The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a rapid procedure for the detection of lymph node (LN) metastases using molecular biological techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the whole sentinel lymph node (SLN) analysis by the OSNA assay as a predictor of non-SLN metastases.
Consecutive 742 patients with breast cancer were enroled in the study. The association of non-SLN or ⩾4 LN metastases with clinicopathological variables was investigated using multivariate logistic analysis.
In total, 130 patients with a positive SLN who underwent complete axillary LN dissection were investigated. The frequency of non-SLN metastases in patients who were OSNA+ and ++ was 19.3% and 53.4%, respectively, and that in patients with ⩾4 LN metastases who were OSNA+ and ++ was 7.0% and 27.4%, respectively. The cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA copy number (⩾5.0 × 103; OSNA++) in the SLN was the most significant predictors of non-SLN metastases (P=0.003). The CK19 mRNA copy number (⩾1.0 × 105) in the SLN was the only independent predictor of ⩾4 LN metastases (P=0.014).
Whole SLN analysis using the OSNA assay could become a valuable method for predicting non-SLN and ⩾4 LN metastases.
breast cancer; whole sentinel lymph node; one-step nucleic amplification assay; non-sentinel lymph node
This study aimed to compare thin-section CT images from sarcoidosis patients who had either normal or elevated serum KL-6 levels.
101 patients with sarcoidosis who underwent thin-section CT examinations of the chest and serum KL-6 measurements between December 2003 and November 2008 were retrospectively identified. The study group comprised 75 sarcoidosis patients (23 male, 52 female; aged 19–82 years, mean 54.1 years) with normal KL-6 levels (152–499 U ml–1, mean 305.7 U ml–1) and 26 sarcoidosis patients (7 male, 19 female; aged 19–75 years, mean 54.3 years) with elevated KL-6 levels (541–2940 U ml–1, mean 802.4 U ml–1). Two chest radiologists, unaware of KL-6 levels, retrospectively and independently interpreted CT images for parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion.
CT findings in sarcoidosis patients consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement (70/75 with normal KL-6 levels and 21/26 with elevated KL-6 levels), followed by nodules (50 and 25 with normal and elevated levels, respectively) and bronchial wall thickening (25 and 21 with normal and elevated levels, respectively). Ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, traction bronchiectasis, architectural distortion and bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated KL-6 levels than those with normal levels (p<0.001, p<0.005, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). By comparison, there was no significant difference in frequency of lymph node enlargement between the two groups.
These results suggest that serum KL-6 levels may be a useful marker for indicating the severity of parenchymal sarcoidosis.
The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors to predict caries progression in toddlers in primary-healthcare settings for the cost-effective targeting of preventive and referral strategies. We examined 329 children (26 ± 6 mos old) twice, one year apart, in Indiana, USA. A 107-item structured interview was used to collect information from the primary caregiver and child on factors/beliefs/perceptions/behaviors that could affect caries development, transmission of bacteria, medical-dental health, and access to care. Bacterial levels, gingivitis, dental plaque, and caries experience were assessed. Multiple-variable logistic regression models of caries progression toward cavitation included family caries experience, transmission-related behaviors, dietary factors, health beliefs, and lower income, but differed in selected predictors/predictive power by race/ethnicity. Addition of clinical variables did not significantly improve the prediction.
longitudinal study; toddler; dental caries; risk assessment
Although a pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with favourable outcomes, a small proportion of patients with pCR have recurrence. This study was designed to identify factors predictive of recurrence in patients with pCR.
A total of 449 breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 88 evaluable patients had a pCR, defined as no evidence of invasive carcinoma in the breast at surgery. The clinical stage was II in 61 patients (69%), III in 27 (31%). All patients received taxanes and 92% received anthracyclines. Among 43 patients with HER2-positive tumours, 27 received trastuzumab. Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of recurrence.
Median follow-up was 46.0 months. There were 12 recurrences, including 8 distant metastases. The rate of locoregional recurrence was 10.4% after breast-conserving surgery, as compared with 2.5% after mastectomy. Multivariate analysis revealed that axillary metastases (hazard ratio (HR), 13.6; P<0.0001) and HER2-positive disease (HR, 5.0; P<0.019) were significant predictors of recurrence. Five of six patients with both factors had recurrence. Inclusion of trastuzumab was not an independent predictor among patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
Our study results suggest that HER2 status and axillary metastases are independent predictors of recurrence in patients with pCR.
breast cancer; pathologic complete response; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; predictive factor; trastuzumab
The purpose of this study was to combine a standardized visually based system, the
International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), with a sensitive
fluorescence-based system, quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), to determine the
ability to monitor caries lesion progression. This combination (QLF-I) has the potential
to increase the sensitivity of the visual method without compromising specificity. A total
of 460 children were enrolled and examined at baseline, 8 months and 12 months by ICDAS
and QLF by a single examiner. The examiner repeatability for both methods was comparable,
varying between weighted kappa of 0.70 and 0.79. The DMFT score was 6.0 (SD 5.8) at
baseline and 6.4 (SD 6.3) at 12 months, and both methods were able to follow the increase
in incidence. The QLF-I scored more surfaces at the early ICDAS scores (1 and 2) and score
4. Not all lesions progressed at the same rate, differing by score at baseline and surface
Dental caries; International Caries Detection and Assessment System; Longitudinal study; Quantitative light-induced fluorescence
To evaluate the impact of change in the hormone receptor (HR) status (HR status conversion) on the long-term outcomes of breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
We investigated 368 patients for the HR status of their lesions before and after NAC. On the basis of the HR status and the use/non-use of endocrine therapy (ET), the patients were categorised into four groups: Group A, 184 ET-administered patients with HR-positive both before and after NAC; Group B, 47 ET-administered patients with HR status conversion; Group C, 12 ET-naive patients with HR status conversion; Group D, 125 patients with HR-negative both before and after NAC.
Disease-free survival in Group B was similar to that in Group A (hazard ratio, 1.16; P=0.652), but that in Group C was significantly lesser than that in Group A (hazard ratio, 6.88; P<0.001). A similar pattern of results was obtained for overall survival.
Our results indicate that the HR status of tumours is a predictive factor for disease-free and overall survival and that ET appears to be suitable for patients with HR status conversion. Therefore, both the CNB and surgical specimens should be monitored for HR status.
breast cancer; endocrine therapy; hormone receptor status change; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; prognosis
Carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) is rarely encountered in clinical practice and optimal chemotherapy has not yet been established. This phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combined irinotecan+carboplatin therapy in chemotherapy-naive patients with CUP. Irinotecan was administered at 60 mg m−2 as a 90-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 8 and 15. Carboplatin was administered at an area-under-the curve of 5 mg ml−1 min as a 60-min intravenous infusion on day 1. This cycle was repeated every 28 days for up to six cycles. Forty-five patients were enrolled in the study. An intent-to-treat analysis revealed an objective response rate to the treatment of 41.9% (95% confidence interval, 27.0–57.9%). The median time to progression was 4.8 months and the median survival was 12.2 months. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 44 and 27%, respectively. The most frequent grade 3 or more severe adverse events were leukopaenia (21%), neutropaenia (33%), anaemia (25%) and thrombocytopaenia (20%). Thus, the combination of irinotecan plus carboplatin was found to be active in patients with CUP. Therefore, the regimen may be one of the potentially available chemotherapeutic options for community standard of care in patients with a good performance status.
carboplatin; chemotherapy; irinotecan; unknown primary
Objectives: To evaluate serum hyaluronate concentrations relative to air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and respiratory health in Japanese school children.
Methods: Respiratory symptoms and serum IgE concentrations were examined in 1037 school children living in four communities in Japan with differing levels of air pollution. Serum hyaluronate concentrations were assayed in 230 children, consisting of all the children who had symptoms of either asthma or wheeze (65 and 50 subjects, respectively) and normal controls adjusted for sex, school grade, and school without these symptoms (115 subjects).
Results: Although serum hyaluronate concentrations did not differ for either asthma or wheeze, the concentrations were significantly higher in children living in communities with higher levels of air pollution. Children with asthma or wheeze and those with serum IgE concentrations of 250 IU/ml or above showed differences in hyaluronate concentrations that related to the degree of air pollution in the communities. In children with higher serum IgE concentrations, the hyaluronate concentrations among subjects exposed to ETS were significantly higher than among those without exposure to ETS.
Conclusions: The present results suggest that serum hyaluronate concentration is related to the degree of air pollution and exposure to ETS. Children with asthma or wheeze and children with higher IgE concentrations are considered to be more susceptible to environmental factors.
OBJECTIVE—To assess acute and chronic effects of surgical thromboendarterectomy on exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
DESIGN—Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed in 20 patients with CTEPH before thromboendarterectomy (baseline), one month after (early phase), and four months after (late phase). Peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇O2) and the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production (V̇E-V̇CO2 slope) were measured for assessment of exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency. Right heart catheterisation was performed in all patients before and one month after surgery.
RESULTS—Baseline peak V̇O2 decreased and V̇E-V̇CO2 slope increased along with the increase in pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with CTEPH. After thromboendarterectomy, the V̇E-V̇CO2 slope decreased greatly from baseline to the early phase (mean (SD), 50 (9) to 37 (7), p < 0.05) and reached a steady level thereafter. In contrast, a continued increase in peak V̇O2 was noted from the early to the late phase (16.9 (4.1) to 21.1 (5.0) ml/kg/min, p < 0.05). The decrease in the V̇E-V̇CO2 slope from baseline to the early phase, but not the increase in peak V̇O2, correlated strongly with the decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance after surgery (r = 0.75, p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—Thromboendarterectomy may cause an immediate improvement in ventilatory efficiency, possibly through its beneficial haemodynamic effects. In contrast, exercise capacity may continue to improve towards the late phase, reflecting peripheral adaptation to exercise.
Keywords: thromboendarterectomy; exercise capacity; pulmonary thromboembolism; pulmonary hypertension
Accuracy in the assessment of performance status by oncologists has not been well evaluated. We investigated possible discrepancies in the assessment of performance status among patients, nurses, and oncologists, and evaluated the prognostic importance of each assessment. Two hundred and six inpatients with inoperable, advanced non-small cell lung cancer were investigated prospectively. Weighted Kappa statistics for inter-observer agreement were 0.53 between oncologists and patients and 0.63 between oncologists and nurses. There was a significant difference among the assessments by the three groups (P < 0.001). Oncologists gave the healthiest performance status assessment, nurses an intermediate assessment, and patients the poorest. When included separately in the Cox model, the assessment by each group was significantly correlated with survival. However, the assessment by the patients themselves failed to distinguish survival of patients with performance status 1 and 2. Among the three models including patient-, nurse-, and oncologist-assessed PS, that including oncologist-assessed PS best fitted to the observed survival data. These results showed that the assessment by the patients themselves is different from those by the nurses and the oncologists and provided additional support for the use of the assessment by oncologists in clinical oncology. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
performance status; oncologist; patient; inter-observer variability; prognostic value
We reviewed 27 cementless primary total hip replacements in patients with osteoarthrosis secondary to congenital dysplasia of the hip. Autogenous bone grafting was used as augmentation. On average the follow-up period was 9 years. Two hips were revised and three acetabular components were considered loose. In hips with loose cups the average graft coverage was significantly greater than in stable hips. The use of a cementless acetabular component is encouraging for reconstruction, although extensive grafting should be avoided. Our study suggests that cementless reconstruction in dysplastic hips yields a satisfactory outcome.
We studied exposures to higher daily maximum temperatures and concentrations of air pollutants in Tokyo during the summer months of July and August from 1980 to 1995 and their effects on hospital emergency transports for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for males and females > 65 years of age. Cardiovascular diseases were angina, cardiac insufficiency, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Respiratory diseases were asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia. Except for pneumonia, daily maximum temperatures were not associated with hospital emergency transports. Increasing daily maximum temperatures, however, were associated with decreased hospital emergency transports for hypertension. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide or particulate matter < or = 10 microm, however, were associated with daily hospital emergency transports for angina, cardiac insufficiency, myocardial infarction, asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia. For cardiac insufficiency, hypertension, myocardial infarction, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia, the expected daily number of emergency transports per million were greater for males than for females. For angina and acute bronchitis, there were no differences for the expected daily numbers of emergency transports per million between males and females.
We conducted a phase I pharmacokinetic dose escalation study of a recombinant humanized anti-p185HER2 monoclonal antibody (MKC-454) in 18 patients with metastatic breast cancer refractory to chemotherapy. Three or six patients at each dose level received 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg kg–1 of MKC-454 as 90-min intravenous infusions. The first dose was followed in 3 weeks by nine weekly doses. Target trough serum concentration has been set at 10 μg ml–1 based on in vitro observations. The mean value of minimum trough serum concentrations at each dose level were 3.58 ± 0.63, 6.53 ± 5.26, 40.2 ± 7.12 and 87.9 ± 23.5 μg ml–1 respectively. At 2 mg kg–1, although minimum trough serum concentrations were lower than the target trough concentration with a wide range of variation, trough concentrations increased and exceeded the target concentration, as administrations were repeated weekly. Finally 2 mg kg–1 was considered to be sufficient to achieve the target trough concentration by the weekly dosing regimen. One patient receiving 1 mg kg–1 had grade 3 fever, one at the 1 mg kg–1 level had severe fatigue defined as grade 3, and one at 8 mg kg–1 had severe bone pain of grade 3. No antibodies against MKC-454 were detected in any patients. Objective tumour responses were observed in two patients; one receiving 4 mg kg–1 had a partial response in lung metastases and the other receiving 8 mg kg–1 had a complete response in soft tissue metastases. These results indicate that MKC-454 is well tolerated and effective in patients with refractory metastatic breast cancers overexpressing the HER2 proto-oncogene. Further evaluation of this agent with 2–4 mg kg–1 weekly intravenous infusion is warranted. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
HER2/neu; humanized monoclonal antibody; pharmacokinetics; phase I study
AIMS—To obtain precise information on ocular manifestations of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) type I, the incidence of five main ocular manifestations—abnormal conjunctival vessels (ACV), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), pupillary abnormality, vitreous opacity, and glaucoma, were compared through long term follow up.
METHODS—Ocular examinations were performed in 37 FAP type I patients (Met30) from once to 12 times over a period of 1 to 12 years and 7 months.
RESULTS—The following incidences were observed on initial examination of each patient with FAP: ACV in 75.5%, pupillary abnormalities in 43.2%, KCS in 40.5%, glaucoma in 5.4%, and vitreous opacity in 5.4%. All ocular manifestations increased with the progression of FAP, and the incidence of ACV reached 100% during follow up: this may be helpful in the diagnosis of FAP.
CONCLUSION—Since no precise statistical ocular study on FAP with long term follow up has been performed, this report may provide important information to help elucidate the mechanism of the amyloid distributing process in the amyloid targeted organs of FAP and to provide the natural course of ocular manifestations of FAP.
Heat stroke is associated with prolonged exposures to high air temperatures that usually occur in the summer months of July and August in Tokyo, Japan. Also during July and August, residents of Tokyo are often exposed simultaneously to high concentrations of air pollutants. To assess the impacts of these combined exposures, daily numbers of heat stroke emergency transport cases/million residents for Tokyo were stratified by gender and three groups: 0-14, 15-64; and > 65 years of age, for the months of July and August in 1980-1995. A regression model was constructed using daily maximum temperature (Tmax) and daily average concentrations of NO2 and O3 as model covariates. Classification indices were added to make it possible to compare the expected number of heat stroke cases by age and gender. Lag times of 1-4 days in Tmax and air quality covariates and terms to account for interactions between pairs of model covariates were also included as additional risk factors. Generalized linear models (GLMs), assuming a Poisson error structure for heat stroke emergency transport cases, were used to determine which covariates were significant risk factors for heat stroke for the three age groups of males and females. Same-day Tmax and concentrations of NO2 were the most significant risk factors for heat stroke in all age groups of males and females. The number of heat stroke emergency transport cases/million residents was greater in males than in females in the same age groups. The smallest number of heat stroke emergency transport cases/million residents occurred for females 0-14 years of age and the greatest number of heat stroke emergency transport cases/million residents occurred for males > 65 years of age.
A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by a smut fungus Ustilago esculenta is presented.
We report a young man with
multiple rib fractures which were caused by severe coughing
associated with acute bronchitis.
To determine the maximum-tolerated doses (MTDs), the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and the recommended doses for further trials of docetaxel in combination with a 5-day continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in advanced or recurrent breast cancer patients who had been treated previously with at least one chemotherapeutic regimen, patients were treated with docetaxel as a 1-h infusion on day 1 followed by 5-FU as a continuous infusion on days 1 through 5 every 3-4 weeks. Three or six patients were assessed at the following escalating dose levels of docetaxel/5-FU per day: 40/150, 40/300, 50/300, 50/500 and 60/500 mg m(-2). Nineteen patients entered this trial, of whom 18 could be assessed for adverse event and therapeutic efficacy. The DLTs were neutropenia and diarrhoea. The MTDs were 60 mg m(-2) of docetaxel on day 1 and 500 mg m(-2) per day of 5-day continuous infusion of 5-FU. One of 18 patients achieved a complete response and eight achieved partial response (over all response rate: 50%). The recommended doses of docetaxel and 5-day continuous infusion of 5-FU for a phase II trial are 50 mg m(-2) and 500 mg m(-2) per day every 3 or 4 weeks.
The combustion of high fluoride-content coal as an energy resource for heating, cooking, and food drying is a major exhaust emission source of suspended particulate matter and fluoride. High concentrations of these pollutants have been observed in indoor air of coal-burning families in some rural areas in China. Because airborne fluoride has serious toxicological properties, fluoride pollution in indoor air and the prevalence of fluorosis have been analyzed in a fluorosis area and a healthy nonfluorosis area in China and in a rural area in Japan. For human health, fluoride in indoor air has not only been directly inhaled by residents but also has been absorbed in stored food such as corn, chilies, and potatoes. In the fluorosis area in China, concentrations of urinary fluoride in the residents have been much higher than in the nonfluorosis area in China and in the rural area in Japan. In the fluorosis area, almost all elementary and junior high school students 10-15 years of age had dental fluorosis. Osteosclerosis in the skeletal fluorosis patients was very serious. Urinary deoxypyridinoline in rural residents in China was much higher than in rural residents in Japan. Data suggest that bone resorption was extremely stimulated in the residents in China and that fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Because indoor fluoride from combustion of coal is easily absorbed in stored food and because food consumption is a main source of fluoride exposure, it is necessary to reduce airborne fluoride and food contamination to prevent serious fluorosis in China.
We produced disseminated trichosporonosis in a neutropenic murine model with Trichosporon asahii, which was identified by DNA relatedness analysis. We then assessed the efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (30 to 100 microg/kg of body weight per day) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (0.8 to 2 microg/kg x day). The administration of G-CSF either before or after infection improved the survival rate from less than 25% up to 100% (P < 0.05). The effects of G-CSF on organ clearance and histological examinations were most remarkable in the lungs. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of neutropenic and G-CSF-pretreated mice were 60 +/- 6 ng/ml and 18 +/- 6 pg/ml, respectively, at 24 h after infection. Immunohistologically, alveolar macrophages proved to be the main source of TNF-alpha in BALF. GM-CSF increased neutrophil counts less significantly than did G-CSF and increased the lethality (P < 0.05) with a high level of TNF-alpha in BALF. Expecting to inhibit TNF-alpha, we administered anti-TNF-alpha intraperitoneally at the dose completely inhibiting TNF-alpha in plasma (2 x 10(4) U), but the TNF-alpha level in BALF and the lethality increased. Though the number of neutrophils at the early stage of infection appeared to be the most critical, the results suggest that other host defense mechanisms, such as TNF-alpha overproduction in the lungs, have an important role in the prognosis of trichosporonosis.
To evaluate the age-related response of essential cell functions against peroxidative damage in hyperthermia, we studied the biochemical response to heat stress in both young and aged rats. Passive hyperthermia was immediately observed in rats after exposure to hot environments. In aged rats, the rectal temperature maintained thermal homeostasis and increased to the same degree as in young rats. In these aged animals, the damage from heat stress was more serious than in young animals. In aged rats under normal environmental conditions, hepatic cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase) activities were markedly higher than those activities in younger rats. Hepatic cytosolic GSH peroxidase activities were induced by heat stress in young rats but were decreased by hot environments in aged rats. Hepatic catalase activities in young rats were not affected by hot environments, whereas in aged rats, hepatic catalase activities were seriously decreased. Catalase activities in the kidney of aged rats were also reduced by hot environments. Lipid peroxidation in the liver was markedly induced in both young and aged rats. Because the protective enzymes for oxygen radicals in aged rats were decreased by hot environments, lipid peroxidation in the liver was highly induced. In aged rats, lipid peroxidation in intracellular structures such as mitochondria and microsomes was also markedly induced by hot environments. In both young and aged rats, hyperthermia greatly increased the development of hypertrophy and vacuolated degeneration in hepatic cells. In aged rats, both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum of the hepatic cells showed serious distortion in shape as a result of exposures to hot environments. Microsomal electron transport systems, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activities, were seriously decreased by heat stress in aged rats but not in young rats. Although the mitochondrial electron transport systems were not affected by acute heat stress in young rats, their activities were simultaneously inhibited after long-lasting heat exposure. In isolated hepatic cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in animals, the 70-kDa heat shock-induced proteins were markedly increased by heat stress. In conclusion, the heat stress-inducible oxygen radical damage becomes more severe according to the age of rats. Because aging and hyperthermia have a synergistic effect on lipid peroxidation, protective enzyme activities for oxygen radicals may be essential for surviving and recovering from thermal injury in aged animals and also in humans.
This study characterizes the rat ovary as a site of hormonally dependent glucose transporter (Glut) expression, and explores the potential role of interleukin (IL)-1, a putative intermediary in the ovulatory process, in this regard. Molecular probing throughout a simulated estrous cycle revealed a significant surge in ovarian Glut3 (but not Glut1) expression at the time of ovulation. Treatment of cultured whole ovarian dispersates from immature rats with IL-1beta resulted in upregulation of the relative abundance of the Glut1 (4.5-fold) and Glut3 (3.5-fold) proteins as determined by Western blot analysis. Other members of the Glut family (i.e., Gluts 2, 4, and 5) remained undetectable. The ability of IL-1 to upregulate Glut1 and Glut3 transcripts proved time-, dose-, nitric oxide-, and protein biosynthesis-dependent but glucose independent. Other ovarian agonists (i.e., TNF alpha, IGF-I, interferon-gamma, and insulin) were without effect. Taken together, our findings establish the mammalian ovary as a site of cyclically determined Glut1 and Glut3 expression, and disclose the ability of IL-1 to induce the ovarian expression as well as translation of Glut1 and Glut3 (but not of Gluts 2, 4, or 5). Our observations also establish IL-1 as the first known regulator of Glut3, the most efficient Glut known to date. In so doing, IL-1, a putative component of the ovulatory process, may be acting to meet the increased metabolic demands imposed on the growing follicle and the ovulated cumulus-enclosed oocyte.
Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) is an 80-kD serum protein with homology to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Its receptor, RON tyrosine kinase, is a new member of the HGF receptor family. The MSP-RON signaling pathway has been implicated in the functional regulation of mononuclear phagocytes. However, the function of this pathway in other types of cells has not been elucidated. Here we show that in contrast to the HGF receptor, which was expressed at the basolateral surface, RON was localized at the apical surface of ciliated epithelia in the airways and oviduct. In addition, MSP was found in the bronchoalveolar space at biologically significant concentrations. MSP bound to RON on normal human bronchial epithelial cells with a high affinity (Kd = 0.5 nM) and induced autophosphorylation of RON. Activation of RON by MSP led to a significant increase in ciliary beat frequency of human nasal cilia. These findings indicate that the ciliated epithelium of the mucociliary transport apparatus is a novel target of MSP. Ciliary motility is critical for mucociliary transport. Our findings suggest that the MSP-RON signaling pathway is a novel regulatory system of mucociliary function and might be involved in the host defense and fertilization.
Carboplatin clearance depends on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and Calvert's formula is frequently used to achieve a target area under the time vs concentration curve (mg ml(-1) min). Creatinine clearance is a substitute for GFR when creatinine values are determined by the JaffÃ© method, which is being replaced by the enzymatic method. When the enzymatic method is used, the corresponding creatinine clearance theoretically exceeds GFR, and the use of creatinine clearance as GFR in Calvert's formula results, accordingly, in overdosing of carboplatin. In this study, we have established a model for adjusting the creatinine clearance to offset this bias based on a relationship between creatinine values measured by the JaffÃ© method and by the enzymatic method: adjusted creatinine clearance (ml min(-1)) = creatinine clearance (ml min(-1)) x [serum creatinine (mg dl(-1))]/[serum creatinine (mg dl(-1)) + 0.2]. Subsequently, we validated this model using the data from 35 lung cancer patients. Estimated clearances of carboplatin with the original equation [creatinine clearance + 25] were systematically higher than observed clearances [mean prediction error (MPE) +/- standard error (s.e.) = 26 +/- 5%]. This positive bias was corrected by the adjustment (MPE +/- s.e. = 5 +/- 4%). When the enzymatic method is used, the adjusted creatinine clearance should be used in Calvert's formula.
We conducted a phase I study of irinotecan (CPT-11) and etoposide (VP-16) given sequentially to untreated patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. Arm A: CPT-11 was given over 90 min on days 1-3 and VP-16 was given over 60 min on days 4-6. Arm B: VP-16 was given on days 1-3 and CPT-11 on days 4-6. G-CSF was given to all patients daily on days 7-17. Twenty-seven patients were entered randomly at the two arms. The major dose-limiting toxicities in arms A and B were granulocytopenia and diarrhoea. Transient elevations of transaminases and bilirubin were observed in both arms. The degree of the toxicities did not differ between the two arms. The maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) were 60 mg m-2 CPT-11 and 60 mg m-2 VP-16 in both arms. Of the 13 patients who received more than two cycles, two out of five achieved partial response (PR) at the first level of arm A and one out of four achieved PR at the second level of arm B. We conclude that these schedules of sequential CPT-11 and VP-16 administration were inappropriate because of severe toxicities.