortality. We tested the discrimination (C statistics) of each biomarker group alone and in combination in development and validation data sets, over a range of survival intervals, and adjusting for missing data.
Of veterans initiating cART, 9784 (72%) had complete data. Of these, 2566 died. Subjects were middle-aged (median age 45 years), mainly male (98%) and predominantly black (51%). HIV and ‘non-HIV’ markers were associated with each other (P<0.0001) and discriminated mortality (C statistics 0.68–0.73); when combined, discrimination improved (P<0.0001). Discrimination for the VACS Index was greater for shorter survival intervals [30-day C statistic 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80–0.91], but good for intervals of up to 8 years (C statistic 0.73, 95% CI 0.72–0.74). Results were robust to adjustment for missing data.
When added to HIV biomarkers, ‘non-HIV’ biomarkers improve differentiation of mortality. When evaluated over similar intervals, the VACS Index discriminates as well as other established indices. After further validation, the VACS Index may provide a useful, integrated risk assessment for management and research.
anaemia; CD4 cell count; hepatitis C coinfection; hepatology; injecting drug use; outcomes; renal/kidney; risk groups; viral load
The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors are activated by a range of stimuli including pro-inflammatory cytokines. Active NF-κB regulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation and cell survival and aberrant NF-κB activity plays pathological roles in certain types of cancer and diseases characterized by chronic inflammation. NF-κB signaling is an attractive target for the development of novel anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer drugs and we discuss here how the method of peptide transduction has been used to specifically target NF-κB. Peptide transduction relies on the ability of certain small cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to enter cells, and a panel of CPP-linked inhibitors (CPP-Is) has been developed to directly inhibit NF-κB signaling. Remarkably, several of these NF-κB-targeting CPP-Is are effective in vivo and therefore offer exciting potential in the clinical setting.
Nuclear Factor kappa B; I kappa B Kinase; cell penetrating peptide; peptide transduction; signal transduction
It is no longer possible to identify counterfeit medical products, including medications and devices, by simply checking packaging and labeling. Improvements in technology have made it cheaper and easier to produce fake packaging and labels, making it nearly impossible for consumers and authorities to detect counterfeits without conducting tests on the products themselves, as illustrated by the sale of over one million counterfeit blood glucose test strips sold to unsuspecting U.S. consumers at drugstores in more than 35 states and in other countries around the world in the fall of 2006. The pricier the drugs, the more counterfeiters seek to mimic them to maximize returns, victimizing those patients at highest risk who rely on life-saving medications.
anticounterfeiting; counterfeit drugs; fake pharmaceuticals; Internet pharmacies
Objective To study rates of relapse in remitted patients with first episode psychosis who either continued or discontinued antipsychotic drugs after at least one year of maintenance treatment.
Design 12 month randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.
Setting Early psychosis outpatient clinics in Hong Kong.
Participants 178 patients with first episode psychosis who had received at least one year of antipsychotic drug treatment between September 2003 and July 2006 and had no positive symptoms of psychosis.
Interventions Patients received either maintenance treatment with quetiapine (400 mg/day) or placebo and were followed up for the next 12 months or until a relapse occurred.
Main outcome measure Relapse assessed monthly and defined as re-emergence of psychotic symptoms (delusions, conceptual disorganisation, hallucinations, suspiciousness, and unusual thought content) according to predefined thresholds.
Results 178 patients were randomised (89 to quetiapine and 89 to placebo). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the risk of relapse at 12 months was 41% (95% confidence interval 29% to 53%) for the quetiapine group and 79% (68% to 90%) for the placebo group (P<0.001). Although quetiapine was generally well tolerated, the rate of discontinuation due to adverse or serious adverse events was greater in the quetiapine group (18%; 16/89) than in the placebo group (8%; 7/89) (relative risk 2.29, 95% confidence interval 0.99 to 5.28; χ2=3.20, df=1; P=0.07).
Conclusion In a group of asymptomatic patients with first episode psychosis and at least one year of previous antipsychotic drug treatment, maintenance treatment with quetiapine compared with placebo resulted in a substantially lower rate of relapse during the following year.
Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00334035.
Background and Purpose
The purpose of this study was to determine whether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which had been associated with coronary heart disease, are associated with incident ischemic stroke.
Based on antecedent studies of coronary heart disease, we prespecified the risk allele for each of the 74 SNPs. We used Cox proportional hazards models that adjusted for traditional risk factors to estimate the associations of these SNPs with incident ischemic stroke during 14 years of follow-up in a population-based study of older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).
In white CHS participants, the prespecified risk alleles of 7 of the 74 SNPs (in HPS1, ITGAE, ABCG2, MYH15, FSTL4, CALM1, and BAT2) were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke (one-sided P<0.05, false discovery rate=0.42). In black participants, the prespecified risk alleles of 5 SNPs (in KRT4, LY6G5B, EDG1, DMXL2, and ABCG2) were nominally associated with stroke (one-sided P<0.05, false discovery rate=0.55). The Val12Met SNP in ABCG2 was associated with stroke in both white (hazard ratio, 1.46; 90% CI, 1.05 to 2.03) and black (hazard ratio, 3.59; 90% CI, 1.11 to 11.6) participants of CHS. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the 10-year cumulative incidence of stroke were greater among Val allele homozygotes than among Met allele carriers in both white (10% versus 6%) and black (12% versus 3%) participants of CHS.
The Val12Met SNP in ABCG2 (encoding a transporter of sterols and xenobiotics) was associated with incident ischemic stroke in white and black participants of CHS.
brain infarction; cerebrovascular accident; epidemiology; genetics; prevention; risk factors
The heptahelical G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to the largest family of cell surface signaling receptors encoded in the human genome. GPCRs signal to diverse extracellular stimuli and control a vast number of physiological responses, making this receptor class the target of nearly half the drugs currently in use. In addition to rapid desensitization, receptor trafficking is crucial for the temporal and spatial control of GPCR signaling. Sorting signals present in the intracytosolic domains of GPCRs regulate trafficking through the endosomal-lysosomal system. GPCR internalization is mediated by serine and threonine phosphorylation and arrestin binding. Short, linear peptide sequences including tyrosine- and dileucine-based motifs, and PDZ ligands that are recognized by distinct endocytic adaptor proteins also mediate internalization and endosomal sorting of GPCRs. We present new data from bioinformatic searches that reveal the presence of these types of sorting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of many known GPCRs. Several recent studies also indicate that the covalent modification of GPCRs with ubiquitin serves as a signal for internalization and lysosomal sorting, expanding the diversity of mechanisms that control trafficking of mammalian GPCRs.
GPCR; arrestin; ubiquitin; trafficking; clathrin; PDZ; bioinformatic
A minor allele variant (rs3798220) of apolipoprotein(a) has been reported to be associated with elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether this allele was associated with elevated Lp(a) and cardiovascular risk in Women's Health Study, a randomized trial of low-dose aspirin, and whether aspirin reduced cardiovascular risk in minor allele carriers.
Methods and Results
Genotypes of rs3798220 were determined for 25,131 initially healthy Caucasian participants. Median Lp(a) levels at baseline were 10.0, 79.5, and 153.9 mg/dL for major allele homozygotes, minor allele heterozygotes, and minor allele homozygotes, respectively (P<0.0001). During the 9.9 years of follow-up, minor allele carriers (3.7%) in the placebo group had two-fold higher risk of major cardiovascular events than non-carriers (age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.21, 95% CI 1.39−3.52). Among carriers, risk was reduced more than two-fold by aspirin: for aspirin compared with placebo the age-adjusted HR was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.20−0.94); risk was not significantly reduced among non-carriers (age-adjusted HR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.77−1.08). This interaction between carrier status and aspirin allocation was significant (P=0.048).
In the Women's Health Study, carriers of an apolipoprotein(a) variant had elevated Lp(a), doubled cardiovascular risk, and appeared to benefit more from aspirin than non-carriers.
cardiovascular disease; aspirin; lipoproteins; genetics; Lp(a)