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Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (1)
The British Journal of Radiology (1)
Corral, J M (2)
Aranda, I (1)
Bakkali, M (1)
Bunesch, L (1)
Cabrero, J (1)
Camacho, J P M (1)
López-León, M D (1)
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Year of Publication
Host recombination is dependent on the degree of parasitism.
Camacho, J P M
López-León, M D
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Parasites and hosts are involved in a continuous coevolutionary process leading to genetic changes in both counterparts. To understand this process, it is necessary to track host responses, one of which could be an increase in sex and recombination, such as is proposed by the Red Queen hypothesis. In this theoretical framework, the inducible recombination hypothesis states that B-chromosomes (genome parasites that prosper in natural populations of many living beings) elicit an increase in host chiasma frequency that is favoured by natural selection because it increases the proportion of recombinant progeny, some of which could be resistant to both B-chromosome effects and B-accumulation in the germline. We have found a clear parallelism between host recombination and the evolutionary status of the B-chromosome polymorphism, which provides explicit evidence for inducible recombination and strong support for the Red Queen hypothesis.
Accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the detection of bladder cancer
The British Journal of Radiology
To assess the accuracy contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in bladder cancer detection using transurethral biopsy in conventional cystoscopy as the reference standard and to determine whether CEUS improves the bladder cancer detection rate of baseline ultrasound.
43 patients with suspected bladder cancer underwent conventional cystoscopy with transurethral biopsy of the suspicious lesions. 64 bladder cancers were confirmed in 33 out of 43 patients. Baseline ultrasound and CEUS were performed the day before surgery and the accuracy of both techniques for bladder cancer detection and number of detected tumours were analysed and compared with the final diagnosis.
CEUS was significantly more accurate than ultrasound in determining presence or absence of bladder cancer: 88.37% vs 72.09%. Seven of eight uncertain baseline ultrasound results were correctly diagnosed using CEUS. CEUS sensitivity was also better than that of baseline ultrasound per number of tumours: 65.62% vs 60.93%. CEUS sensitivity for bladder cancer detection was very high for tumours larger than 5 mm (94.7%) but very low for tumours <5 mm (20%) and also had a very low negative predictive value (28.57%) in tumours <5 mm.
CEUS provided higher accuracy than baseline ultrasound for bladder cancer detection, being especially useful in non-conclusive baseline ultrasound studies.
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