The great majority of embryos generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) display defined abnormal phenotypes after implantation, such as an increased likelihood of death and abnormal placentation. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles of day 6.5 postimplantation mouse embryos cloned from three different cell types (cumulus cells, neonatal Sertoli cells and fibroblasts). The embryos retrieved from the uteri were separated into embryonic (epiblast) and extraembryonic (extraembryonic ectoderm and ectoplacental cone) tissues and were subjected to gene microarray analysis. Genotype- and sex-matched embryos produced by in vitro fertilization were used as controls. Principal component analysis revealed that whereas the gene expression patterns in the embryonic tissues varied according to the donor cell type, those in extraembryonic tissues were relatively consistent across all groups. Within each group, the embryonic tissues had more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (>2-fold vs. controls) than did the extraembryonic tissues (P<1.0×10–26). In the embryonic tissues, one of the common abnormalities was upregulation of Dlk1, a paternally imprinted gene. This might be a potential cause of the occasional placenta-only conceptuses seen in SCNT-generated mouse embryos (1–5% per embryos transferred in our laboratory), because dysregulation of the same gene is known to cause developmental failure of embryos derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. There were also some DEGs in the extraembryonic tissues, which might explain the poor development of SCNT-derived placentas at early stages. These findings suggest that SCNT affects the embryonic and extraembryonic development differentially and might cause further deterioration in the embryonic lineage in a donor cell-specific manner. This could explain donor cell-dependent variations in cloning efficiency using SCNT.
To develop a classifier to predict the presence of visual field (VF) deterioration in glaucoma suspects based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements using the machine learning method known as the ‘Random Forest’ algorithm.
293 eyes of 179 participants with open angle glaucoma (OAG) or suspected OAG.
Spectral domain OCT (Topcon 3D OCT-2000) and perimetry (Humphrey Field Analyser, 24-2 or 30-2 SITA standard) measurements were conducted in all of the participants. VF damage (Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study criteria (2002)) was used as a ‘gold-standard’ to classify glaucomatous eyes. The ‘Random Forest’ method was then used to analyse the relationship between the presence/absence of glaucomatous VF damage and the following variables: age, gender, right or left eye, axial length plus 237 different OCT measurements.
Main outcome measures
The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) was then derived using the probability of glaucoma as suggested by the proportion of votes in the Random Forest classifier. For comparison, five AROCs were derived based on: (1) macular retinal nerve fibre layer (m-RNFL) alone; (2) circumpapillary (cp-RNFL) alone; (3) ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) alone; (4) rim area alone and (5) a decision tree method using the same variables as the Random Forest algorithm.
The AROC from the combined Random Forest classifier (0.90) was significantly larger than the AROCs based on individual measurements of m-RNFL (0.86), cp-RNFL (0.77), GCL+IPL (0.80), rim area (0.78) and the decision tree method (0.75; p<0.05).
Evaluating OCT measurements using the Random Forest method provides an accurate prediction of the presence of perimetric deterioration in glaucoma suspects.
Optical Coherence Tomography; Visual Field; Random Forest
Management of sepsis in critically ill patients remains difficult and requires prolonged intensive care. Genetic testing has been proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for adverse outcome of critical illnesses. Therefore, we wished to determine the influence of heredity on predisposition to poor outcome and on duration of ventilator support of intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
A study was conducted from July 2001 to December 2005 in heterogeneous population of patients from 12 US ICUs represented by the Genetic Predisposition to Severe Sepsis (GenPSS) archive. In 1057 Caucasian critically ill patients with SAPS II probability of survival of >0.2 in the US, six functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to inflammatory cytokines and innate immunity (rs1800629, rs16944, rs1800795, rs1800871, rs2569190, and rs909253) were evaluated in terms of mortality and ventilator free days.
The AA homozygote of TNF(−308) (rs1800629) was most over-represented in the deceased patient group (P = 0.015 with recessive model). The carriage of the TNF(−308)* AA genotype showed significantly higher odds ratio of 2.67(1.29–5.55) (P = 0.008) after adjustment with the covariates. However, the presence of 1, 2, or 3 acute organ dysfunctions was larger prognostic factors for the adverse outcome (OR(95%CI) = 2.98(2.00–4.45), 4.01(2.07–7.77), or 19.95(4.99–79.72), P < 0.001 for all). Kaplan–Mayer plot on ventilator duration of TNF(−308)* AA patient significantly diverged from that of TNF(−308)* (GG + GA) ((AA v GG + GA), Adjusted HR(95%CI) = 2.53(1.11–5.79) with Cox regression, P = 0.028).
TNF(−308)* AA is significantly associated with susceptibility to adverse outcome and to longer ventilator duration. Therefore, heredity likely affects both predisposition to ICU prognosis as well as the resource utilization.
Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Genetic testing; Sepsis; Cytokines; Ventilators; mechanical
Magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus receive glutamatergic excitatory inputs that regulate the firing activity and hormone release from these neurons. A strong, brief activation of these excitatory inputs induces a lingering barrage of tetrodotoxin-resistant miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) that lasts for tens of minutes. This is known to accompany an immediate increase in large amplitude mEPSCs. However, it remains unknown how long this amplitude increase can last and whether it is simply a byproduct of greater release probability. Using in vitro patch clamp recording on acute rat brain slices, we found that a brief, high frequency stimulation (HFS) of afferents induced a potentiation of mEPSC amplitude lasting up to 20 min. This amplitude potentiation did not correlate with changes in mEPSC frequency, suggesting that it does not reflect changes in presynaptic release probability. Nonetheless, neither postsynaptic calcium chelator nor the NMDA receptor antagonist blocked the potentiation. Together with the known calcium dependency of HFS-induced potentiation of mEPSCs, our results imply that mEPSC amplitude increase requires presynaptic calcium. Further analysis showed multimodal distribution of mEPSC amplitude, suggesting that large mEPSCs were due to multivesicular glutamate release, even at late post-HFS when the frequency is no longer elevated. In conclusion, high frequency activation of excitatory synapses induces lasting multivesicular release in the SON, which is independent of changes in release probability. This represents a novel form of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to prolonged excitatory tone necessary for generation of burst firing of magnocellular neurons.
Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity.
The efficacy of systemic corticosteroids in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not yet been confirmed. We prospectively investigated the clinical features of patients treated with early adjunctive systemic corticosteroids and its clinical impact in very severe CAP.
One hundred and one consecutive CAP patients having a pneumonia severity index of >130 points were enrolled from August 2010 through February 2013. Early adjunctive systemic corticosteroids were defined as administration of systemic corticosteroids equivalent to prednisone of ≥20 mg/day added to initial antibiotics. The multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the independent factors associated with mortality.
Thirty-two patients (31.7%) died within 28 days of admission. Early adjunctive systemic corticosteroids were administered in 30 patients (29.7%), who more frequently had alteration of mental status, serious respiratory failure, or underlying lung diseases and received fluoroquinolones as initial antibiotics. In most patients treated with early adjunctive systemic corticosteroids, the dosage was less than 60 mg/day of an equivalent to prednisone by bolus intravenous infusion for a period shorter than 8 days. The occurrence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Factors independently associated with mortality were blood urea nitrogen (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.04), serum albumin (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22–0.86), a requirement for intensive care (HR 4.93, 95% CI 1.75–13.87), and the therapy with early adjunctive systemic corticosteroids (HR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11–0.81).
Early adjunctive systemic corticosteroids may have an effect to reduce the mortality in very severe CAP, although a larger-scale study is necessary.
pneumonia severity index; initial antibiotics; mortality; intensive care; community-acquired pneumonia; corticosteroids
MicroRNA (miRNA) is an emerging subclass of small non-coding RNAs that regulates gene expression and has a pivotal role for many physiological processes including cancer development. Recent reports revealed the role of miRNAs as ideal biomarkers and therapeutic targets due to their tissue- or disease-specific nature. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity, and laryngeal cancer has the highest incidence in it. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in laryngeal cancer development remain to be known and highly sensitive biomarkers and novel promising therapy is necessary.
To explore laryngeal cancer-specific miRNAs, RNA from 5 laryngeal surgical specimens including cancer and non-cancer tissues were hybridized to microarray carrying 723 human miRNAs. The resultant differentially expressed miRNAs were further tested by using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) on 43 laryngeal tissue samples including cancers, noncancerous counterparts, benign diseases and precancerous dysplasias. Significant expressional differences between matched pairs were reproduced in miR-133b, miR-455-5p, and miR-196a, among which miR-196a being the most promising cancer biomarker as validated by qRT-PCR analyses on additional 84 tissue samples. Deep sequencing analysis revealed both quantitative and qualitative deviation of miR-196a isomiR expression in laryngeal cancer. In situ hybridization confirmed laryngeal cancer-specific expression of miR-196a in both cancer and cancer stroma cells. Finally, inhibition of miR-196a counteracted cancer cell proliferation in both laryngeal cancer-derived cells and mouse xenograft model.
Our study provided the possibilities that miR-196a might be very useful in diagnosing and treating laryngeal cancer.
Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 overexpression or gene amplification is more common in high-grade or type 2 endometrial carcinomas. We assessed the discordance of HER-2 expression between primary and metastatic or recurrent endometrial carcinomas.
Materials and methods
Thirty-six primary, along with 14 metastatic and five recurrent tumors (matched to primaries), pathologically confirmed as high-grade or type 2 endometrial carcinomas, were submitted for immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HER-2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed when the tumors showed HER-2 overexpression (≥2+ IHC score). The results of the IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization assays were compared between the primary and metastatic or recurrent tumors. The relationships between HER-2 expression and clinicopathological factors or prognosis were investigated.
HER-2 overexpression and HER-2 amplification (a ratio of HER-2 copies to chromosome 17 [CEP17] copies ≥2.2) were detected in 33.3% (twelve of 36 patients) and 5.6% (two of 36 patients) of primary tumors, respectively. HER-2 overexpression was not associated with clinicopathological factors or prognosis. In 19 tumor specimens obtained from metastatic or recurrent tumors, HER-2 overexpression and HER-2 amplification were detected in 57.9% (eleven patients) and 15.8% (three patients), respectively. HER-2 overexpression tended to predict a worse prognosis.
HER-2 expression in metastatic or recurrent tumors was more frequent than in matched primary high-grade or type 2 endometrial carcinomas. Trastuzumab in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy may represent an alternative therapeutic option for these tumors.
endometrial carcinoma; high grade; type 2; HER-2; metastatic or recurrent tumors
Applications of laser therapy, including low-level laser therapy (LLLT), phototherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), have been proven to be beneficial and relatively less invasive therapeutic modalities for numerous diseases and disease conditions. Using specific types of laser irradiation, specific cellular activities can be induced. Because multiple cellular signaling cascades are simultaneously activated in cells exposed to lasers, understanding the molecular responses within cells will aid in the development of laser therapies. In order to understand in detail the molecular mechanisms of LLLT and PDT-related responses, it will be useful to characterize the specific expression of miRNAs and proteins. Such analyses will provide an important source for new applications of laser therapy, as well as for the development of individualized treatments. Although several miRNAs should be up- or down-regulated upon stimulation by LLLT, phototherapy and PDT, very few published studies address the effect of laser therapy on miRNA expression. In this review, we focus on LLLT, phototherapy and PDT as representative laser therapies and discuss the effects of these therapies on miRNA expression.
low-level laser therapy (LLLT); phototherapy; photodynamic therapy (PDT); miRNA
Monozygotic (identical) twins have been widely used in genetic studies to determine the relative contributions of heredity and the environment in human diseases. Discordance in disease manifestation between affected monozygotic twins has been attributed to either environmental factors or different patterns of X chromosome inactivation (XCI). However, recent studies have identified genetic and epigenetic differences between monozygotic twins, thereby challenging the accepted experimental model for distinguishing the effects of nature and nurture. Here, we report the genomic and epigenomic sequences in skin fibroblasts of a discordant monozygotic twin pair with Rett syndrome, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by autistic features, epileptic seizures, gait ataxia and stereotypical hand movements. The twins shared the same de novo mutation in exon 4 of the MECP2 gene (G269AfsX288), which was paternal in origin and occurred during spermatogenesis. The XCI patterns in the twins did not differ in lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, and hair cells (which originate from ectoderm as does neuronal tissue). No reproducible differences were detected between the twins in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels), or copy number variations. Differences in DNA methylation between the twins were detected in fibroblasts in the upstream regions of genes involved in brain function and skeletal tissues such as Mohawk Homeobox (MKX), Brain-type Creatine Kinase (CKB), and FYN Tyrosine Kinase Protooncogene (FYN). The level of methylation in these upstream regions was inversely correlated with the level of gene expression. Thus, differences in DNA methylation patterns likely underlie the discordance in Rett phenotypes between the twins.
has been considered the principal etiological agent of dental caries in humans. S. mutans can secrete three kinds of glucosyltransferases (GTFs). One of these, GTF-B, which synthesizes water-insoluble glucans from sucrose, has been considered to be one of the most important factors of cariogenic dental plaque formation. Therefore, determination of whether GTF-B is present in plaque and saliva samples may contribute to the evaluation of individual virulence potential (caries risk). The aim of this study was to develop a feasible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the routine quantification of GTF-B in plaque-derived cultures and clinical samples, and to apply this assay to an epidemiological study. To determine the presence of GTF-B in plaque samples, a sandwich-ELISA was devised, consisting of mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies against GTF-B and a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-rabbit antibody. The developed ELISA allowed for quantification of the amounts of purified GTF-B with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity; this method was not affected by other components such as plaque and saliva. Plaque samples from healthy volunteers were examined using this ELISA method and microbial analysis to apply the assay to an epidemiological study. A correlation was observed between the amount of extracted GTF-B and S. mutans levels as determined by ELISA and cultivated with Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar plates derived from plaque samples, although there were some exceptions. In this regard, this ELISA system has the advantage of estimating both the individual numbers of S. mutans and the productivity of GTF-B, namely, the cariogenic potential of S. mutans simultaneously. These results indicate that this ELISA method is a useful tool for the diagnosis of caries risk.
Perlecan (Hspg2) is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in basement membranes and cartilage. Perlecan deficiency (Hspg2−/−) in mice and humans causes lethal chondrodysplasia, which indicates that perlecan is essential for cartilage development. However, the function of perlecan in endochondral ossification is not clear. Here, we report the critical role of perlecan in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis in growth plate formation. The Hspg2−/− growth plate was significantly wider but shorter due to severely impaired endochondral bone formation. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were differentiated in Hspg2−/− growth plates; however, removal of the hypertrophic matrix and calcified cartilage was inhibited. Although the expression of MMP-13, CTGF, and VEGFA was significantly upregulated in Hspg2−/− growth plates, vascular invasion into the hypertrophic zone was impaired, which resulted in an almost complete lack of bone marrow and trabecular bone. We demonstrated that cartilage perlecan promoted activation of VEGF/VEGFR by binding to the VEGFR of endothelial cells. Expression of the perlecan transgene specific to the cartilage of Hspg2−/− mice rescued their perinatal lethality and growth plate abnormalities, and vascularization into the growth plate was restored, indicating that perlecan in the growth plate, not in endothelial cells, is critical in this process. These results suggest that perlecan in cartilage is required for activating VEGFR signaling of endothelial cells for vascular invasion and for osteoblast migration into the growth plate. Thus, perlecan in cartilage plays a critical role in endochondral bone formation by promoting angiogenesis essential for cartilage matrix remodeling and subsequent endochondral bone formation.
Perlecan; Endochondral bone formation; Growth plate; Vascular invasion; VEGF signaling
A 78-year-old man was admitted to the Department of Otolaryngology of our hospital with bilateral lymph node swelling of the neck. Pathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). He underwent computed tomography (CT) of the neck and chest, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and laryngoscopy to locate a primary tumour, however, no obvious tumour was detected. Eight months later, a renal tumour without regional lymph node swelling was found when a chest CT scan was performed again. We then performed a right nephroureterectomy and regional lymphadenectomy. Pathological examination revealed SCC of the renal pelvis, pT3, grade 3, without regional lymph node metastasis. This pathological finding for the kidney was virtually the same as that for cervical lymph nodes. Therefore, it was thought that his cervical tumours had metastasized from the renal pelvic SCC. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of renal pelvic carcinoma without regional lymph node metastasis having only cervical lymph node metastasis. This is the first case of isolated cervical lymph node metastasis from renal pelvic SCC.
A 67-year-old man, presenting with anemia and suspected gastric cancer, was referred to our hospital, where he underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Biopsy revealed densely populated semi-circular cells with abundant cytoplasm that were positive for S-100 protein, melanoma antigen, and HMB-45, resulting in a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. A gastrointestinal barium study for further exploration demonstrated a filling defect 6 cm in size at the ligament of Treitz. Follow-up EGD of this finding revealed an ulcerated, half-circumferential lesion with a distinct ulcer mound extending from the ascending part of the duodenum to the jejunum, and additional biopsy also indicated malignant melanoma. Computed tomography scans showed wall thickening from the ascending part of duodenum to the proximal jejunum, whereas positron emission tomography revealed accumulation at the upper gastric body, the duodenum to the jejunum, and the left adrenal gland. Systemic exploration of the patient, including the skin, anus, and eyeballs, revealed no other lesions, and primary small intestinal malignant melanoma with metastasis to the stomach and adrenal gland was diagnosed. Partial duodenojejunectomy, partial gastrectomy, and left adrenalectomy were performed, and adjuvant chemotherapy with dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine sulfate was administered. No postoperative recurrence has been observed in the past 3 years.
AMM; Melanoma; DAV; Small intestine
The production of inflammatory proteins such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) by preadipocytes and mature adipocytes is closely associated with the impairment of systemic glucose homeostasis. However, precisely how the production is regulated and the roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether HDAC inhibitors affect the expression of inflammatory proteins in pre/mature adipocytes, and, if so, to determine the mechanism involved. Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of IL-6 in OP9 preadipocytes but not the mature adipocytes. Moreover, TSA also enhanced palmitic acid-induced IL-6 production and the expression of inflammatory genes induced by LPS in preadipocytes. Although TSA did not affect TLR4 mRNA expression or the activation of MAPKs, a reporter gene assay revealed that the LPS-induced increase in nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity was enhanced by TSA. Moreover, TSA increased the level of NF-κB p65 acetylation at lysine 310 and duration of its translocation into the nucleus, which leads to enhancement of NF-κB activity and subsequently expression of inflammatory genes. These findings shed new light on the regulatory roles of HDACs in preadipocytes in the production of inflammatory proteins.
Numerous neurons release two transmitters of low molecular mass, but it is controversial whether they are localized within the same synaptic vesicle, with the single exception of GABA and glycine because they are ferried into the vesicle by the same transporter. Retinal dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells synthesize both dopamine and GABA. Both transmitters are released over the entire cell surface and act on neighboring and distant neurons by volume transmission, but, in addition, DA cells establish GABAergic synapses onto AII amacrine cells, the neurons that transfer rod signals to cone bipolars. By combining recordings of dopamine and GABA release from isolated, genetically identified perikarya of DA cells from the mouse retina, we observed that a proportion of the events of dopamine and GABA exocytosis were simultaneous, suggesting co-release. Furthermore, a proportion of the secretory organelles in the perikaryon and synaptic endings of DA cells contained both vesicular transporters for dopamine (VMAT2) and GABA (VGAT). Since the majority of the dopamine release events concerned a single transmitter and organelles were present that contained a single transporter, either VMAT2 or VGAT, we conclude that the secretory organelles of DA cells contain variable concentrations of the two transmitters, which are in turn determined by a variable mixture of the two transporter molecules in their limiting membrane. This variability can be explained if the relative numbers of transporter molecules is determined stochastically during the budding of the somatic organelles from the trans-Golgi-network or the retrieval of the vesicular membrane from the plasmalemma after exocytosis.
The purpose of this study was to create a vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) prediction system to identify visual field (VF) test points associated with decreased VRQoL in patients with glaucoma.
VRQoL score was surveyed in 164 patients with glaucoma using the ‘Sumi questionnaire’. A binocular VF was created from monocular VFs by using the integrated VF (IVF) method. VRQoL score was predicted using the ‘Random Forest’ method, based on visual acuity (VA) of better and worse eyes (better-eye and worse-eye VA) and total deviation (TD) values from the IVF. For comparison, VRQoL scores were regressed (linear regression) against: (i) mean of TD (IVF MD); (ii) better-eye VA; (iii) worse-eye VA; and (iv) IVF MD and better- and worse-eye VAs. The rank of importance of IVF test points was identified using the Random Forest method.
The root mean of squared prediction error associated with the Random Forest method (0.30 to 1.97) was significantly smaller than those with linear regression models (0.34 to 3.38, p<0.05, ten-fold cross validation test). Worse-eye VA was the most important variable in all VRQoL tasks. In general, important VF test points were concentrated along the horizontal meridian. Particular areas of the IVF were important for different tasks: peripheral superior and inferior areas in the left hemifield for the ‘letters and sentences’ task, peripheral, mid-peripheral and para-central inferior regions for the ‘walking’ task, the peripheral superior region for the ‘going out’ task, and a broad scattered area across the IVF for the ‘dining’ task.
The VRQoL prediction model with the Random Forest method enables clinicians to better understand patients’ VRQoL based on standard clinical measurements of VA and VF.
An 82-year-old male was referred to our institution for evaluation and treatment of a
protruding lesion in the stomach. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed a small
protruding lesion and a large superficial elevated lesion on the lesser curvature of the
stomach (macroscopic type: 0-I and 0-IIa, resp.). CT and endoscopic
ultrasonography (EUS) visualized a small round lymph node (LN) 11 mm in size near
the lesser curvature, although submucosal invasion was not evident. These two lesions
were resected en bloc by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Pathological
examination of the resected specimen showed moderately differentiated tubular
adenocarcinoma (tub2) and well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub1),
respectively, which were limited to the mucosal layer. Because lymphatic-vascular
involvement was not detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, additional
gastrectomy was not performed. Two months after ESD, follow-up EUS and CT showed
an enlarged LN. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for the LN revealed
metastasis. Therefore, total gastrectomy with LN dissection was performed. His
postoperative course was uneventful. After discharge, he has been followed up at the
outpatient department without any sign of recurrence for 5 years. Histological
reexamination of the ESD specimen using immunohistochemistry showed lymphatic
invasion of cancer cells in the lamina propria of the 0-I lesion 13 mm in size.
Myelination is essential for proper functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we have identified a mouse mutation, designated furue, which causes tremors and hypomyelination in the CNS, particularly in the spinal cord, but not in the sciatic nerve of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the spinal cord of the furue mice, myelination of small diameter axons was dramatically reduced and differentiation of oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the CNS, was inhibited. We subsequently found that the furue mutation was associated with a transgene insertion into the teneurin-4 (Ten-4/Odz4) gene, encoding a transmembrane protein of unknown function. Ten-4 was strongly expressed in the spinal cord of wild-type mice and was induced during normal oligodendrocyte differentiation. In contrast, in the furue mice, the expression of Ten-4 was absent. Differentiation and cellular process formation of oligodendrocytes were inhibited in primary cell culture from the furue mice. Cell differentiation and process formation were also inhibited in the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line CG-4 following suppression of Ten-4 expression by shRNA. Further, Ten-4 positively regulated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an essential signaling molecule for oligodendrocyte process formation and myelination of small diameter axons. These findings suggest that Ten-4 is a novel regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and that it plays a critical role in the myelination of small diameter axons in the CNS.
Myelin; Oligodendrocyte; Differentiation; Spinal cord; Tremor
Some chemical compounds in the environment worsen allergic inflammation. In this study, we examined whether organic solvents induce the production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) which elicits Th2-type immune responses.
Organic solvents were painted on the earlobes of BALB/c mice. The expression of TSLP in the ear was determined by ELISA.
Xylene and toluene, but not chloroform or ethyl acetate, induced the expression of mRNA for TSLP in the earlobe tissue. Among the aromatic compounds, xylene, especially m-xylene, and trimethylbenzene caused apparent TSLP production. The level of TSLP in the xylene-treated earlobes reached a maximum at 24 h, and TSLP was expressed in epithelial tissues. Production of TSLP was unaffected in mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice but apparently diminished in TNF-α knockout mice and IL-4 receptor knockout mice. Repeated painting of xylene for 7 days induced an increase in the weight of cervical lymph nodes and expression of OX40 ligand, both of which were inhibited in TSLP receptor knockout mice. Xylene promoted the picryl chloride-induced thickening of the ear and IL-4 production, which were reversed in TSLP receptor knockout mice.
Xylene induced TSLP production, resulting in an exacerbation of allergic inflammation. Thus, xylene might be a good tool for examining the roles of TSLP in eliciting allergy in experimental animals.
Allergic inflammation; Thymic stromal lymphopoietin; Xylene
Laminin α1 (Lama1), which is a subunit of laminin-1 (laminin-111), a heterotrimeric ECM protein, is essential for embryonic development and promotes neurite outgrowth in culture. Because the deletion of Lama1 causes lethality at early embryonic stages in mice, the in vivo role of Lama1 in neural development and functions has not yet been possible to determine. In this study, we generated conditional Lama1 knockout (Lama1CKO) mice in the epiblast lineage using Sox2-Cre mice. These Lama1CKO mice survived, but displayed behavioral disorders and impaired formation of the cerebellum. Deficiency of Lama1 in the pial basement membrane of the meninges resulted in defects in the conformation of the meninges. During cerebellar development, Lama1 deficiency also caused a decrease in the proliferation and migration of granule cell precursors, disorganization of Bergmann glial fibers and endfeet, and a transient reduction in the activity of Akt. A marked reduction in numbers of dendritic processes in Purkinje cells was observed in Lama1CKO mice. Together, these results indicate that Lama1 is required for cerebellar development and functions.
Laminin α1 chain; meninges; and cerebellum
Thermal tumour ablation techniques such as radiofrequency (RF) ablation are applied for radical removal of local tumours as an easier, less invasive alternative to surgical resection. A serious drawback of thermal ablation, however, is that the ablation area cannot be accurately assessed during the procedure. To achieve real-time feedback and exact and safe ablation, a superfine thermocouple-needle system (TNS) comprising a 0.25-mm diameter thermocouple embedded in a 22-G, 15-cm-long needle was devised and efficacy was tested in vitro using porcine livers (n = 15) and in vivo using rabbit back muscles (n = 2) and livers (n = 3). A 17-gauge RF electrode with a 2 cm active tip was used for ablation. The TNS was inserted 1 cm from the active tip of the RF electrode and liver temperature around the electrode was measured concurrently. The RF current was cut off when the temperature reached 60°C or after 5 min at ≥50°C. Porcine livers and rabbit back muscles were then cut along a plane passing through the axes of the electrode and the TNS. In rabbit livers, contrast-enhanced CT was performed to evaluate ablation areas. Ablation areas in cut surfaces of porcine livers exhibited well-defined discoloured regions and the TNS tip precisely pinpointed the margin of the ablation area. Contrast-enhanced CT of rabbit livers showed the TNS tip accurately located at the margin of areas without contrast enhancement. These results indicate that the TNS can accurately show ablation margins and that placing the TNS tip at the intended ablation margin permits exact thermal ablation.
The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb.
Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB) and without (EX) vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein) and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein) was calculated using both variables.
Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P <0.05). Increases in heart rate and mean arterial pressure during exercise at EX + VIB were also lower than those at EX (P <0.05). CSAvein in the resting limb at EX decreased during exercise from baseline (P <0.05), but CSAvein at EX + VIB did not change during exercise. CSAvein during exercise at EX was smaller than that at EX + VIB (P <0.05). However, BFvein did not change during the protocol under either condition. The decreases in circulatory response and RPEs during EX + VIB, despite identical muscle tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX.
Diminished central command induced by tendon vibration may attenuate the superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during sustained static arm exercise.
Central command; Ultrasound technique; Venoconstriction; Venous return
The human synovium contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotential non-hematopoietic progenitor cells that can differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal lineages and they may therefore be a candidate cell source for tissue repair. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this can occur are still largely unknown. Mouse primary cell culture enables us to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying various phenomena because it allows for relatively easy gene manipulation, which is indispensable for the molecular analysis. However, mouse synovial mesenchymal cells (SMCs) have not been established, although rabbit, cow, and rat SMCs are available, in addition to human MSCs. The aim of this study was to establish methods to harvest the synovium and to isolate and culture primary SMCs from mice. As the mouse SMCs were not able to be harvested and isolated using the same protocol for human, rat and rabbit SMCs, the protocol for humans was modified for SMCs from the Balb/c mouse knee joint. The mouse SMCs obtained showed superior proliferative potential, growth kinetics and colony formation compared to cells derived from muscle and bone marrow. They expressed PDGFRá and Sca-1 detected by flow cytometry, and showed an osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic potential similar or superior to the cells derived from muscle and bone marrow by demonstrating in vitro osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. In conclusion, we established a primary mouse synovial cell culture method. The cells derived from the mouse synovium demonstrated both the ability to proliferate and multipotentiality similar or superior to the cells derived from muscle and bone marrow.
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is known to induce food intake when administered into the lateral ventricle or certain brain areas. This is somewhat contradictory to its reward-suppressing role, as food is a strong rewarding stimulus. This discrepancy may be due to the functional diversity of N/OFQ’s target brain areas. N/OFQ has been shown to inhibit orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, both of which are appetite-inducing cells. As the expression of these neurons is largely confined to the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PFA), we hypothesized that N/OFQ inhibits food intake by acting in this area. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of local N/OFQ infusion within the LH/PFA on food intake in the rat and found that N/OFQ decreased sugar pellet as well as chow intake. This effect was not seen when the injection site was outside of the LH/PFA, suggesting a site-specific effect. Next, to determine a possible cellular mechanism of N/OFQ action on food intake, whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed on rat orexin neurons. As previously reported in mice, N/OFQ induced a strong and long lasting hyperpolarization. Pharmacological study indicated that N/OFQ directly inhibited orexin neurons by activating ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. This effect was partially but significantly attenuated by the inhibitors of PI3K, PKC and PKA, suggesting that the N/OFQ signaling is mediated by these protein kinases. In summary, our results demonstrate a KATP channel-dependent N/OFQ signaling and that N/OFQ is a site-specific anorexic peptide.