Transfer of type-1 helper T-conditioned (Th1-conditioned) cells promotes functional recovery with enhanced axonal remodeling after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of pro-inflammatory Th1-conditioned cells after SCI. The effect of Th1-conditioned cells from interferon-γ (ifn-γ) knockout mice (ifn-γ−/− Th1 cells) on the recovery after SCI was reduced. Transfer of Th1-conditioned cells led to the activation of microglia (MG) and macrophages (MΦs), with interleukin 10 (IL-10) upregulation. This upregulation of IL-10 was reduced when ifn-γ−/− Th1 cells were transferred. Intrathecal neutralization of IL-10 in the spinal cord attenuated the effects of Th1-conditioned cells. Further, IL-10 is robustly secreted from Th1-conditioned cells in an ifn-γ-dependent manner. Th1-conditioned cells from interleukin 10 knockout (il-10−/−) mice had no effects on recovery from SCI. These findings demonstrate that ifn-γ-dependent secretion of IL-10 from Th1 cells, as well as native MG/MΦs, is required for the promotion of motor recovery after SCI.
Th1 cells; spinal cord injury; microglia macrophages; interleukin 10
Recently, PFTK1 was identified as a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family; however, its expression and clinical significance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been evaluated.
PFTK1 expression was initially examined by expression microarray in 77 ESCC patients. Using independent samples of 223 patients, PFTK1 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically to assess the relationship between expression and various clinicopathological parameters. The association between PFTK1 and the response to chemotherapy was also investigated in pretreatment samples of 85 patients who received chemotherapy as first treatment.
Significant upregulation of PFTK1 expression was noted in ESCC compared with normal epithelium. PFTK1 expression was positive in 51.6% (115 out of 223) of the tumours, but did not correlate with any clinicopathological parameter. The 5-year overall survival rate was poorer in patients positive for PFTK1 (43.6%) than those with negative expression (66.2%, P<0.001). Uni- and multivariate analyses identified PFTK1 as an independent marker of prognosis (RR=2.428, 95% CI=1.615–3.711, P<0.001). Out of 85 biopsy samples, 40 (47.1%) tumours showed PFTK1-positive expression, and the response rate to chemotherapy was significantly lower than PFTK1-negative tumours (27.9% vs 72.1%, P<0.001).
PFTK1 is not only useful as a prognostic marker, but also as a predictor of the response to chemotherapy.
oesophagus squamous cell carcinoma; PFTK1; immunohistochemistry; chemotherapy; prediction, biological marker
The role of T lymphocytes in central nervous system (CNS) injuries is controversial, with inconsistent results reported concerning the effects of T-lymphocyte transfer on spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we demonstrate that a specific T-lymphocyte subset enhances functional recovery after contusion SCI in mice. Intraperitoneal adoptive transfer of type 1 helper T (Th1)-conditioned cells 4 days after SCI promoted recovery of locomotor activity and tactile sensation and concomitantly induced regrowth of corticospinal tract and serotonergic fibers. However, neither type 2 helper T (Th2)- nor IL-17-producing helper T (Th17)-conditioned cells had such effects. Activation of microglia and macrophages were observed in the spinal cords of Th1-transfered mice after SCI. Specifically, M2 subtype of microglia/macrophages was upregulated after Th1 cell transfer. Neutralization of interleukin 10 secreted by Th1-conditioned cells significantly attenuated the beneficial effects by Th1-conditioned lymphocytes after SCI. We also found that Th1-conditioned lymphocytes secreted significantly higher levels of neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), than Th2- or Th17-conditioned cells. Thus, adoptive transfer of pro-inflammatory Th1-conditioned cells has neuroprotective effects after SCI, with prospective implications in immunomodulatory treatment of CNS injury.
Th1 cells; spinal cord injury; axonal sprouting
This study aimed to compare thin-section CT images from sarcoidosis patients who had either normal or elevated serum KL-6 levels.
101 patients with sarcoidosis who underwent thin-section CT examinations of the chest and serum KL-6 measurements between December 2003 and November 2008 were retrospectively identified. The study group comprised 75 sarcoidosis patients (23 male, 52 female; aged 19–82 years, mean 54.1 years) with normal KL-6 levels (152–499 U ml–1, mean 305.7 U ml–1) and 26 sarcoidosis patients (7 male, 19 female; aged 19–75 years, mean 54.3 years) with elevated KL-6 levels (541–2940 U ml–1, mean 802.4 U ml–1). Two chest radiologists, unaware of KL-6 levels, retrospectively and independently interpreted CT images for parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion.
CT findings in sarcoidosis patients consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement (70/75 with normal KL-6 levels and 21/26 with elevated KL-6 levels), followed by nodules (50 and 25 with normal and elevated levels, respectively) and bronchial wall thickening (25 and 21 with normal and elevated levels, respectively). Ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, traction bronchiectasis, architectural distortion and bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated KL-6 levels than those with normal levels (p<0.001, p<0.005, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). By comparison, there was no significant difference in frequency of lymph node enlargement between the two groups.
These results suggest that serum KL-6 levels may be a useful marker for indicating the severity of parenchymal sarcoidosis.
TRIB3 is a human homologue of Drosophila tribbles. Previous studies have shown that TRIB3 controls the cell growth through ubiquitination-dependent degradation of other proteins, whereas its significance in the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not yet fully understood.
This study comprised 202 patients who underwent surgery for CRC, as well as 22 cell lines derived from human gastrointestinal cancer. The correlation of gene expression with clinical parameters in patients was assessed. The biological significance was evaluated by knockdown experiments in seven colorectal cancer cell lines.
A total of 20 cancer cell lines (90.9%) expressed the TRIB3 gene. The assessment in surgical specimens indicated that the gene expression was significantly higher in the cancerous region than in the marginal non-cancerous region. Patients with high TRIB3 expression were statistically susceptible to a recurrence of the disease, and showed poorer overall survival than those with low expression. The assessment of TRIB3 knockdown in five cell lines showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibition resulted in a statistically significant reduction in cell growth.
These data strongly suggest the usefulness of TRIB3 as a marker for predicting the prognosis of CRC patients, showing a basis for the development of effective treatments for CRC.
TRIB3; prognosis; metastasis; colorectal cancer
Recent studies have showed that the bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells play critical roles in metastasis and that ID1 is required in metastasis as regulator of angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the clinical significance of ID1 mRNA expression in bone marrow and peripheral samples in patients with gastric cancer. Two hundred and eighty-nine bone marrow and 196 peripheral blood samples from gastric cancer patients were collected and analysed by quantitative RT–PCR for ID1. The ID1 protein expression in one bone marrow, three metastatic lymph nodes and three peritoneal disseminated tumours was examined by immunohistochemical methods. In both bone marrow and peripheral blood samples, ID1 mRNA expression in the metastatic group was significantly higher than in any other group (P=0.003, P=0.0001, respectively) and significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination. The cells in bone marrow with metastatic cancer stained strongly with ID1 compared with those of healthy volunteers. The expression of ID1 mRNA in bone marrow and peripheral blood was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination, and therefore constitutes a predictable marker for lymph node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination.
ID1; gastric cancer; bone marrow; peripheral blood; lymph node metastasis; peritoneal dissemination
While tumour necrosis factor α (TNF‐α) appears to be associated with the development of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), its precise role in the pathogenesis of NASH is not well understood.
Male mice deficient in both TNF receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 2 (TNFR2) (TNFRDKO mice) and wild‐type mice were fed a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet or a control diet for eight weeks, maintaining isoenergetic intake.
MCD dietary feeding of TNFRDKO mice for eight weeks resulted in attenuated liver steatosis and fibrosis compared with control wild‐type mice. In the liver, the number of activated hepatic Kupffer cells recruited was significantly decreased in TNFRDKO mice after MCD dietary feeding. In addition, hepatic induction of TNF‐α, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 was significantly suppressed in TNFRDKO mice. While in control animals MCD dietary feeding dramatically increased mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP‐1) in both whole liver and hepatic stellate cells, concomitant with enhanced activation of hepatic stellate cells, both factors were significantly lower in TNFRDKO mice. In primary cultures, TNF‐α administration enhanced TIMP‐1 mRNA expression in activated hepatic stellate cells and suppressed apoptotic induction in activated hepatic stellate cells. Inhibition of TNF induced TIMP‐1 upregulation by TIMP‐1 specific siRNA reversed the apoptotic suppression seen in hepatic stellate cells.
Enhancement of the TNF‐α/TNFR mediated signalling pathway via activation of Kupffer cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in this NASH animal model.
tumour necrosis factor‐α; non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1; kupffer cell; liver fibrosis
We previously cloned human G protein gamma 7 (GNG7) and demonstrated that it was downregulated in gastrointestinal cancer. The significance of GNG7 expression in oesophageal cancer is unknown. TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine the clinical significance of GNG7 expression in 55 cases of oesophageal cancer. Furthermore, GNG7-transfected oesophageal cancer cells were analysed in laboratory studies at genomic and epigenetic levels. Twenty-seven patients with low GNG7 expression showed significantly poorer survival than did 28 patients with high expression (P<0.05). Tumours with low GNG7 expression invaded deeper than those with high GNG7 expression (P<0.05), both in vivo and in vitro. Eight tumours retained GNG7 expression, and they did not show either promoter hypermethylation or loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In 38 tumours with GNG7 suppression, 22 (57%) showed either LOH or promoter hypermethylation. In addition, GNG7 expression was significantly associated with the presence of miR328 in oesophageal cancer cell lines, which suggests that this microRNA might be a regulator of GNG7 expression. GNG7 suppression represents a new prognostic indicator in cases of oesophageal cancer. GNG7 might be suppressed by LOH and promoter hypermethylation or by microRNA.
cancer suppressor gene; large G protein; loss of heterozygosity; methylation; microRNA
This study investigated the maximum tolerated dose of S-1 based on the frequency of its dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. S-1 was administered orally at escalating doses from 50 to 80 mg m−2 b.i.d. on the day of irradiation during radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was delivered through four fields as a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks, and no prophylactic nodal irradiation was given. Twenty-one patients (50 three; 60 five; 70 six; 80 mg m−2 seven patients) were enrolled in this trial. At a dose of 70 mg m−2 S-1, two of six patients demonstrated DLT involving grade 3 nausea and vomiting and grade 3 haemorrhagic gastritis, whereas no patients at doses other than 70 mg m−2 demonstrated any sign of DLT. Among the 21 enrolled patients, four (19.0%) showed a partial response. The median progression-free survival time and median survival time for the patients overall were 8.9 and 11.0 months, respectively. The recommended dose of S-1 therapy with concurrent radiotherapy is 80 mg m−2 day−1. A multi-institutional phase II trial of this regimen in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer is now underway.
pancreatic cancer; chemoradiotherapy; radiosensitizer; S-1; CA19-9
Aims: Mechanisms of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated gastric tumour development are incompletely understood. The interrelations between EBV infection, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and the expression of the tumour suppressor gene p53 was investigated in 133 early stage gastric carcinomas.
Methods: Tumour tissue was compared with paired non-tumour tissue. EBV encoded small RNAs (EBERs) determined EBV status. The apoptotic index (AI) was determined by morphology and verified biochemically. p53 and Ki-67 expression (cell proliferation) was assessed using immunohistochemistry.
Results: EBV was detected in 14.3% of the cases. Cell proliferation did not differ significantly between EBV positive and negative cancers. However, within both these groups, the p53 positive and negative subsets differed significantly (EBV positive group: 76.8% and 55.3% were p53 positive or negative cancers, respectively; p<0.05; EBV negative group: 65.2% and 51.7% were p53 positive or negative, respectively; p<0.005). The numbers of p53 expressing EBV positive and negative cases were significantly different (57.9% and 82.5%, respectively; p<0.05). Compared with cell proliferation, apoptosis was significantly lower in EBV positive versus negative cancers (AI of 4.36 and 6.50, respectively; p<0.01). The p53 positive and negative subsets also differed significantly in AI (EBV positive group: AI of 5.13 and 3.30 for p53 positive and negative cancers, respectively; p<0.05: EBV negative group: AI of 6.84 and 4.90 for p53 positive and negative cancers, respectively; p<0.05).
Conclusions: These factors probably combine to promote development and progression of early stage gastric carcinomas and, at the same time, ensure the survival of EBV itself.
gastric carcinoma; Epstein-Barr virus; apoptosis; p53; proliferation; Ki-67
Background and aims: Many lines of evidence suggest that T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immune responses predominate in Crohn’s disease (CD). Recently, a novel transcription factor T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) has been reported as the master regulator of Th1 development. This study was designed to investigate the role of T-bet and proinflammatory cytokines in Th1 mediated immunopathology in CD.
Materials: CD4+ lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were isolated from surgically resected specimens (CD, n = 10; ulcerative colitis (UC), n = 10; normal controls (NL), n = 5).
Methods: (1) T-bet expression of CD4+ LPMCs was examined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. (2) T-bet expression of LPMCs stimulated by interleukin (IL)-12/IL-18 was analysed by western blotting. (3) Interferon γ (IFN-γ) production and T-bet expression of CD4+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were examined with or without stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies and/or IL-12.
Results: (1) T-bet expression of CD4+ LPMCs was increased in CD compared with UC and NL. (2) Synergistically, augmentation of IFN-γ production by IL-12/IL-18 was independent of T-bet expression in LPMCs. (3) T-bet was induced by T cell receptor stimulation in CD4+ PBMCs. T-bet induction correlated with IFN-γ production and with augmentation of surface expressed IL-12 receptor β2.
Conclusions: T-bet induction by antigenic stimulation and subsequent stimulation by macrophage derived IL-12/IL-18 are important for establishing Th1 mediated immunopathology in CD.
T-bet; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; interleukin 12; interleukin 18
Background and aim: Although ghrelin, a novel growth hormone releasing peptide localised mainly in the gastric fundus, is reported not only to accelerate food passage and gastrointestinal motility but also to affect appetite and weight control, regulation of gastric ghrelin secretion under the conditions of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection is unknown. The present study was designed to investigate plasma and gastric ghrelin levels in Mongolian gerbils with H pylori colonisation of the gastric mucosa.
Methods: Gerbils orally inoculated with H pylori were examined after inoculation. To examine preproghrelin mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa, cDNA encoding the gerbil preproghrelin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase homologue was isolated and a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction system was established.
Results: In gerbils showing H pylori colonisation (H pylori group), expression of preproghrelin mRNA and total ghrelin levels were significantly decreased 17 and 23 weeks later (p<0.01). Although the number of ghrelin immunoreactive cells decreased as the stomach weight increased, the gastric contents of total and active ghrelin in this group were the same as those in controls. Gastric myeloperoxidase activity showed a positive correlation with plasma ghrelin levels. On the other hand, at 17 weeks, plasma ghrelin levels were significantly increased in the H pylori group (p<0.05), suggesting a compensatory increase in secretion of the peptide at this time point.
Conclusion: The present experimental study demonstrated that gastric and plasma ghrelin dynamics are altered in response to H pylori infection.
gastric ghrelin; plasma ghrelin; preproghrelin; myeloperoxidase
Pre-radiosurgical embolization was carried out using cyanoacrylate in seven of 13 patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with a linear accelerator (LINAC). The aim of embolization before SRS was the reduction of AVM volume and/or the elimination of vascular structures bearing an increased risk of haemorrhage. Staged-volume SRS was also performed in two patients because of residual irregular shaped nidus of AVMs even after the embolizations.
Complete obliteration of the AVM nidus on angiogram was presented in five patients with embolizations (including one with staged-volume SRS) and in three of six patients with SRS alone, during follow-up periods after radiosurgery. No patients experienced haemorrhagic events after SRS. Although transient neurological symptoms were observed after embolizations in two patients, no permanent neurological deficits were presented in all patients with SRS. Pre-radiosurgical embolization may allow the effective influence on irradiation therapy in relatively large AVMs and promote more frequent obliteration in more small sized AVMs compared to those with SRS alone. However, further study must be needed to determine whether staged-volume SRS provides a high rate of AVM obliteration and its safeness.
arteriovenous malformations, embolization, radiosurgery
Background: The pathological diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) by surgical lung biopsy is important for clinical decision making. There is a need, however, to use serum markers for differentiating usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) from other ILD. Surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, KL-6, sialyl SSEA-1 (SLX), and sialyl Lewisa (CA19-9) are useful markers for the diagnosis and evaluation of activity of ILD. We have investigated the usefulness of these proteins as markers of UIP.
Methods: Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid levels of the above five markers were measured in 57 patients with various forms of ILD (19 with UIP, 12 with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), eight with bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP), and 10 with sarcoidosis), eight patients with the control disease (diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB)), and nine healthy volunteers.
Results: Serum levels of SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6 in patients with UIP and NSIP were significantly higher than in healthy volunteers. In particular, the serum levels of SP-A in patients with UIP were significantly higher than in patients with NSIP (p<0.0001, mean difference –58.3 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval –81.6 to –35.0), and BAL fluid levels of SP-D in patients with UIP were significantly lower than in patients with NSIP (p=0.01, mean difference 322.4 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval 79.3 to 565.5).
Conclusion: Serum SP-A levels may be clinically useful as a biomarker to differentiate between UIP and NSIP.
Background and aims: Mucus released from goblet cells is important in intestinal mucosal defence, and mucin glycoproteins are thought to be major components of mucus. Recently, we identified and cloned another component of human colonic mucus, IgG Fc binding protein (FcγBP). FcγBP is immunologically distinct from known Fcγ receptors and its structure contains repeated cysteine rich unit sequences resembling those present in mucins. In this work, we assessed the tissue distribution of FcγBP, its binding activity in various body fluids, and its ability to inhibit complement mediated haemolysis.
Methods: Immunohistochemical localisation of FcγBP, using monoclonal antibodies against FcγBP (K9 or K17) and labelled IgG, was conducted in various mucin producing tissues: colon, small intestine, stomach, gall bladder, cystic duct, choledochus, bronchus, submandibular gland, conjunctiva, and cervix uteri. The binding activity of FcγBP in mucus extracted from colon, gastric juice, bile, nasal discharges, saliva, sputum, and tears was also examined by immunodotblot and immunoprecipitation using these monoclonal antibodies. Inhibition of complement mediated haemolysis by FcγBP was investigated using sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and anti-SRBC IgG.
Results: The immunohistochemical study revealed that mucin secreting cells in the colon, small intestine, gall bladder, cystic duct, choledochus, bronchus, submandibular gland, and cervix uteri contained FcγBP, and immunodotblot and immunoprecipitation analysis using IgG and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that the fluids secreted by these cells were capable of binding IgG. Mucin producing cells of the conjunctiva did not express FcγBP molecules or bind to IgG. The surface mucus cells in the stomach were variably positive for FcγBP. Perhaps because of proteolytic degradation, FcγBP in gut lavage fluid did not have IgG binding activity, although this activity was present in the mucus covering the colon. FcγBP suppressed complement mediated haemolysis of SRBC.
Conclusions: FcγBP is widely expressed on mucosal surfaces and in external secretions. It is functionally intact in several fluids. These findings lend support to the concept that FcγBP is an important component of mucosal immunological defences.
IgG Fc binding protein; mucin; mucus; goblet cell; mucosal immunity
We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) within the left hypoglossal canal in a 64-year-old man who presented with tinnitus and ocular symptoms. Angiography revealed DAVF with the fistulous pouch medial to the left jugular bulb. The fistula was feeded by meningeal branches of the bilateral ascending pharyngeal arteries and the branches from the left vertebral artery. The fistula shunted into the left jugular bulb, with reflux into the left inferior petrosal (IPS) and cavernous sinuses (Cses), left superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) and cortical veins over the cerebral convexity. We performed transvenous coil embolization to occlude the fistula resulting in complete resolution of symptoms and signs.
arteriovenous fistula, transvenous embolization, hypoglossal canal
To assess a role of microsatellite instability (MSI) in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma or adenoma from chronic gastritis, we analysed mutations of five microsatellite loci in gastritis, adenoma and adenocarcinoma retrospectively. Gastric mucosa was biopsied from the same area in each patient at different periods and examined for MSI. Only one of 55 patients with chronic gastritis revealed MSI-H phenotype and the other 54 patients showed microsatellite stable (MSS) phenotypes. In six of 17 patients with gastric adenoma or well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, MSI-positive phenotypes were demonstrated. Interestingly, all of six patients showing MSI, including three high-level MSI (MSI-H) cases and three low-level (MSH-L) cases, had already revealed MSI at the stage of chronic gastritis. In two of three MSI-H cases, the identical MSI patterns had been observed at the stage of gastritis 1.5–7 years before the final diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The adjacent gastritis mucosa within 10 mm from the carcinoma demonstrated MSI as well. MSI was not found in any of 35 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection, but found in one of 30 patients without infection. Moreover, two of three cases of gastric adenoma or well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with MSI-H at the stage of chronic gastritis showed no evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection throughout the observation periods. These results indicate that MSI in biopsy specimens at the stage of chronic gastritis may predict the risk of the progression to adenoma and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, and that Helicobacter pylori infection itself may not induce MSI directly in the gastric mucosa. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
microsatellite instability; gastritis; gastric adenoma; gastric adenocarcinoma; Helicobacter pylori
To assess the role of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) in colon cancer cell–cell adhesion, we investigated the effect of both cytokines in human colon cancer cell line, colo205 cell–cell adhesion. IL-4 receptor was expressed on the cell surface of colo205, and recombinant IL-4 inhibited colo205 cell–cell adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion without inhibiting cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against E-cadherin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) inhibited colo205 cell–cell adhesion and IL-4 significantly inhibited the expression of E-cadherin and CEA. IL-13 also inhibited colo205 cell–cell adhesion. These results indicated that IL-4 and IL-13 inhibited colon cancer cell–cell adhesion by down-regulation of E-cadherin and CEA molecules. We then investigated the expression of both cytokines from freshly isolated colon cancer tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). With reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analysis, we demonstrated that colon TILs expressed IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein. These results suggest that Th 2 type cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 locally-produced from TILs may regulate colon cancer adhesion by down-regulation of adhesion molecules. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
IL-4; IL-13; colon cancer; cell adhesion
Background—Increased production of reactive
metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen has been implicated in chronic
inflammation of the gut. The object of this study was to examine the
magnitude and location of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and
peroxynitrite formation in the colonic mucosa of patients with
ulcerative colitis in relation to the degree of inflammation.
Subjects—Thirty three patients with active
ulcerative colitis (17 with mild or moderate inflammation, 16 with
Methods—Inducible NOS activity was determined in
the colonic mucosa by measuring the conversion of
L-arginine to citrulline in the absence of calcium. The
localisation of NOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was assessed
immunohistochemically using the labelled streptavidin biotin method.
Results—Inducible NOS activity increased in
parallell with the degree of inflammation of the mucosa. Expression of
inducible NOS was found not only in the lamina propria, but also in the surface of the epithelium. Peroxynitrite formation as assessed by
nitrotyrosine staining was frequently observed in the lamina propria of
actively inflamed mucosa.
Conclusions—Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite
formation may play an important role in causing irreversible cellular
injury to the colonic mucosa in patients with active ulcerative colitis.
nitric oxide; peroxynitrite; nitric
oxide synthase; ulcerative colitis; colonic mucosa
The aim of the study was to determine whether past exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) influences the risk of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japanese patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 141 HCC patients with CLD and 151 controls with CLD but without HCC. Past exposure to HBV was assessed by antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positivity. Ninety-two patients (65%) with HCC were anti-HBc positive compared with 65 patients (43%) with CLD alone (P < 0.01). A multivariate analysis using logistic regression modelling revealed that anti-HBc positivity significantly increased the risk of the development of HCC [odds ratio (OR) 2.0, P = 0.01]. In the anti-HBc-positive patients, a significantly increased risk of HCC was seen among the patients positive for anti-HBc alone (OR, 2.6; P < 0.01). However, a significant OR was not obtained among the patients with a transient HBV infection implied by positivity for both antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBc (OR, 1.5; P = 0.48). These results indicate that past exposure to HBV is a risk factor for HCC in Japanese CLD patients, especially when they have no serological evidence of immunity to HBV.
Parathyroid (PT) cell hyperplasia is a common consequence of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). NPS R-568 is a phenylalkylamine compound that acts as an agonist (calcimimetic) at the cell surface calcium receptor (CaR). To test the hypothesis that the CaR plays a role in PT hyperplasia in CRI, we tested the effect of NPS R-568 on PT cell proliferation in rats with renal insufficiency. Rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy and then infused intraperitoneally with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label S-phase cells. Two groups of nephrectomized rats received NPS R-568 by gavage twice daily for 4 d (1.5 and 15 mg/kg body wt). On day 5, the number of BrdU-positive PT cells of vehicle-treated nephrectomized rats was 2.6-fold greater than that of the sham-operated control. Low and high doses of NPS R-568 reduced the number of BrdU-positive PT cells by 20 and 50%, respectively. No changes in staining, however, were observed in ileal epithelial cells (CaR-negative) or in thyroidal C-cells (CaR-positive). Furthermore, the effect of NPS R-568 could not be explained by changes in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 or phosphorus. These results indicate that NPS R-568 suppresses PT cell proliferation in rats with renal insufficiency, and lend support to the linkage between the CaR and PT hyperplasia in CRI.
Induction of protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in the vascular tissues by hyperglycemia has been associated with many of the cellular changes observed in the complications of diabetes. Recently, we have reported that the use of a novel, orally effective specific inhibitor of PKC beta isoform (LY333531) normalized many of the early retinal and renal hemodynamics in rat models of diabetes. In the present study, we have characterized a spectrum of biochemical and molecular abnormalities associated with chronic changes induced by glucose or diabetes in the cultured mesangial cells and renal glomeruli that can be prevented by LY333531. Hyperglycemia increased diacylglycerol (DAG) level in cultured mesangial cells exposed to high concentrations of glucose and activated PKC alpha and beta1 isoforms in the renal glomeruli of diabetic rats. The addition of PKC beta selective inhibitor (LY333531) to cultured mesangial cells inhibited activated PKC activities by high glucose without lowering DAG levels and LY333531 given orally in diabetic rats specifically inhibited the activation of PKC beta1 isoform without decreasing PKC alpha isoform activation. Glucose-induced increases in arachidonic acid release, prostaglandin E2 production, and inhibition of Na+-K+ ATPase activities in the cultured mesangial cells were completely prevented by the addition of LY333531. Oral feeding of LY333531 prevented the increased mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 and extracellular matrix components such as fibronectin and alpha1(IV) collagen in the glomeruli of diabetic rats in parallel with inhibition of glomerular PKC activity. These results suggest that the activation of PKC, predominately the beta isoform by hyperglycemia in the mesangial cells and glomeruli can partly contribute to early renal dysfunctions by alteration of prostaglandin production and Na+-K+ ATPase activity as well as the chronic pathological changes by the overexpression of TGF-beta1 and extracellular matrix components genes.
Previous studies have indicated that nitric oxide (NO) released from Kupffer cells modulates biological viability of cocultured hepatoma cells. This study was designed to evaluate the mechanisms by which Kupffer cells synthesize and release NO in reponse to cocultured hepatoma cells. Kupffer cells isolated from male Wistar rats were cocultured with rat hepatoma cell line, AH70 cells. The sum of nitrite and nitrate levels increased in the culture medium of Kupffer cells with AH70 cells as compared with those of Kupffer cells or AH70 cells alone. Increased expressions of iNOS and iNOS mRNA in Kupffer cells cocultured with AH70 cells were detected by an immunofluorescence staining and a fluorescence in situ hybridization study, respectively. A fluorescence in situ DNA-protein binding assay revealed that NF-kappaB activation occurs in Kupffer cells and activated NF-kappaB moved into the nuclei preceding to an increased production of NO. Oxidative stress indicated by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence was observed in Kupffer cells cocultured with AH70 cells. An increased calcium mobilization indicated as increased fluo-3-associated fluorescence was also induced in Kupffer cells after coculture with AH70 cells. Monoclonal antibodies directed against rat CD18 and ICAM-1, as well as TMB-8, a calcium inhibitor, prevented the calcium mobilization, active oxygen production, and NF-kappaB activation in addition to the increased production of NO. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of oxidative NF-kappaB activation, diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and quinacrine, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, significantly attenuated the increase in dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, NF-kappaB activation, and NO production. Therefore, this study suggests that CD18/ICAM-1-dependent cell-to-cell interaction with hepatoma cells causes calcium mobilization and oxidative activation of NF-kappaB, which may lead to the increased production of NO in Kupffer cells.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent endothelial cell mitogen which mediates its effects by binding to tyrosine kinase receptors. We have characterized the VEGF-activated intracellular signal transduction pathway in bovine aortic endothelial cells and correlated this to its mitogenic effects. VEGF induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in protein kinase C (PKC) activation with a maximum of 2.2-fold above the basal level at 5 x 10(-10) M within 10 min as measured both by in situ and translocation assays. Immunoblotting analysis of PKC isoforms in cytosolic and membrane fractions indicated that after VEGF stimulation the content of Ca(2+)-sensitive PKC isoforms (alpha and betaII) was increased in the membrane fractions, whereas no changes were observed for PKC isoforms delta and epsilon. The stimulation of PKC activity by VEGF was preceded by the activation of phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma). This was demonstrated by parallel increases in PLCgamma tyrosine phosphorylation, [3H]inositol phosphate production, and [3H]arachidonic acid-labeled diacylglycerol formation in bovine aortic endothelial cells. In addition, VEGF increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity 2.1-fold which was inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, without decreasing the VEGF-induced increase in PKC activity or endothelial cell growth. Interestingly, genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and GFX or H-7, PKC inhibitors, abolished both VEGF-induced PKC activation and endothelial cell proliferation. VEGF's mitogenic effect was inhibited by a PKC isoform beta-selective inhibitor, LY333531, in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, antisense PKC-alpha oligonucleotides enhanced VEGF-stimulated cell growth with a simultaneous decrease of 70% in PKC-alpha protein content. Thus, VEGF appears to mediate its mitogenic effects partly through the activation of the PLCgamma and PKC pathway, involving predominately PKC-beta isoform activation in endothelial cells.
The doublesex gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the alternatively spliced, sex-specific transcription factors DSXM and DSXF. These factors regulate male- and female-specific transcription of many genes. For example, female-specific transcription of the yolk protein 1 gene is regulated by DSXM repression in males and DSXF activation in females. In this study we used in vitro interaction assays and the in vivo yeast two-hybrid method to identify and examine oligomerization domains of the DSX proteins. A 66-amino-acid segment common to both proteins (amino acids 39 to 104) contains a sequence-specific DNA binding domain and an oligomerization domain (OD1). The OD1 domain oligomerizes up to at least a pentamer, but only dimers bound to a palindromic regulatory site in the yolk protein 1 gene are detected. Both subunits of the OD1 dimer are in contact with DNA. Another segment of each protein (amino acids 350 to 412 for DSXF and 350 to 427 for DSXM) contains a second oligomerization domain (OD2F and OD2M, respectively). The OD2 domains have both sex-specific and non-sex-specific sequences which are necessary for oligomerization. On the basis of sequence analysis, we predict that OD2 oligomerizes through coiled-coil interactions. We speculate that the common function of OD1 and OD2 is to oligomerize the full-length proteins, whereas their specialized functions are to form a dimeric DNA binding unit and a sex-specific transcriptional activation or repression unit.