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1.  Relationship between the thickness of the roof of glenoid fossa, condyle morphology and remaining teeth in asymptomatic European patients based on cone beam CT data sets 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(3):90929410.
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF) thickness and condyle morphology and the influence of the number of remaining teeth and age.
Methods:
Cone beam CT data sets from 77 asymptomatic European patients were analysed retrospectively in this study. The thinnest area of RGF was identified among the sagittal and coronal slices on a computer screen; distance measurement software was used to measure the thickness. Moreover, we applied a free digital imaging and communications in medicine viewer for classification of condyle head type. It was also used to analyse any relation between RGF thickness and the number of remaining teeth. We performed a correlation analysis for RGF, age and missing teeth. Finally, we investigated combining sagittal condyle morphological characterization with coronal condyle morphology in relation to the number of joints and RGF thickness.
Results:
The Kruskal–Wallis test revealed no significant differences in RGF thickness among any of the coronal condyle head morphology groups (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in the thinnest part of RGF in relation to the sagittal plane for condyle morphological characterization, because we observed increased RGF thickness in joints with osteoarthritis features (p < 0.05). There is a non-significant correlation between the thinnest part of the RGF and the number of remaining teeth (p > 0.05).
Conclusions:
We found that the RGF thickness is unaffected by the coronal condyle head morphology and the number of remaining teeth. Osteoarthritic changes (sagittal condyle morphology) have an effect on RGF.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/90929410
PMCID: PMC3667534  PMID: 22996395
roof of glenoid fossa; cone beam CT; condyle morphology; remaining teeth
2.  CCL-1 in the spinal cord contributes to neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury 
Cell Death & Disease  2013;4(6):e679-.
Cytokines such as interleukins are known to be involved in the development of neuropathic pain through activation of neuroglia. However, the role of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL-1), a well-characterized chemokine secreted by activated T cells, in the nociceptive transmission remains unclear. We found that CCL-1 was upregulated in the spinal dorsal horn after partial sciatic nerve ligation. Therefore, we examined actions of recombinant CCL-1 on behavioural pain score, synaptic transmission, glial cell function and cytokine production in the spinal dorsal horn. Here we show that CCL-1 is one of the key mediators involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Expression of CCL-1 mRNA was mainly detected in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion, and the expression of specific CCL-1 receptor CCR-8 was upregulated in the superficial dorsal horn. Increased expression of CCR-8 was observed not only in neurons but also in microglia and astrocytes in the ipsilateral side. Recombinant CCL-1 injected intrathecally (i.t.) to naive mice induced allodynia, which was prevented by the supplemental addition of N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801. Patch-clamp recordings from spinal cord slices revealed that application of CCL-1 transiently enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II). In the long term, i.t. injection of CCL-1 induced phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit, NR1 and NR2B, in the spinal cord. Injection of CCL-1 also upregulated mRNA level of glial cell markers and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6). The tactile allodynia induced by nerve ligation was attenuated by prophylactic and chronic administration of neutralizing antibody against CCL-1 and by knocking down of CCR-8. Our results indicate that CCL-1 is one of the key molecules in pathogenesis, and CCL-1/CCR-8 signaling system can be a potential target for drug development in the treatment for neuropathic pain.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.198
PMCID: PMC3702283  PMID: 23788036
CCL-1; neuropathic pain; glutamate; spinal cord; NMDA receptor
3.  The impact of HLA-Cw*12:02 on control of HIV-1 infection 
Retrovirology  2012;9(Suppl 2):P257.
doi:10.1186/1742-4690-9-S2-P257
PMCID: PMC3441436
4.  Comparison of pulmonary thin section CT findings and serum KL-6 levels in patients with sarcoidosis 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(999):229-235.
Objective
This study aimed to compare thin-section CT images from sarcoidosis patients who had either normal or elevated serum KL-6 levels.
Methods
101 patients with sarcoidosis who underwent thin-section CT examinations of the chest and serum KL-6 measurements between December 2003 and November 2008 were retrospectively identified. The study group comprised 75 sarcoidosis patients (23 male, 52 female; aged 19–82 years, mean 54.1 years) with normal KL-6 levels (152–499 U ml–1, mean 305.7 U ml–1) and 26 sarcoidosis patients (7 male, 19 female; aged 19–75 years, mean 54.3 years) with elevated KL-6 levels (541–2940 U ml–1, mean 802.4 U ml–1). Two chest radiologists, unaware of KL-6 levels, retrospectively and independently interpreted CT images for parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion.
Results
CT findings in sarcoidosis patients consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement (70/75 with normal KL-6 levels and 21/26 with elevated KL-6 levels), followed by nodules (50 and 25 with normal and elevated levels, respectively) and bronchial wall thickening (25 and 21 with normal and elevated levels, respectively). Ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, traction bronchiectasis, architectural distortion and bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated KL-6 levels than those with normal levels (p<0.001, p<0.005, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). By comparison, there was no significant difference in frequency of lymph node enlargement between the two groups.
Conclusion
These results suggest that serum KL-6 levels may be a useful marker for indicating the severity of parenchymal sarcoidosis.
doi:10.1259/bjr/65287605
PMCID: PMC3473878  PMID: 21045068
5.  Evaluation of effective dose from a RANDO phantom in videofluorography diagnostic procedures for diagnosing dysphagia 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2011;40(2):96-101.
Objectives
Videofluorography (VF) is useful for diagnosing dysphagia; however, few reports have investigated appropriate effective doses for VF. The present study aimed to estimate the effective radiation dose in VF for diagnosis of dysphagia.
Methods
Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic RANDO woman phantom as an equivalent to the human body. Effective doses were estimated according to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 60 in 1990 and IRCP 103 in 2007. The tissues measured were those recommended by ICRP 60 and ICRP 103 including gonads (ovaries and testes), red bone marrow and tissues in which excessive radiation commonly causes malignant tumours including lung, thyroid gland, stomach, large intestine, liver, oesophagus, bladder, breast, bone marrow, skin, brain and salivary gland. Skin dose was also measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters.
Results
Using ICRP 103, the effective dose was estimated as 118.1 μSv at a tube voltage of 50 kV and 82.4 μSv at 45 kV. However, using ICRP 60 the effective dose for 1 min of VF was estimated at 62.4 μSv and 47.2 μSv under the same exposure conditions.
Conclusions
Using ICRP 103, the effective dose for VF per examination at a total estimation time of 1 min was estimated as approximately 2.5–8.3 times that observed for digital panoramic radiography and 1/12 to 3 times depending on the measurement device for cone beam CT (CBCT). This value can be decreased in the future using a smaller irradiation field and decreased time for examination in VF in the future.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/51307488
PMCID: PMC3520302  PMID: 21239572
effective dose; equivalent dose; videofluorography; dysphagia
6.  A case of pneumonitis and encephalitis associated with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection after bone marrow transplantation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(996):e255-e258.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-associated encephalitis or pneumonitis has been reported in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. Several MRI studies in patients with HHV-6-associated encephalitis have been presented. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies describing thin-section CT imaging in patients with HHV-6-associated pneumonitis have been reported. Here we describe a case of HHV-6-associated encephalitis and pneumonitis that developed after bone marrow transplantation. Thin-section CT images of the chest revealed ground-glass attenuation, consolidation and centrilobular nodules in both lungs.
doi:10.1259/bjr/19375793
PMCID: PMC3473609  PMID: 21088083
7.  Acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia alone and with concurrent infection: comparison of clinical and thin-section CT findings 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(994):854-860.
The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia (KPP) alone and with concurrent infection. We retrospectively identified 160 patients with acute KPP who underwent chest thin-section CT examinations between August 1998 and August 2008 at our institution. The study group comprised 80 patients (54 male, 26 female; age range 18–97 years, mean age 61.5) with acute KPP alone, 55 (43 male, 12 female; age range 46–92 years, mean age 76.0) with KPP combined with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 25 (23 male, 2 female; age range 56–91 years, mean age 72.7) with KPP combined with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Underlying diseases in patients with each type of pneumonia were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. In patients with concurrent pneumonia, underlying conditions such as cardiac diseases, diabetes mellitus and malignancy were significantly more frequent than in patients with KPP alone. The mortality rate in patients with KPP combined with MRSA or PA was significantly higher than in those with KPP alone. In concurrent KPP, CT findings of centrilobular nodules, bronchial wall thickening, cavity, bronchiectasis, nodules and pleural effusion were significantly more frequent with concurrent pneumonia than in those with KPP alone.
doi:10.1259/bjr/28999734
PMCID: PMC3473742  PMID: 20647513
8.  Establishment of temporomandibular joint puncture technique in rats using in vivo micro-computed tomography (R_mCT®) 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(7):441-445.
The aim of the report was to establish puncture techniques for the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) cavity in rats.
The experimental sample comprised 30 male Sprague–Dawley rats. Under general anaesthesia the superior joint cavity of the rat was punctured either laterally (lateral puncture technique (LPT), n = 11), anteriorly (anterosuperior puncture technique (ASPT), n = 13) or anteroinferior puncture technique (AIPT), n = 6) using a 27-gauge needle. After the tip of the needle was confirmed by micro-CT (R-mCT®, Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan) located on the mandibular fossa, 0.05 ml of contrast media was injected under micro-CT fluoroscopic guidance. After confirmation that the joint cavity was filled with contrast media, micro-CT imaging was carried out.
The puncture for LPT was accurate in 5 of the 11 animals. The ASPT was accurate in all 13 animals. The AIPT punctured 3 of the 6 animals.
Furthermore, the ASPT and AIPT demonstrated improved preservation of the needle; it was harder to detach the needle, which led to greater stability.
These results suggest that ASPT assisted by R-mCT® is useful for basic research, including drug discovery and pathogenesis of TMJ diseases.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/37174063
PMCID: PMC3520191  PMID: 20841463
micro-computed tomography; temporomandibular joint; puncture technique
9.  Expression of Superficial Zone Protein in Mandibular Condyle Cartilage 
Objective
Superficial zone protein (SZP) has been shown to function in the boundary lubrication of articular cartilages of the extremities. However, the expression of SZP has not been clarified in mandibular cartilage which is a tissue that includes a thick fibrous layer on the surface. This study was conducted to clarify the distribution of SZP on the mandibular condyle and the regulatory effects of humoral factors on the expression in both explants and fibroblasts derived from mandibular condyle.
Methods
The distribution of SZP was determined in bovine mandibular condyle cartilage, and the effects of IL-1β and TGF-β on SZP expression were examined in condyle explants and, fibroblasts derived from the fibrous zone of condyle cartilage.
Results
SZP was highly distributed in the superficial zone of intact condyle cartilage. The SZP expression was up-regulated by TGF-β in both explants and cultured fibroblasts, whereas the expression was slightly down-regulated by IL-1β. A significant increase in accumulation of SZP protein was also observed in the culture medium of the fibroblasts treated with TGF-β.
Conclusions
These results suggest that SZP plays an important role in boundary lubrication of mandible condylar cartilage, is synthesized locally within the condyle itself and, exhibits differential regulation by cell mediators relevant to mandibular condyle repairing and pathologies.
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2006.02.002
PMCID: PMC3182505  PMID: 16563813
Temporomandibular joint; cartilage; SZP; hyaluronan; IL-1β; TGF-β
10.  Unusual radiographic appearance of ossifying fibroma in the left mandibular angle 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(5):314-319.
Ossifying fibroma is usually a unilocular lesion with a well-defined, thinly corticated margin radiographically, although various patterns have been noted. The patient was a 27-year-old woman with a painless radiolucent lesion demonstrated on panoramic radiography to involve the root-apex area of the left lower second and third molars. Radiographically, the lesion had some features of a benign tumour, such as an odontogenic myxoma. However, the deep invaginations towards the interalveolar septa suggested a simple bone cyst, whereas the irregular margin and lack of expansion or mandibular canal displacement were consistent with a malignant lesion. A hard tissue component was confirmed only by soft-tissue mode CT. Although this lesion was histopathologically diagnosed as ossifying fibroma, the conflicting imaging findings were challenging and very intriguing.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/81820042
PMCID: PMC3520244  PMID: 20587656
fibroma; ossifying; radiography; computed tomography; mandible
11.  Three-dimensional reconstruction of a fibro-osseous lesion using binary images transformed from histopathological images 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(4):246-251.
The aim of this report was to introduce a new method of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction for fibro-osseous lesions (FOLs) using binary images transformed from histopathological images and to describe its usefulness.
A sample of multiconfluent FOL was used (one of the five types of FOL according to a radiographic classification) which was diagnosed histopathologically as ossifying fibroma. Approximately 30 pathological images were assembled into a composite image of the slide using Tiling Boutique software version 3 for Windows (Sanyo Electric, Osaka, Japan). The tiling images were transformed into 8-bit scale images and then into binary images using ImageJ software ver.1.37 (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). These images were used for 3D reconstruction using ImageJ software. Images were loaded at the same matrix size and were reconstructed into layers of two-dimensional image stacks, adjusted so that contiguous images were aligned based on their centre points, and arranged with long axes horizontal.
3D findings aided the visual understanding of morphological features in the lesion. The 3D reconstruction can be displayed with arbitrary rotation. In this case, the 3D reconstruction, using Real Image software version 4.01 for Windows (KGT, Tokyo, Japan), was created from an arbitrary section. This allowed us to determine the pattern of calcification between groups of connected osteoids and to compare the internal structure of such lesions that are not visible on histopathological findings. Differentiation of features was even more pronounced with a two colour display indicating fibrous connective tissue and osteoid tissue.
A 3D reconstruction of a multiconfluent ossifying fibroma was created using binary images transformed from histopathological images. The quality of the images depends above all on the functionality of the image-processing software. Comparison of each pattern of FOL might allow more simple assessment of the morphological features of FOLs.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/17220113
PMCID: PMC3520232  PMID: 20395467
computer generated three-dimensional imaging; observation; histopathology; ossifying fibroma
13.  p53 mutation is a poor prognostic indicator for survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing surgical tumour ablation. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(5):776-782.
Forty-two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were resected and their tumours were analysed for p53 mutations by GC-clamped denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and gene sequencing. All the exons have been analysed in this study. Eight of 12 HCCs with cirrhosis due to viral hepatitis and the two patients with sarcomatoid changes displayed p53 mutations. In contrast, no mutation was observed in the fibrolamellar variant (n = 9), non-cirrhotics (n = 13) and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 6). The mutations observed were in exons 5-8. Two mutations were observed in codons 136 and 213 as well as a T insertion between residues 156 and 157 (exon 5) and these are reported for the first time in HCC. Likewise, the silent mutation polymorphism in codon 213 was noticed in 3 of the 42 patients. Survival analysis of these patients after surgery showed the mean and median survival in patients with wild-type p53 to be 60 and 43 months respectively. In the group with p53 mutations, the mean and median survival was 15 and 12 months. The difference was statistically significant (P= 0.003).
Images
PMCID: PMC2149958  PMID: 9514057
14.  Springtime peaks of trace metals in Antarctic snow. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1997;105(6):654-659.
Drifting snow samples were collected at Asuka Station (71 degrees 32'S, 24 degrees 08'E, 930 m above sea level) over a period from July to December 1991; 36 elements (including Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, Pb, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Th) in snow were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) by direct sample introduction. Concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, and SO(4)2- in the snow were also determined by ion chromatography. In late September to early October, there was a pronounced peak concentration of most of the elements together with non-sea salt sulfate. Enrichment factor analyses suggest that Na, Mg, Ca, K, and Sr are of marine origin and Al, Fe, Mn, Rb, Cr, Ni, Ga, V, and all the rare earth elements are of crustal origins. Volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 1991) and Mt. Hudson (August 1991) could be the reason for the precipitation of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Se together with non-sea salt sulfates in the austral spring at Asuka Station.
Images
PMCID: PMC1470092  PMID: 9288501
15.  Improved thermodynamic parameters and helix initiation factor to predict stability of DNA duplexes. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1996;24(22):4501-4505.
To improve the previous DNA/DNA nearest-neighbor parameters, thermodynamic parameters (deltaH degrees, deltaS degrees and deltaG degrees) of 50 DNA/DNA duplexes were measured. Enthalpy change of a helix initiation factor is also considered though the parameters reported recently did not contain the factor. A helix initiation factor for DNA/DNA duplex determined here was the same as that of RNA/RNA duplex (deltaG degrees(37) = 3.4 kcal/mol). The improved nearest-neighbor parameters reproduced not only these 50 experimental values used here but also 15 other experimental values obtained in different studies. Comparing deltaG degrees(37) values of DNA/DNA nearest-neighbor parameters obtained here with those of RNA/RNA and RNA/DNA, RNA/RNA duplex was generally the most stable of the three kinds of duplexes with the same nearest-neighbor sequences. Which is more stable between DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA duplexes is sequence dependent.
PMCID: PMC146261  PMID: 8948641
16.  Molecular cloning of two new heat shock genes related to the hsp70 genes in Staphylococcus aureus. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1994;176(15):4779-4783.
We have identified two new heat shock protein genes, orf37 and orf35, in Staphylococcus aureus, located upstream and downstream of grpE(hsp20), dnaK(hsp70), and dnaJ(hsp40) homologous genes in the order orf37-hsp20-hsp70-hsp40-orf35. The transcripts of both orf37 and orf35 were increased by thermal upshift of the culture from 37 to 46 degrees C. The heat shock promoters were located upstream of orf37 and upstream of hsp40. The deduced peptide of orf37 showed similarity with those of orfA in Clostridium acetobutylicum and orf39 in Bacillus subtilis. orf35 was unique in S. aureus and has not yet been described in other bacteria.
Images
PMCID: PMC196305  PMID: 8045913
17.  Structural requirements of Bacillus subtilis small cytoplasmic RNA for cell growth, sporulation, and extracellular enzyme production. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1994;176(1):157-165.
Bacillus subtilis small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA; 271 nucleotides) is a member of the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA family, which has evolutionarily conserved primary and secondary structures. The scRNA consists of three domains corresponding to domains I, II, and IV of human SRP 7S RNA. To identify the structural determinants required for its function, we constructed mutant scRNAs in which individual domains or conserved nucleotides were deleted, and their importance was assayed in vivo. The results demonstrated that domain IV of scRNA is necessary to maintain cell viability. On the other hand, domains I and II were not essential for vegetative growth but were preferentially required for the RNA to achieve its active structure, and assembled ribonucleoprotein between Ffh and scRNA is required for sporulation to proceed. This view is highly consistent with the fact that the presence of domains I and II is restricted to sporeforming B. subtilis scRNA among eubacterial SRP RNA-like RNAs.
Images
PMCID: PMC205027  PMID: 7506707
18.  Cloning and characterization of a Bacillus subtilis gene encoding a homolog of the 54-kilodalton subunit of mammalian signal recognition particle and Escherichia coli Ffh. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(15):4885-4894.
By using a DNA fragment of Escherichia coli ffh as a probe, the Bacillus subtilis ffh gene was cloned. The complete nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA revealed that it contained three open reading frames (ORFs). Their order in the region, given by the gene product, was suggested to be ORF1-Ffh-S16, according to their similarity to the gene products of E. coli, although ORF1 exhibited no significant identity with any other known proteins. The orf1 and ffh genes are organized into an operon. Genetic mapping of the ffh locus showed that the B. subtilis ffh gene is located near the pyr locus on the chromosome. The gene product of B. subtilis ffh shared 53.9 and 32.6% amino acid identity with E. coli Ffh and the canine 54-kDa subunit of signal recognition particle, respectively. Although there was low amino acid identity with the 54-kDa subunit of mammalian signal recognition particle, three GTP-binding motifs in the NH2-terminal half and amphipathic helical cores in the COOH-terminus were conserved. The depletion of ffh in B. subtilis led to growth arrest and drastic morphological changes. Furthermore, the translocation of beta-lactamase and alpha-amylase under the depleted condition was also defective.
Images
PMCID: PMC204942  PMID: 8335643
20.  On the mechanism of preferential incorporation of dAMP at abasic sites in translesional DNA synthesis. Role of proofreading activity of DNA polymerase and thermodynamic characterization of model template-primers containing an abasic site. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1995;23(1):123-129.
DNA polymerase preferentially incorporate dAMP opposite abasic sites (A-rule). The mechanism of the A-rule can be studied by analyzing three dissected stages of the reaction including (i) initial nucleotide insertion, (ii) proofreading excision of the inserted nucleotide and (iii) extension of the nascent primer terminus. To assess the role of the stage (ii) in the A-rule, kinetic parameters of the proofreading excision of primer terminus nucleotides opposite abasic sites were determined using E.coli DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment. The relative efficiency of the excision (Vmax/Km) revealed that removal of A was the least favored of the four nucleotides, but the differences in the efficiencies between excision of A and the other nucleotides was less than 2-fold. In addition, in an attempt to reconcile kinetic data associated with the stage (i) or (ii), the differences in free energy changes (delta delta G degrees) for the formation of model template-primer termini containing XN pairs (X = abasic site, N = A, G, C or T) were determined by temperature dependent UV-melting measurements. The order of delta delta G degrees was XG > XA = XC > or = XT, with delta delta G degrees being 0.5 kcal/mol for the most stable XG and the least stable XT. Based on these data, the role of the stage (ii) and energetic aspects of the A-rule are discussed.
Images
PMCID: PMC306639  PMID: 7870577

Results 1-20 (20)