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1.  Thin-section CT findings in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1020):1533-1538.
The aim of this study was to assess clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) pulmonary infection.
We retrospectively identified 44 patients with acute PA pneumonia who had undergone chest thin-section CT examinations between January 2004 and December 2010. We excluded nine patients with concurrent infections. The final study group comprised 35 patients (21 males, 14 females; age range 30–89 years, mean age 66.9 years) with PA pneumonia. The patients' clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion were evaluated on thin-section CT.
Underlying diseases included malignancy (n=13), a smoking habit (n=11) and cardiac disease (n=8). CT scans of all patients revealed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (n=34), bronchial wall thickening (n=31), consolidation (n=23) and cavities (n=5). Pleural effusion was found in 15 patients.
PA pulmonary infection was observed in patients with underlying diseases such as malignancy or a smoking habit. The CT findings in patients with PA consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation and bronchial wall thickening.
Advances in knowledge
The CT findings consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening and cavities. These findings in patients with an underlying disease such as malignancy or a smoking habit may be suggestive of pneumonia caused by PA infection.
PMCID: PMC3611710  PMID: 22844034
2.  Comparison of pulmonary thin section CT findings and serum KL-6 levels in patients with sarcoidosis 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(999):229-235.
This study aimed to compare thin-section CT images from sarcoidosis patients who had either normal or elevated serum KL-6 levels.
101 patients with sarcoidosis who underwent thin-section CT examinations of the chest and serum KL-6 measurements between December 2003 and November 2008 were retrospectively identified. The study group comprised 75 sarcoidosis patients (23 male, 52 female; aged 19–82 years, mean 54.1 years) with normal KL-6 levels (152–499 U ml–1, mean 305.7 U ml–1) and 26 sarcoidosis patients (7 male, 19 female; aged 19–75 years, mean 54.3 years) with elevated KL-6 levels (541–2940 U ml–1, mean 802.4 U ml–1). Two chest radiologists, unaware of KL-6 levels, retrospectively and independently interpreted CT images for parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion.
CT findings in sarcoidosis patients consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement (70/75 with normal KL-6 levels and 21/26 with elevated KL-6 levels), followed by nodules (50 and 25 with normal and elevated levels, respectively) and bronchial wall thickening (25 and 21 with normal and elevated levels, respectively). Ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, traction bronchiectasis, architectural distortion and bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated KL-6 levels than those with normal levels (p<0.001, p<0.005, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). By comparison, there was no significant difference in frequency of lymph node enlargement between the two groups.
These results suggest that serum KL-6 levels may be a useful marker for indicating the severity of parenchymal sarcoidosis.
PMCID: PMC3473878  PMID: 21045068
3.  Localised right upper-lobe pulmonary oedema caused by extension of giant cell carcinoma to the mitral valve 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(997):e004-e006.
Giant cell carcinoma of the lung is a very rare primary malignant tumour and localised right upper-lobe pulmonary oedema is also unusual. We report a case of giant cell carcinoma, which invaded the left atrium through the left pulmonary vein and caused localised right upper-lobe pulmonary oedema.
PMCID: PMC3473816  PMID: 21172960
4.  A case of pneumonitis and encephalitis associated with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection after bone marrow transplantation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(996):e255-e258.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-associated encephalitis or pneumonitis has been reported in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. Several MRI studies in patients with HHV-6-associated encephalitis have been presented. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies describing thin-section CT imaging in patients with HHV-6-associated pneumonitis have been reported. Here we describe a case of HHV-6-associated encephalitis and pneumonitis that developed after bone marrow transplantation. Thin-section CT images of the chest revealed ground-glass attenuation, consolidation and centrilobular nodules in both lungs.
PMCID: PMC3473609  PMID: 21088083
5.  Swing‐like movement of pigtail catheter in a patient with ruptured chordae tendinae 
Heart  2006;92(9):1197.
PMCID: PMC1861181  PMID: 16908687
Images in cardiology
6.  Corkscrew appearance in the right coronary artery in a patient with Buerger's disease 
Heart  2006;92(7):944.
PMCID: PMC1860720  PMID: 16775101
Images in cardiology
7.  High serum concentrations of surfactant protein A in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with non-specific interstitial pneumonia 
Thorax  2003;58(1):52-57.
Background: The pathological diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) by surgical lung biopsy is important for clinical decision making. There is a need, however, to use serum markers for differentiating usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) from other ILD. Surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, KL-6, sialyl SSEA-1 (SLX), and sialyl Lewisa (CA19-9) are useful markers for the diagnosis and evaluation of activity of ILD. We have investigated the usefulness of these proteins as markers of UIP.
Methods: Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid levels of the above five markers were measured in 57 patients with various forms of ILD (19 with UIP, 12 with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), eight with bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP), and 10 with sarcoidosis), eight patients with the control disease (diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB)), and nine healthy volunteers.
Results: Serum levels of SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6 in patients with UIP and NSIP were significantly higher than in healthy volunteers. In particular, the serum levels of SP-A in patients with UIP were significantly higher than in patients with NSIP (p<0.0001, mean difference –58.3 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval –81.6 to –35.0), and BAL fluid levels of SP-D in patients with UIP were significantly lower than in patients with NSIP (p=0.01, mean difference 322.4 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval 79.3 to 565.5).
Conclusion: Serum SP-A levels may be clinically useful as a biomarker to differentiate between UIP and NSIP.
PMCID: PMC1746446  PMID: 12511721
8.  Raised plasma concentrations of α-defensins in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 
Thorax  2002;57(7):623-628.
Background: Neutrophils are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Human neutrophils contain antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides in the azurophil granules which belong to a family of mammalian neutrophil peptides named α-defensins. A study was undertaken to investigate the role of α-defensins in the pathogenesis of IPF.
Methods: The concentrations of α-defensins (human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) 1, 2, and 3) in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of 30 patients with IPF and 15 healthy subjects were measured by radioimmunoassay.
Results: The concentrations of α-defensins in plasma, but not in BAL fluid, were significantly higher in IPF patients than in controls. BAL fluid concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8 in patients with IPF, which were significantly higher than in controls, correlated with those of α-defensins. An inverse relationship was seen between plasma α-defensin levels and the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) and pulmonary function (vital capacity (%VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and carbon monoxide transfer factor (%TLCO)) in patients with IPF. Plasma levels of α-defensins also correlated with the clinical course in IPF patients with an acute exacerbation. Immunohistochemically, positive staining was observed inside and outside neutrophils in the alveolar septa, especially in dense fibrotic areas.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that α-defensins play an important role in the pathogenesis of IPF, and that the plasma α-defensin level may be a useful marker of disease severity and activity.
PMCID: PMC1746385  PMID: 12096207
9.  Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 
Thorax  1999;54(11):1015-1020.
BACKGROUND—Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known as a potent neutrophil chemotactic glycoprotein in vitro but its contribution to chemotactic activity in neutrophil mediated lung diseases is not yet known. The aims of this study were to determine whether G-CSF is present in high concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, also called cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis), a neutrophil mediated lung disease, and to what extent G-CSF in BAL fluid contributes to neutrophil accumulation in the lung of patients with IPF.
METHODS—G-CSF concentrations in BAL fluid samples from 16 healthy volunteers, 24 patients with IPF, and 73 patients with non-IPF lung disease were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between G-CSF concentrations and neutrophil count in BAL fluid was also examined. Neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) was measured in BAL fluid in healthy volunteers and patients with IPF. The contribution of G-CSF to overall NCA in lungs with IPF was assessed by repeating the measurement of NCA after a complete neutralisation of G-CSF bioactivity by anti-human G-CSF antiserum.
RESULTS—Detectable levels of G-CSF were found in BAL fluid of 83% of patients with IPF while the levels in all healthy volunteers were below the detection limit. In patients with IPF a significant correlation was observed between the BAL fluid neutrophil count and the concentration of G-CSF in the BAL fluid. The neutrophil count also correlated significantly with percentage forced vital capacity. In BAL fluid samples from patients with IPF the mean NCA value was reduced by 35% after neutralisation with an anti-human G-CSF antiserum.
CONCLUSIONS—G-CSF may be involved in enhancing neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of patients with IPF.

PMCID: PMC1745399  PMID: 10525561
10.  Analysis of T cell subsets and beta chemokines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis 
Thorax  1997;52(5):431-437.
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown origin characterised by accumulation of T lymphocytes and macrophages in multiple organs. Several cytokines and adhesion molecules may contribute to the accumulation of T lymphocytes in pulmonary sarcoidosis. The distribution of T lymphocyte subsets, T cell bearing CD11a and beta chemokines such as regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory peptide 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood were compared in untreated patients with sarcoidosis and normal subjects. METHODS: Flow cytometric analysis with monoclonal antibodies to cell surface antigens was used to identify T lymphocyte subsets in the BAL fluid of untreated patients with sarcoidosis (n = 40)--either without (group A, n = 12) or with (group B, n = 28) radiological evidence of pulmonary involvement--and in 22 normal subjects. The level of different beta chemokines was estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: A high percentage of CD3+ cells, CD4+ cells expressing HLA-DR antigen, and a high CD4/CD8 ratio were detected in the BAL fluid of patients compared with normal subjects. In particular, CD4+ CD29+ memory T cells were significantly increased in patients with sarcoidosis. Furthermore, these cells were higher in those in group B than group A. The level of RANTES in the BAL fluid of patients was significantly higher than in normal subjects and correlated well with the percentage, number, and expression of CD29 on CD4 cells. The expression of CD11a (alpha chain of lymphocyte function associated antigen-1, LFA-1) on CD3+ cells in the BAL fluid of patients with sarcoidosis was not different from that of normal subjects. However, the expression of CD11a on CD3+ cells in the BAL fluid of patients in group A was significantly lower than that of patients in group B and normal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a possible interaction between activated memory T cells bearing CD11a and RANTES which may contribute to the pulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis. 

PMCID: PMC1758558  PMID: 9176534
11.  Long term effect of erythromycin therapy in patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. 
Thorax  1995;50(12):1246-1252.
BACKGROUND--Diffuse panbronchiolitis is a chronic infection of the lower respiratory tract common among the Japanese people, with a persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the late stage and sustained neutrophil retention in the airways. The long term effect of erythromycin was examined retrospectively in a group of patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis, with and without P aeruginosa infection, and the relationship between drug-induced bacterial clearance and clinical improvement was investigated. METHODS--The history, daily volume of sputum, type of organisms in sputum cultures, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas tensions, and chest radiographs were compared in 16 patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis with P aeruginosa infection and 12 without. The total and differential cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were compared in 14 of the 28 patients (five of whom were infected with P aeruginosa) before and after 1-12 months of treatment with erythromycin (600 mg/day). The outcome of treatment in patients showing clearance of organisms on repeated sputum cultures was compared with that in those demonstrating persistence of bacteria in the sputum and patients with normal flora. RESULTS--Erythromycin improved respiratory function and arterial blood gas tensions irrespective of the presence or absence of P aeruginosa in the sputum. Treatment also resulted in a reduction in the BAL fluid total cell count and the percentage of neutrophils in both groups of patients. There were no differences between patients in whom the bacteria cleared and those with persistent bacteria or patients with a normal flora with regard to the degree of improvement of respiratory function, arterial blood gas tensions, and BAL fluid cell composition. CONCLUSION--The results suggest that the efficacy of erythromycin in diffuse pan-bronchiolitis may be due to anti-inflammatory effect, independent of P aeruginosa infection or bacterial clearance.
PMCID: PMC1021345  PMID: 8553295
12.  Inhibitory effect of erythromycin on interleukin 8 production by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-stimulated THP-1 cells. 
We have recently reported that long-term administration of erythromycin at a low dose reduced the number of neutrophils and concentrations of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with chronic lower respiratory tract disease. To investigate the mechanism of action of erythromycin, we evaluated its effect on IL-8 production in the 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-stimulated human monocytic cell line THP-1. Erythromycin at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml significantly reduced IL-8 production by THP-1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (10 ng/ml) and 1% normal human serum compared with the amount produced by untreated cells (untreated cells, 2,448 pg/ml; erythromycin-treated cells, 872 pg/ml). Our results suggest that erythromycin may impair IL-8 production by alveolar macrophages, ultimately reducing neutrophil accumulation in the airspace.
PMCID: PMC163367  PMID: 8726037

Results 1-12 (12)